Audio/Video History


This page lists Internet video, audio and podcast interviews and stories that relate history to current events -- or history that politicians and pundits repeatedly allude to when commenting on current events. Also included: interviews with historians about new books. Prominent audio history sites include Talking History, NPR and BBC Radio 4.

Week of 8-1-05 VJ DAY 60TH ANNIVERSARY

  • August 7th 1945: In the 5th of the 12-part series"August 1945," marking the 60th anniversary of VJ Day, reporter Chris Lowe recalls events in Hiroshima -- and in Los Alamos, New Mexico -- the day after the Enola Gay dropped the first atom bomb. (BBC Radio 4, Broadcasting House, RealPlayer 3min)

  • Hiroshima revisited: This weekend marks the 60th anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima, Japan at the end of World War II. Fiction writer Naomi Hirahara's parents were there. One parent talks about it and the other one thinks it's better to forget. Weekend America host Bill Radke talks with them about dealing with the past and their responsibility to future generations. (APM, Weekend America, RealAudio 11min)

  • Diaries tell story of Japan's war at home: Relatively little attention has been paid to the diaries of ordinary Japanese people during World War II. Samuel Hideo Yamashita, a historian of modern Japan at Pomona College, tells Scott Simon about his book, Leaves from an Autumn of Emergencies. It translates the diaries of eight people who endured the war. (NPR, Weekend Edition Saturday, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 11min)

  • 60th anniversary of Hiroshima bomb comes at watershed time for Japan: The Japanese city of Hiroshima is marking the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city by a U.S. military aircraft in the closing days of World War II. More than 50,000 people attended a somber ceremony on Saturday, and, elsewhere in the city, international groups met to renew vows to eliminate all nuclear weapons. Thousands of elderly survivors of the bombing, joined by Japanese and foreign dignitaries, bowed their heads at 8:15 a.m. -- the exact moment of the attack -- offering silent prayers for world peace and for the souls of those who died in the atomic detonation. Those who addressed the crowd at the hypocenter of the atomic explosion repeated their annual vow of no more Hiroshimas. (Voice of America, RealPlayer 3min).

  • Hiroshima today: Sandi Toksvig -- solicitor, novelist, traveller, raconteur -- discusses the 60th anniversary of one of the most notorious bombings in history, and its legacy on the vibrant modern Japanese city of Hiroshima. Her guests are Hiroko Kawanami, an anthropology lecturer in religious studies at Lancaster University, who visited Hiroshima just over 3 years ago; and BBC producer Stephen Walker, author of Shockwave: The Countdown to Hiroshima, in which he focuses on the three weeks that led up to the attack and on the stories of individuals, policymakers, diplomats, physicists, soldiers, airmen and residents of Hiroshima. (BBC Radio 4, Excess Baggage, RealPlayer 21min [00:00-21:00])

  • August 6th 1945: In the 4th of the 12-part series"August 1945," marking the 60th anniversary of VJ Day, reporter Chris Lowe looks back at the events of August 1945 and the final days of the Second World War. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealPlayer 4min)

  • Hiroshima commemorates, Pt 1 of 2: Hiroshima commemorates the sixtieth anniversary of the city's destruction by an American atom bomb. Correspondent Chris Hogg reports from Hiroshima. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealPlayer 3min)

  • Hiroshima commemorates, Pt 2 of 2: Correspondent Chris Hogg in Hiroshima describes the scene at the ceremony to commemorate the moment an atomic bomb destroyed the Japanese city 60 years ago. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealPlayer 3min)

  • A glare brighter than the sun: Sixty years ago Saturday, Hiroshima was devastated by a nuclear bomb that killed thousands. A German missionary who lived in the Japanese city at the time recollects the event. (Deutsche Welle, Journal, RealPlayer 2min)

  • 60 years late -- An untold story: When the atomic bomb exploded over the port city of Nagasaki, Japan in the late morning of August 9th 1945, tens of thousands of civilian Japanese died immediately. By October, many thousands more were dying of a mysterious disease, but journalists were barred from the affected areas so few accounts of the suffering would reach readers here at home. Host and managing editor Brooke Gladstone talks with Editor& Publisher's Greg Mitchell about the very first reporter on the scene, George Weller, who wrote a series of articles that were never published, until this year. (NPR On the Media, MP3 7min)

  • Keeping secrets: New York Times reporter William L. Laurence witnessed the dropping of the atomic bomb, flying with American troops over Nagasaki while the bomb was dropped. He won the Pulitzer Prize for a series of stories he subsequently published, many of which included details about the development and production of the bomb that he had kept secret until after the first atomic bomb was dropped. It turns out, however, that this wasn't the only secret Laurence was keeping. Host Bob Garfield speaks with author David Goodman about Laurence's secret employment as a CIA disinformation spokesman. (NPR On the Media, MP3 6min)

  • On this day, August 5th 1945 -- US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima: The first atomic bomb has been dropped by a United States aircraft on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. President Harry S Truman, announcing the news from the cruiser Augusta in the mid-Atlantic, said the device contained 20,000 tons of TNT and was more than 2,000 times more powerful than the largest bomb used to date. An accurate assessment of the damage caused has so far been impossible due to a huge cloud of impenetrable dust covering the target. Hiroshima is one of the chief supply depots for the Japanese army. The bomb was dropped from an American B-29 Superfortress, known as Enola Gay, at 0815 local time. The plane's crew say they saw a column of smoke rising and intense fires springing up. The President said the atomic bomb heralded the"harnessing of the basic power of the universe". It also marked a victory over the Germans in the race to be first to develop a weapon using atomic energy. President Truman went on to warn the Japanese the Allies would completely destroy their capacity to make war. The Potsdam declaration issued 10 days ago, which called for the unconditional surrender of Japan, was a last chance for the country to avoid utter destruction, the President said."If they do not now accept our terms they may expect a rain of ruin from the air the like of which has never been seen on Earth. Behind this air attack will follow by sea and land forces in such number and power as they have not yet seen, but with fighting skill of which they are already aware." The British Prime Minister Clement Attlee, who has replaced Winston Churchill at Number 10, read out a statement prepared by his predecessor to MPs in the Commons. It said the atomic project had such great potential the government felt it was right to pursue the research and to pool information with atomic scientists in the US. As Britain was considered within easy reach of Germany and its bombers, the decision was made to set up the bomb-making plants in the US. The statement continued:"By God's mercy, Britain and American science outpaced all German efforts. These were on a considerable scale, but far behind. The possession of these powers by the Germans at any time might have altered the result of the war." Mr Churchill's statement said considerable efforts had been made to disrupt German progress -- including attacks on plants making constituent parts of the bomb. He ended:"We must indeed pray that these awful agencies will be made to conduce peace among the nations and that instead of wreaking measureless havoc upon the entire globe they become a perennial fountain of world prosperity." (BBC Radio News, RealPlayer 22sec)

