Celebrations to mark the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall are under way

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German Chancellor Angela Merkel was joined at the Brandenburg Gate by Russia's Dmitry Medvedev, France's Nicolas Sarkozy and UK PM Gordon Brown.

In a special video address, US President Barack Obama said Berliners had rebuked tyranny on 9 November 1989.

The event two decades ago led Germany to reunify, caused the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Cold War's end.

Communist East Germany erected the 155-km (96-mile) concrete barrier in 1961 to encircle West Berlin and prevent citizens from fleeing into the capitalist enclave...

... Mrs Clinton also spoke, before introducing a surprise video address from Washington by Mr Obama.

"There could be no clearer rebuke of tyranny. There could be no stronger affirmation of freedom," he said of the wall's tearing down.

Mr Medvedev said the wall's collapse had helped Russia and Germany end their World War II enmity.

He said he hoped everyone had rejected the dividing lines represented by the wall.

In his speech, Mr Brown told Berliners: "You dared to dream in the darkness. You knew that while force has the temporary power to dominate, it can never ultimately dictate."

After the leaders spoke, a chain of 1,000 giant foam dominoes - painted with messages of freedom by young people - was toppled along where the wall once stood...

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