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9/11



  • Reconstructing an Urban Archive Lost on 9/11

    The archives of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which held important information about the history of the region's politics and infrastructure, was housed in the North Tower of the World Trade Center. Agency retirees have sent documents, pictures and artifacts to start rebuilidng the record.



  • After 9/11, the U.S. Got Almost Everything Wrong

    by Garrett M. Graff

    "The events of September 11, 2001, became the hinge on which all of recent American history would turn, rewriting global alliances, reorganizing the U.S. government, and even changing the feel of daily life."



  • Another 9/11 Legacy? The Spread of Conspiracy Theories Online

    by Jeff Melnick

    9/11 happened as traditional American media outlets were being consolidated into a small number of corporate networks, encouraging people seeking information to turn to decentralized sources and, eventually, social media, opening space for misinformation and conspiracy theories. 



  • Did 9/11 Change the United States?

    A group of foreign policy experts including historian Stephen Wertheim explain how the United States has changed since the 9/11 attacks. 


  • See a Piece of History: Retired FDNY Fireboat John D. McKean

    The Fireboat McKean Preservation Project and the Hudson River Parks Friends offer those in New York the opportunity to visit the McKean at Pier 25 in lower Manhattan. The McKean's half-century of service most notably included evacuation and firefighting support on 9/11. 


  • 9/11's Memorials and the Politics of Historical Memory

    by Marita Sturken

    Major 9/11 memorials try to fix the public memory on a moment of national unity that, 20 years later, seems illusory. Other memorials point the way to using the force of memory to encourage critical reflection on nationalism.


  • Untold Stories from the Largest Boat Lift in History

    by Jessica DuLong

    On September 11, 2001, nearly half a million civilians in Lower Manhattan escaped by water when mariners conducted a spontaneous rescue. This was the largest waterborne evacuation in history, but has gone largely untold.



  • Need to Do Better at Teaching 9/11 as History

    "The main split in the way Sept. 11 is taught, says Jeremy Stoddard, is whether to teach it as a memorial, or as an event that continues to have an effect on students’ lives."



  • Remembering Minoru Yamasaki’s Twin Towers

    "That two of Yamasaki’s major buildings would end up as rubble, one by politics, one by terrorists, seemed like the last word. And yet critics’ and historians’ views of the towers, as well as views of Yamasaki’s reputation, have also undergone a series of transformations."


  • Were the 9/11 Attacks Preventable?

    by J. Samuel Walker

    It's impossible to know if more diligent preparation for potential Al Qaeda attacks could have prevented them, but the Bush administration's slowness to develop a national security strategy for terrorism will always haunt the nation and the world. 



  • None of My Students Remember 9/11

    by Amy Zegart

    "My students see 9/11 as long-gone history, a kind of black-and-white reel of events that happened long ago, alongside the Cold War and the Peloponnesian War. The distance of time has benefits, but one drawback is that the human element of policy making gets lost."


  • Words of Warning: Many Opposed the Afghanistan Invasion in 2001

    by John Bodnar

    "Today Americans worry over the humanitarian crisis at the Kabul airport.  But they mostly forget the one that transpired over a period of two decades and led to the death of some 150,000 Afghans in a war to eliminate evil from the world."



  • The Legacy of 9/11

    by Stephen Wertheim

    "9/11 might well have 'changed everything' as momentously as was assumed—just not in the direction intended."



  • We Dare Not Repeat the Mistakes of 9/11

    by Jennifer Rubin

    The Washington Post columnist argues that the delayed transition to the George W. Bush presidency in 2000 and 2001 limited the nation's preparedness for a terrorist attack. 



  • An Oral History of the Onion's 9/11 Issue

    The satirical newspaper The Onion struggled to find a way to apply its trademark irreverance to the 9/11 terror attacks. For fans, however, the issue of September 27, 2001 met the grief and anger of the day with humor.