  • Seeing the horror of Hiroshima: After the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945, Washington sent a team of researchers to interview eyewitnesses. Only one interview was conducted in English. A Russian woman living near the destroyed city tells her tale of seeing people caught by the blast. Hear a part of her story. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 5min)

  • Would you have dropped the atomic bomb? Sixty years ago tomorrow, the crew of an American B-25 bomber dropped the first of two atomic bombs on Japan. Madeleine Brand talks with Mark Straus, editor of the magazine Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, which published a roundtable giving the responses of historians, physicists and diplomats who were asked if they would or would not have used atomic weapons to end the war with Japan. Note: This page includes links to essays by three contributors to the roundtable -- ' Pervez Hoodbhoy, professor of nuclear and high-energy physics at Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; Thomas Donnelly, resident fellow in defense and national security studies at the American Enterprise Institute; and Robert l. Gallucci, dean of the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. (NPR, Day to Day, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 4min)

  • How is Hiroshima remembered in America? Saturday marks the 60th anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima. Producer Richard Paul examines American public opinion on the bombing that ended World War II in the Pacific. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 7min)

  • War & peace report: Host and executive producer Amy Goodman devotes today's program to the 60th anniversary of the US bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In"Hiroshima cover-up," she and journalist David Goodman call for the Pulitzer Prize Board to strip the Pulitzer Prize awarded to William Laurence and his paper, The New York Times, for Laurence's coverage of the bombings while also on the US government payroll. In"The atomic bombers speak," reporter Juan Gonzalez interviews former Col. Paul Tibbets, who named his plane Enola Gay after his mother, and former Capt. Kermit Beahan, who was part of the squadron that dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki, describes the bombing of Nagasaki. In"Long-suppressed Nagasaki article discovered," Juan Gonzalez and Amy Goodman interview the son of George Weller, the first reporter into Nagasaki after the US dropped the atomic bomb, whose 25,000-word report did not get past the US military censors. In"Film suppressed," Goodman reports on footage of the devastation after the US bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that was commissioned by the US occupying forces, and then suppressed for decades. In"From Oak Ridge to Lawrence Livermore to Los Alamos," grass-roots activists from around the nation commemorate the 60th anniversary of the US bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by speaking about the ongoing nuclear weapons activity and community resistance. In"No more Hiroshimas, no more Nagasakis, no more war," Hiroshima survivor Sunao Tsuboi is heard speaking at an anti-nuclear weapons rally in New York. (Democracy Now!, RealPlayer 46min [11:17-57:00])

  • August 5th 1945: In the 3rd of the 12-part series"August 1945," marking the 60th anniversary of VJ Day, reporter Chris Lowe looks at the dramatic final days leading to the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealPlayer 4min)

  • Hiroshima prepares for A-bomb anniversary: Correspondent Chris Hogg reports from Hiroshima for tomorrow's 60th anniversary of the dropping of the atom bomb. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealPlayer 2min)

  • Radiation sickness: From Hiroshima, correspondent Chris Hogg analyses claims that survivors of the Hiroshima A-bomb could face even worse radiation in future. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealPlayer 4min)

  • Hiroshima's survivors -- The last generation, Pt 4 of 4: This Saturday is a day of remembrance for survivors of the world's first nuclear attack. It was on August 6, 1945, that the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. The event marked the beginning of the nuclear age. And it marked the beginning of the end of World War Two in the Pacific. Japan surrendered nine days later, after a second A-bomb hit Nagasaki. By the end of 1945, the death toll from the bombings stood at nearly 250,000. The victims were either killed instantly ... or died soon thereafter from radiation sickness. Today, a quarter of a million people are registered as A-bomb survivors. They're elderly now. What they saw, what they remember, and what they say will help shape how future generations understand nuclear war. Note: There are photos and a transcript for Pt 4 of Patrick Cox's report on The World's website. (BBC-PRI-WGBH, The World, Windows Media Player 10min)

  • Hiroshima's Shockwave, 60 years later: This weekend marks 60 years since the B-29 bomber Enola Gay banked over the Japanese city of Hiroshima on an August morning and loosed its cargo, a 10,000-pound atomic bomb known as Little Boy. In a new book, Shockwave: Countdown to Hiroshima, BBC producer Stephen Walker focuses on the three weeks that lead up to the attack and on the stories of individuals, policymakers, diplomats, physicists, soldiers, airmen and residents of Hiroshima. We talk to Walker, as well as two men who were aboard the Enola Gay on Aug. 6, 1945, navigator"Dutch" Van Kirk and weapons test officer Morris Jepson, about that fateful day. Note: This webpage includes an excerpt from Shockwave and three video clips from the BBC documentary about the countdown to the bombing of Hiroshima. (NPR, Talk of the Nation, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 38min)

  • August 4th 1945: In the 2nd of the 12-part series"August 1945," marking the 60th anniversary of VJ Day, reporter Chris Lowe uses archive reports and eyewitness interviews to look at the dramatic final days of World War II. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealPlayer 4min)

  • Hiroshima's survivors -- The last generation, Pt 3 of 4: This Saturday, many thousands of survivors of the Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima will gather to commemorate the bomb’s 60th anniversary. Most still live in Hiroshima, but some have moved away, to other parts of Japan and other countries. About a thousand survivors live in the United States. For US-based survivors, living in America has been a mixed blessing. Some have struggled with their own national identity; others have struggled with discrimination. Nearly all of them have run up against ignorance -- even among doctors -- about the effects of radiation. Note: There are photos and a transcript for Pt 3 of Patrick Cox's report on The World's website. (BBC-PRI-WGBH, The World, Windows Media Player 8min)

  • August 3rd 1945: In the 1st of the 12-part series"August 1945," marking the 60th anniversary of VJ Day, reporter Chris Lowe uses archive reports and eyewitness interviews to look back during peace time in Europe. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealPlayer 4min)

  • Hiroshima's survivors -- The last generation, Pt 2 of 4: Most of the nearly quarter of million people killed when the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. But tens of thousands of Koreans were also among the dead. More than 50,000 Koreans were living in Hiroshima during World War Two. Most of them had left Japanese-occupied Korea in search of work. In Japan, they did manual labor and were treated as second-class citizens. As the war effort intensified, Japanese authorities began importing more Koreans. They forced them into slave labor in armament factories. Several of those factories were in Hiroshima. That’s why so many Koreans -- more than 30,000 -- died as a result of the Atomic bomb. Note: There are photos and a transcript for Pt 2 of Patrick Cox's report on The World's website. (BBC-PRI-WGBH, The World, Windows Media Player 5min)

  • Hiroshima's survivors -- The last generation, Pt 1 of 4: Sixty years ago this coming Saturday a US warplane dropped an atomic bomb nicknamed “Little Boy” on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Little Boy was followed three days later by “Fat Man,” which exploded over Nagasaki. Six days after that Japan surrendered to U.S. forces. The Pacific War was over. Between them the two bombs killed 120,000 people outright and close to a quarter million more over time. Tens of thousands died from radiation sickness. The World's Patrick Cox has the first part of a series on Hiroshima survivors. Most of them were children in 1945. What they experienced on the morning of August 6th changed them for ever. Note: There are photos and a transcript for Pt 1 of Cox's report on The World's website. (BBC-PRI-WGBH, The World, Windows Media Player 5min)

  • Women scientists & the atomic bomb: This week marks the 60th anniversary of the first atomic bomb being dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. In her new book, Before the Fall-Out, Diana Preston explains women's contribution to the science that helped develop the bomb, from Marie Curie's discovery of radium to Lise Meitner's work on nuclear fission. Diana also tells the rarely known story of Lise's refusal to join the British atomic development team on moral grounds by simply saying 'I will have nothing to do with a bomb'. (BBC Radio 4, Woman's Hour, RealPlayer 9min)

    Week of 8-1-05 SUNDAY

  • Rome stages artistic tribute to ancient cults: Senior European correspondent Sylvia Poggioli visits a new exhibit at Rome's Colosseum highlighting sculpture from the mystery cults of Greek and Roman antiquity. The display, accompanied by light and sound, documents many unofficial and secret religious rituals, some of whose traditions are still practiced today. Official state religion honored the greater gods of Olympus ... the gods honored in giant temples. In private, the mystery cults served as alternative religions, with Dionysian, Orphic and Mithraic rites, many imported from Egypt and Persia. The exhibit includes more than 70 statues, frescoes, Greek urns, bas-reliefs and idols discovered in central and southern Italy. Curator Angelo Bottino acknowledges that little is known about the details of the mystery rituals, since they were shrouded in secrecy. They were practiced at night, and initiation into a mystery cult was an experience of such emotional intensity that no one spoke of it. However, the cults seem to have gotten along well, and were open to all members of society, from patricians to slaves."In antiquity, there were many divinities," Bottino tells Poggioli."The important thing was to find the one that gave you hope and certainty." The exhibit will remain open until Jan. 8, 2006. Note: This page offers a photo gallery of artworks from the exhibit. (NPR, Weekend Edition Sunday, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 6min)

  • Java jive: Investigative journalist Mark Pendergast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World, talks with TTBOOK interviewer Steve Paulson about the cultural history of coffee. (WPR, To the Best of Our Knowledge, RealPlayer 11min [18:28-32:00])

  • Will Shakespeare: Stephen Greenblatt is the author of Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare. He tells TTBOOK interviewer Steve Paulson he thinks Shakespeare's father was a drunk, leaving Will with complex feelings about alcohol, and that Shakespeare was probably the only literate member of his family (10min). Also, Grace Tiffany's new novel is called Will. She talks about the Will Shakespeare in her mind with TTBOOK interviewer Anne Strainchamps, and excerpts from her book are dramatized by actors James Ridge and Jonathan Smoots of the American Players Theater repertory company in Spring Green, Wisconsin (10min). The movie soundtrack montage at the end of the show contains Mel Gibson in Hamlet, Ethan Hawke in Hamlet, Gwyneth Paltrow as Juliet and Joseph Fiennes as Romeo in Shakespeare in Love, Emma Thompson as Beatrice and Kenneth Branagh as Benedick in Much Ado About Nothing, and Leonardo diCaprio and others in William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet. (WPR, To the Best of Our Knowledge, RealPlayer 23min [29:19-52:00])

  • History of music & fashion, Pt 4 of 6 -- Fame:"Fame isn’t always linked to talent. Youth and beauty help," says presenter Andrew Ford;"So does being blind (eg Andrea Bocelli) or mentally disabled (eg David Helfgott). Death is the ultimate career break for some -- think Hendrix and Eva Cassidy -- but death can also lead to musical obscurity: Bach’s music might have been lost forever if it hadn’t been resurrected years later by Mendelssohn." Ford explores the transitory (and often unmusical) nature of fame. (Australian Broadcasting Corp, Radio National, Big Ideas, RealPlayer 55min [avail thru Sept 4th])

  • The Battle of Blue Mud Bay: Producer Tony Collins investigates a compelling story of first contact between Aboriginals and Europeans along the coast of Australia's Northern Territory, when the Dutch ship The Arnhem landed in Blue Mud Bay. While there are very few records about these events in the Dutch archives, and no written historical account, the meeting has a significant presence in Aboriginal oral accounts of their pre-colonial history, and offers an insight into Indigenous resistance against the first white men to set foot on Australian shores. (Australian Broadcasting Corp, Radio National, Big Ideas, RealPlayer 54min [avail thru Sept 4th])

  • Robin Cook, former UK foreign secretary, 1946-2005: Politicians from all sides of the Commons have joined in paying tribute to the former Foreign Secretary, Robin Cook -- who died suddenly yesterday at the age of 59. He collapsed while hillwalking in the Scottish highlands. Colleagues described Mr Cook -- a Labour MP for more than 30 years -- as the greatest parliamentarian of his generation. We hear from some of those who knew him best ... friends and some foes ... including the man he sat down next to in the House of Commons on the day that he resigned -- CNN’s European political editor Frank Dobson. We also speak to Conservative Party leader Michael Howard and to CNN's European Political Editor -- and big racing buddy of Mr Cook -- Robin Oakley. (BBC Radio 4, Broadcasting House, RealPlayer 14min [10:30-24:30] & 3min [57:20-1:00:40] avail thru Aug 13th)

  • Robin Cook, former UK foreign secretary, 1946-2005: Former Foreign Secretary Robin Cook, 59, has died after collapsing while out hill walking in Scotland. The Labour MP for Livingston, Scotland was considered one of the Commons' most intelligent MPs and one of its most skilled debaters. He spectacularly resigned from Tony Blair's Cabinet in March 2003 over the Iraq crisis. One of the highest profile figures in the Labour party, he delivered a withering speech on the decision to go to war with Iraq, as he quit government ranks. But many people regard Robin Cook's finest moment in the Commons as his devastating analysis of the Scott report on the arms-to-Iraq scandal. After a judicial enquiry set up under Lord Justice Scott by then Prime Minister John Major, a 2000-page report concluded that high-level British officials misled the public, the Parliament, the courts and even one another in their handling of policy on arms sales to Iraq during the late 1980s and into 1990. Cook was shadow foreign secretary at the time and, just two hours after being handed a copy of the report, he pulled apart the Conservative government's handling of the affair with what was regarded as a bravura performance. (BBC TV News, RealPlayer 3min)

  • On this day, 1958 -- Arthur Miller cleared of contempt: In a 1995 BBC interview Arthur Miller describes the"farcical" yet"deadly" nature of his 1958 contempt trial for refusing to tell the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) the names of alleged Communist writers with whom he attended five or six meetings in New York in 1947. As the BBC reported the appeals court's quashing of Mr Miller's conviction,"Washington's Court of Appeals has quashed playwright Arthur Miller's conviction for contempt of Congress after a two-year legal battle. He had been questioned by the HUAC in 1956 over a supposed Communist conspiracy to misuse American passports and willingly answered all questions about himself. But the playwright, married to actress Marilyn Monroe, refused to name names on a point of principle saying: 'I could not use the name of another person and bring trouble on him.' Today his lawyer, Joseph Rauh, argued that the committee simply wanted to expose the playwright and that 'exposure for exposure's sake' was illegal. Mr Rauh added that the timing of the hearing -- just before his marriage to Marilyn Monroe -- would ensure maximum publicity and humiliation for the writer. He also said the questions he would not answer were not relevant to the passports issue. However the appeal court ignored this argument finding instead that the way the questions were put to Mr Miller by the HUAC made contempt charges untenable. Mr Miller had asked the committee not to ask him to name names and the chairman had agreed to defer the question. The court today ruled that at the time Mr Miller was led to believe this line of questioning had been suspended or even abandoned altogether" (BBC Radio News, RealPlayer 5min). Listen also to Arthur Miller in July 2000 discussing his play The Crucible and its allegory of the McCarthy witch-hunts (BBC Radio News, RealPlayer 5min).

    Week of 8-1-05 SATURDAY

  • Charles Chibitty, last surviving Comanche code talker, 1921-2005: Last Wednesday, Charles Chibitty died at age 83. Chibitty was the last of the Comanche code talkers who used their native language to prevent the Germans from deciphering Allied messages during World War II. A few years ago, he shared some memories with Oklahoma Public Radio. Producer Scott Gurian tells the story of a hero. (APM, Weekend America, RealAudio 2min)

  • Andrew Young and the Voting Rights Act of 1965: It has been 40 years since Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Blacks in the United States had been given the right to vote by the Fifteenth Amendment in 1870. But many counties imposed poll taxes, literacy tests and other obstacles for those who tried to cast a ballot. Andrew Young helped draft the Voting Rights Act while he was an executive assistant to Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. He went on to become a member of Congress, U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, and the mayor of Atlanta. Young talks with host Scott Simon about the fight to protect the right to vote for minorities and the current state of democracy in America. Note: This page includes a link to a 37-minute"Web Extra" audio interview with Andrew Young. (NPR, Weekend Edition Saturday, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 8min)

  • Veterans of '60s voter-registration drive reflect: In the summer of 1965, Bruce Miroff joined hundreds of white northern college students in a voter-registration campaign called SCOPE. This summer, a reunion was held. Correspondent Nick Miroff sends an audio montage of the group's recollections. (NPR, Weekend Edition Saturday, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 5min)

  • Creation of the media: It's often been observed that technological innovations are the primary force driving the evolution of the mass media. But make your way through the 402 pages of Paul Starr's book The Creation of the Media, and that notion will be left in dust -- along with many other common assumptions. In the book, Starr argues that the government has played a much more fundamental role in the growth of the American media than is commonly thought. He discusses his research with host and managing editor Brooke Gladstone. (NPR On the Media, MP3 10min)

  • DUP leader Ian Paisley: The Rev. Dr Ian Paisley, leader of the Democratic Unionist Party, is interviewed one week after the IRA publicly renounced violence. (BBC Radio Ulster, Inside Politics, RealPlayer 13min)

  • Goodbye Ukraine, Pt 1 of 2: Eugene Wilson was born in Ukraine in 1924, and emigrated to Australia in 1950. His first meeting with history came with the arrival of the Red Committees, and the disappearance of his father, who had spoken out against the Bolsheviks. In the first of two programs, Eugene recalls his experience during the Second World War, after the German occupation of his village. (Australian Broadcasting Corp, Radio National, Verbatim, RealPlayer 26min [avail thru Sept 3rd)

    Week of 8-1-05 FRIDAY

  • NCAA moves to curb Indian mascots in sports: The NCAA says it will ban the use of American Indian mascots in post-season championship play. The move comes after weeks of review. Melissa Block talks with Welch Suggs, associate director of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 4min)

  • The Voting Rights Act, 40 years later: Saturday, August 6, marks the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Voting Rights Act. In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson signed the measure into law, guaranteeing the right of all Americans to vote regardless of creed or color. But some provisions of the legislation may be in jeopardy when the Act comes up for renewal in two years. Ed Gordon talks with the Rev. Jesse Jackson of the Rainbow-PUSH Coalition and Barbara Arnwine, executive director of The Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law. (NPR, News & Notes with Ed Gordon, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 12min)

  • Selling policy with catchy language: Increasingly catchy terminology is used to package government missions and policies. Consider"War on Terror" and"No Child Left Behind," for instance. Linguist Geoff Nunberg offers his thoughts on the subject. (NPR, Fresh Air from WHYY, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 6min)

  • Robert Wright, musical theatre composer, 1914-2005: American composer Robert Wright, best known for the show Kismet, passed away this week. Wright wrote Broadway musical hits, but he did it with the inspiration of European classical music. Music expert Ron Della Chiesa of WGBH tells host Lisa Mullins that Wright can get the credit for being the bridge between traditional European music and standards we know and love. (BBC-PRI-WGBH, The World, Windows Media Player 6min)

  • Iron coffin is unexpected time capsule: An iron casket that remained sealed for over 100 years has been opened by researchers at the Smithsonian Institution. The well-preserved body offers clues to life in an era that has long passed. Scientists will try to read those clues before returning the body to the ground with a proper burial. Note: This page offers a photo gallery of the scientists' opening of the coffin. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 6min)

  • History of curry: A new book is highlighting the fact that Indian food is the product of a fusion of different food traditions. The Mughals brought Persian dishes to northern India, Portuguese merchants introduced marinades and chillies they had discovered in the New World, and the British came with their passion for roast meat. Martha Kearney talks to Lizzie Collingham about her new book on the colourful and eventful history of curry and the creation of Britain's most popular food, Curry: A Biography. Note: This story is accompanied by a recipe for vindaloo.(BBC Radio 4, Woman's Hour, RealPlayer 8min)

  • On this day, 1962 -- Marilyn Monroe found dead: Film director John Huston said,"She fought her enemy, consciousness, with sedatives," after screen icon Marilyn Monroe was been found dead in bed at her Los Angeles home. The 36-year-old actress' body was discovered in the early hours of this morning by two doctors who were called to her Brentwood home by a concerned housekeeper. The doctors were forced to break into Miss Monroe's bedroom after being unable to open the door. She was found lying naked in her bed with an empty bottle of Nembutal sleeping pills by her side. The local coroner, who visited the scene later, said the circumstances of Miss Monroe's death indicated a"possible suicide". Marilyn Monroe was born Norma Jeane Mortenson on 1 June 1926 in Los Angeles. Her mother, Gladys Baker, had mental problems which resulted in Norma Jeane spending most of her childhood in foster homes and orphanages. She wed her neighbour, Jimmy Dougherty in 1942, but the marriage failed in 1946 due to Norma Jeane's new-found fame as a photographic model. In 1944 while her husband was serving in the South Pacific with the Merchant Marines, Norma Jeane was discovered by photographer David Conover. By 1946 she had signed her first studio contract with 20th Century Fox and changed her name to Marilyn Monroe. Since 1947 she has appeared in 30 films, including The Prince and the Showgirl, Bus Stop, The Seven Year Itch, How to Marry a Millionaire and Some Like it Hot, for which she won a Golden Globe for Best Actress in a Comedy. Her 1954 marriage to baseball star Joe DiMaggio lasted just nine months and on 29 June 1956 the star married playwright Arthur Miller. But that marriage ended in 1961. Miss Monroe's romantic life has long been the subject of speculation and she has been linked with President Kennedy. Millions of fans around the world will be deeply shocked by the star's premature and tragic death. (BBC TV News, RealPlayer 4min)

    Week of 8-1-05 THURSDAY

  • Bill Clinton chats with Ed Gordon: Former President Bill Clinton talks to Ed Gordon from Atlanta, where earlier this week Clinton delivered the keynote address at the 30th-annual National Association of Black Journalists convention. Topics include the traditional link between African Americans and the Democratic Party. (NPR, News & Notes with Ed Gordon, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 12min)

  • Louis XIV & The Essence of Style: Joan DeJean, author of The Essence of Style: How the French Invented High Fashion, Fine Food, Chic Cafes, Style, Sophistication, and Glamour!, aims to prove that almost everything we think of as glamorous can be traced back to the 1600s and the tastes of French monarch Louis XIV. DeJean is Trustee Professor of French at the University of Pennsylvania. Note: This webpage includes a link to the Simon & Schuster site, where you may read an excerpt from The Essence of Style. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 7min)

  • On this day, 1972 -- George Wallace's attacker jailed: The man who attempted to assassinate Governor George Wallace has been sentenced to 63 years in jail by a court in Maryland. Arthur Bremer, 21, from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, shot White House hopeful Mr Wallace at a political rally in Laurel, Maryland, on 15 May. Mr Wallace, the governor of Alabama who gained notoriety in the 1960s for his segregational politics, was paralysed by the shots, and three other people were injured in the incident. A jury of six men and six women took just over an hour and a half to reach their verdict at the end of a five-day trial in Upper Marlboro, Maryland. The defence had argued that Bremer was legally insane at the time of the shooting and that he had"no emotional capacity to understand anything". But the court rejected this argument after the prosecution argued that he was perfectly sane. Arthur Marshall, for the prosecution, told the court that Bremer had been seeking glory and was still sorry that Mr Wallace had not died. Mr Marshall said:"He knew he would be arrested ... He knew he would be on trial." After the trial, Bremer's father, William Bremer, said:"I never saw anything like this. If this is Maryland justice, I cannot understand it. If 12 people heard all that testimony and cannot make up their minds that they were dealing with a sick boy, I just can't see it." Bremer was taken from the court in a reinforced police van, and guarded by 15 officers, to begin his sentence. It is not yet known whether Governor Wallace will be well enough to continue his bid for presidency. (BBC TV News, RealPlayer 1min)

    Week of 8-1-05 WEDNESDAY

  • Getting emotional over the High Court: Commentator and legal expert Kermit Hall is the author and editor of 21 books on the American legal and constitutional system, including the award-winning Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. He is in awe of the Supreme Court and he understands why John Roberts gets a lump in his throat every time he walks up its steps. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 38min)

  • Marion Williams: Unless you're an aficionado of gospel, you may not have heard the late singer Marion Williams. But you've probably heard her influence in the blues and rock'n'roll. She inspired Little Richard's signature wail. Anthony Heilbut, Marion Williams' long-time producer, says she had a voice that's not easily forgotten. He's just released an anthology of her work called Marion Williams: Remember Me."It was a voice of many colors," Heilbut tells Michele Norris."Sometimes it was that of a rather melancholy young girl, other times the voice of a very worldly big mama. And occasionally, she would play both roles in one song -- sometimes in one verse." Among many acclaims for Williams, she received a Kennedy Center Honor and was named a MacArthur Fellow. She died in 1994, at age 66. Visit this webpage to listen to three selections from Remember Me:"God Bless the Child,""Bad News, Bad Times" and"A Charge to Keep I Have." (NPR, All Things Considered, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 38min)

  • Jimi Hendrix: For only four years, Jimi Hendrix was one of the biggest stars in rock music before his untimely death. Now, decades later, he is still recognized as a guitar genius -- his solos revolutionized rock music. What influenced Hendrix's music and eventually lead to the self-destructive lifestyle that cost him his life? Neal Conan's guest is Charles R. Cross, author of Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 17min)

  • Elizabeth I, Mary Stuart, Friedrich Schiller: In 1800, the German playwright Friedrich Schiller dramatised the most famous bitter rivalry in British Monarchy, between Elizabeth I and Mary Queen Of Scots. Schiller's play, Mary Stuart, hinges on a meeting between the adversaries, although in real life the two never met. It's currently enjoying a sell-out season at the Donmar Warehouse in London. Presenter Jenni Murray speaks with Harriet Walter, who plays Elizabeth, and Janet McTeer, who plays Mary Stuart about bringing the animosity alive 400 years on. And historian Nicola Watson discusses the appeal of the story of the two feuding queens. (BBC Radio 4, Woman's Day, RealPlayer 14min)

  • William Wallace: Reporter Huw Williams meets David Ross, who is doing a long walk to commemorate the 700th anniversary of the death of Scots hero William Wallace, on August 23th 1305. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealPlayer 4min)

  • HMS Invincible: On the occasion of today's decommissioning of the light aircraft carrier HMS Invincible, the Royal Navy's flagship vessel, Lord Frank Judd and former Rear Admiral Richard Cobbold comment on the history of this ship -- and the future of such ships. Lord Judd is a Labour Member of the UK House of Lords and former Foreign Office Minister; and Cobbold is Director of the Royal United Services Institute for Defence & Security Studies. The report begins with audio clips from BBC News coverage of the Invincible’s service in the Falklands conflict, in 1982. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealPlayer 7min)

    Week of 8-1-05 TUESDAY

  • US foreign policy in Afghanistan, Pakistan & Saudi Arabia: The 9/11 Public Discourse Project holds another meeting, this one chaired by Public Discourse Project Vice Chair and former 9/11 Commission Vice Chair Lee H. Hamilton and reviewing progress made on meeting the 9/11 Commission's recommendations on foreign policy. Topics discussed include the Commission's recommendations on relations with Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia; the elimination of terrorist sanctuaries; and international cooperation with friends and allies. Participants are Ambassador A. Elizabeth Jones, former Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs; Ambassador Dennis Ross, former Special Middle East Coordinator; and Steve Coll, author of Ghost Wars: the Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. (C-SPAN, RealPlayer 2hr)

  • 40 years of the Voting Rights Act: Forty years ago, President Lyndon Johnson vowed to end the Jim Crow machinery that kept African Americans away from the polls. Join Neal Conan and guests for stories of the Voting Rights Act. Guests: Ronald Walters, professor of government and politics and director of the African American Leadership Institute at the University of Maryland; author of Freedom is Not Enough: Black Voters, Black Candidates and American Presidential Politics; Clayborne Carson, professor of history at Stanford University and director of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project; Donovan Slack, Boston Globe reporter; and Abigail Thernstrom, vice chair of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. (NPR, Talk of the Nation, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 38min)

  • 50 years of Toledo police cover-ups of abusive priests: Madeleine Brand talks with Joe Mahr, a writer at The Toledo Blade, about his investigative report alleging the Toledo Police Department refused to arrest or investigate abusive priests for the last 50 years. (NPR, Day to Day, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 8min)

  • Supreme Court liberal drift? Madeleine Brand chats with Slate legal analyst Dahlia Lithwick about whether Supreme Court justices tend to drift toward a more liberal ideology during their time on the bench, and how such a tendency may already be apparent in Supreme Court nominee John G. Roberts. (NPR-Slate, Day to Day, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 5min)

  • The culture of culture: We readily turn to culture to explain why different groups of people behave differently. But the idea itself is only about 100 years old. How did culture become the lens through which we understand social differences? Host Gretchen Helfrich welcomes Brad Evans, Associate Professor of English at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, and author of Before Cultures: The Ethnographic Imagination in American Literature, 1865-1920; and Matti Bunzl, Associate Professor of Anthropology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (PRI, Odyssey, RealAudio 52min)

  • Recess appointments have a long history: The Senate balked at confirming John Bolton partly because of his reputation for being abrasive with colleagues and for also being harshly critical of the United Nations. Throughout American history, presidents have angered senators by using recess appointments. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 5min)

  • Timothy Naftali & Blind Spot: In his new book, Blind Spot: The Secret History of American Counterterrorism, historian Timothy Naftali writes of America's early attempts to protect against terrorists. He says four years after the Sept. 11 hijackings, the United States is just starting to actively combat terrorism. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 7min)

  • Ukrainian SS Division: Reporter Sanchia Berg explores the decision of Britain's Home Office in 1947 to admit to Britain as civilian refugees an entire SS Division -- 8,000 Ukrainians -- after they had spent two years as prisoners of war in Italy. And Labour MP Andrew Dismore, a member of the All-Party Parliamentary War Crimes Group, criticises current police investigations into possible war crimes committed by the Ukrainian SS, which included members of the 4th SS Galizien Volunteer Police Regiment, accused of murdering about 800 inhabitants of the Polish village of Huta Pieniacka in February 1944. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealPlayer 7min)

  • Londonistan, Cathars, Dürer, peer review: Former BBC political editor Andrew Marr convenes a round-table discussion with Mahan Abedin, editor of Terrorism Monitor; Birmingham Member of Parliament Khalid Mahmood; imaging neuroscientist Daniel Glaser, Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London; broadcaster and novelist Kate Mosse, co-founder of the Orange Prize for Fiction, the women's literary prize; and artist, writer and broadcaster Matt Collings. Abedin sets out how and why networks of extreme Islamic groups working in London have come about; and Mahmood discusses his campaign for anti-terrorism legislation (13min). Mosse explains why she wants to inaugurate a new genre of women's adventure fiction with her latest novel, Labyrinth, described as"a Da Vinci Code with better scholarship," focusing on the original Papal reason for establishing the Inquisition -- the elimination of the Cathars in 13c France (6min). Collings charts the history of the self-portrait, an art form which we now take for granted but one which, at the outset, was a radical new form (11min). Glaser lifts the lid on science funding, explaining who decides on funding for research and how these decisions drive the scientific agenda (10min). Marr has just been named Journalist of the Year in the Public Affairs News Awards, organised by Dod's Parliamentary Communications, the owners of (BBC Radio 4, Start the Week, BBC Radio Player 44min [avail thru August 7th])

  • On this day, 1990 -- Iraq invades Kuwait: More than 100,000 Iraqi soldiers backed up by 700 tanks invaded the Gulf state of Kuwait in the early hours of this morning. Iraqi forces have established a provisional government and their leader Saddam Hussein has threatened to turn Kuwait city into a"graveyard" if any other country dares to challenge the"take-over by force". Iraqi jets have bombed targets in the capital and special forces have landed at the defence ministry and at the Emir's palace. Road blocks are in place and there are reports of looting in the city's shops. Initial reports suggest up to 200 people have been killed in heavy gunfire around the city. It is reported that the younger brother of Emir Sheikh Jaber al-Sabah has been killed whilst trying to defend the palace, while the Emir himself has escaped to Saudi Arabia. All communication has been cut with Kuwait and many people, including thousands of foreign nationals, are trapped in the city. The invasion has sparked strong condemnation from leaders around the world. The UN Security Council, in emergency session, has called for the"immediate and unconditional" withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait. British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, branded the invasion as"absolutely unacceptable" while American president George HW Bush condemned the attack as"a naked act of aggression." So far there has been no condemnation of the attack from any Arab country. Kuwait's assets in the UK and the US have been frozen to prevent Iraq from seizing them and the US has also frozen Iraq's assets. The Soviet Union, Iraq's main supplier of arms, has suspended the delivery of all military equipment to Iraq. In recent weeks Iraq had accused Kuwait of flooding the world market with oil and has demanded compensation for oil produced from a disputed oil field on the border of the two countries. In response to the news of the invasion the price of oil rose dramatically and stock markets around the world have fallen. Kuwait has appealed for international aid but there is no suggestion of any military action from the West at this stage. (BBC TV News, RealPlayer 4min)

    Week of 8-1-05 MONDAY

  • King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud, 1923?-2005: King Fahd of Saudi Arabia has died in Riyadh, according to Jamal Khashoggi, adviser to the UK Saudi Ambassador. Reports of King Fahd's age vary between 83 and 84. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealPlayer 10min)

  • Saudi King Fahd dies; Abdullah named new ruler: Saudi Arabia's King Fahd died Monday after a long period of ill health. His half brother -- Crown Prince Abdullah -- was named the new ruler. Abdullah has been the Middle East oil giant's de facto ruler since Fahd suffered a disabling stroke in 1995. The new king named his half-brother and Saudi Defense Minister Prince Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz as a crown prince. Saudi citizens are expected to start pledging allegiance to both leaders in the ruling palace in Riyadh on Wednesday following Fahd's burial Tuesday. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 4min)

  • Condolences Pour In on Death of Saudi Monarch: World leaders have been sending their condolences on the death of Saudi Arabia's King Fahd. His rule had repercussions far beyond his nation's borders. The death of King Fahd ibn Abdul Aziz al-Saud, the fifth monarch of Saudi Arabia, marked the passing of a king who oversaw a period of tremendous change. Under King Fahd's rule, Saudi Arabia came into enormous wealth from its vast oil reserves, making it a major player on the international stage. (Voice of America, RealPlayer 4min).

  • King Fahd's legacy: Some claim King Fahd is the ruler who turned Saudi Arabia into one of the Middle East's most modern states. But modernity, of course, is relative. King Fahd, who presided over his country for three decades, died today. King Fahd was modern in the sense that he was able to strike a peculiar political balance -- one with which he tried to satisfy the competing demands of Islamic tradition and rapid modernization. During his reign, Saudi Arabia allied itself closely with both the United Kingdom and the United States. But that relationship cost him dearly at home. When he invited American forces into Saudi Arabia after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, he created a domestic schism, and was criticized for helping to fuel extremism. Khaled al-Maeena is the editor in chief of The Arab News English language newspaper. We reached him in Riyadh. (CBC Radio 1, As It Happens, RealPlayer 8min [00:00-08:04])

  • Hildegarde, 1906-2005: The tradition of the one-named entertainer is a long one -- and one that has been much sullied over the past couple of decades. Mentioning the name"Cher" cannot help but remind us of the parading her dorsal tattoo before an aircraft carrier full of leering seamen. A reference to"Sting" conjures up his revelations about Tantric sex -- feelings either disdainful or wistful, depending. But one woman was mother to all the one-namers -- from Cher and Sting to Prince, and Madonna. And for a time, she was hotter than all these mono-monograms combined, without the benefit of a tattooed backside. Hildegarde, cabaret singer extraordinaire, died on Friday. She was 99. Hildegarde Loretta Sell got started in showbiz in the mid-1920s, playing piano and singing in a travelling vaudeville show. Not long after she began gracing stages, she was advised by vaudeville legend Gus Edwards to drop her surname. The newly single-named Hildegarde took a second job at Irving Berlin's music-publishing house. One day, the boss himself happened into her office while she was singing, and before you could say,"the kid's got moxie," Irving Berlin was introducing his new find to the crème de la crème of New York society. She became a phenomenon in the Big Apple, and by the mid-1930s, she had scored a national hit with a song called"Darling, Je Vous Aime Beaucoup". With the onset of the Second World War, Hildegarde also became the toast of Europe, counting Sweden's King Gustaf and the Duke of Windsor among her fans. She performed surrounded by long-stemmed roses, in her trademark long opera gloves, and waving a handkerchief across the Continent. Her international success, coupled with her Teutonically exotic name, added to her cosmopolitan appeal in the U.S. As her star continued to rise, her publicist added a deserved modifier to her name; Hildegarde became"the Incomparable Hildegarde". Her fame and cachet were indeed incomparable. Her radio show was a smash success; Eleanor Roosevelt awarded her the title of"First Lady of the Supper Clubs"; the Gershwins wrote songs for her; and Revlon introduced shades of Hildegarde lipstick and nail polish. Now, the name"Hildegarde" was both literally and figuratively on everyone's lips. Although her fame supernova-ed in the 'forties, the glow was seen for the rest of her career -- a career that lasted until she was 89. (CBC Radio 1, As It Happens, RealPlayer 3min [24:24-27:00])

  • Hildegarde, 1906-2005: The international cabaret star Hildegarde, the 'Incomparable' Queen of the Cabaret, has died at 99. She sold hundreds of thousands of recordings at the height of her career. And she paved the way for musical artists who needed but one name. (NPR, Day to Day, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 2min)

  • We Want Willkie! Charles Peters, journalist and former editor-in-chief of Washington Monthly magazine, explains how 1940 was a pivotal year in American politics and American history. He looks back at how a little known businessman garnered the GOP Presidential nomination and how he helped FDR prepare the nation for war. Peters is author of Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing"We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World. (WAMU, The Diane Rehm Show, RealPlayer & Windows Media Player 52min)

  • Joseph McCartin: In the wake of the Service Employees and the Teamsters quitting the AFL-CIO, Joseph McCartin, Professor of Labor History at Georgetown University, discusses the history of the labor movement in America. (C-SPAN Washington Journal, RealPlayer 25min)

  • H.W. Brands: Historian H.W. Brands was the guest for In Depth on July 3rd 2005. For three hours he talked about his life and work and answered viewer questions. Brands is a professor of history at the University of Texas-Austin. He is the author of: Cold Warriors: Eisenhower's Generation and American Foreign Policy (1988), The Specter of Neutralism: The United States and the Emergence of the Third World, 1947-1960 (1989), India and the United States: The Cold Peace (1990), Inside the Cold War: Loy Henderson and the Rise of the American Empire, 1918-1961 (1991), Bound to Empire: The United States and the Philippines (1992), The Devil We Knew: Americans and the Cold War (1993), Into the Labyrinth: The United States and the Middle East, 1945-1993 (1994), The United States in the World: A History of American Foreign Relations (1994), The Wages of Globalism: Lyndon Johnson and the Limits of American Power (1995), Since Vietnam: The United States in World Affairs, 1973-1995 (1995), The Reckless Decade: America in the 1890s (1995), TR: The Last Romantic (1997), What America Owes the World: The Struggle for the Soul of Foreign Policy (1998), Masters of Enterprise: Giants of American Business from John Jacob Astor and J. P. Morgan to Bill Gates and Oprah Winfrey (1999), The First American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin (2000), The Strange Death of American Liberalism (2001), The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream (2002), Woodrow Wilson (2003), Lone Star Nation: The Epic Story of the Battle for Texas Independence (2004). His latest book, scheduled to be published this October, is Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times. (C-SPAN2, Book TV, In Depth, RealPlayer 1hr 44min)

    Week of 7-25-05 SUNDAY

  • Nearly 180 years old, Bible Camp still has spirit: In the 1800s, American frontier towns and agricultural communities far from churches and organized religion saw the rise of summer revival camps. Traveling preachers would bring evangelism to the countryside. The tradition is still going strong at a bible camp in Georgia dating back to 1828. Many of the families attending the weeklong Salem Camp Meeting have done so for generations. They live in rustic A-frame cabins -- the oldest was built in 1840 -- arranged in a semi-circle around a tabernacle. Sam Ramsey, vice chairman of the camp's board of trustees and a 66-year veteran of the Salem meeting, says his family's cabin was built by his great-great-grandfather. Traditions at the camp meeting run deep. Among them is the Wide World of Salem Sports, where everyone from toddlers to teens competes in events such as the"egg and spoon" race, the Frisbee toss and the broad jump. Meals consist of heavy and hearty Southern fare: fried chicken, creamed corn, butter beans and banana pudding. It's stuff"you just wouldn't dream of having at home," says camper Jim Hicks Forward. Despite the various social activities it offers, Salem's primary focus remains spirituality. Started by Methodists, the camp meeting is now interdenominational. A bell calls families to services three times a day under the tabernacle, and children are encouraged to be part of services. Eleanor McArthur Hamlet has attended the camp meeting for more than 50 years and is the granddaughter and grandmother of campers. For her, Salem is about spiritual revival:"This is my renewal every year," she says;"It's just me and God here, and just a oneness with God that I don't find anywhere else." (NPR, Weekend Edition Sunday, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 9min)

  • Spice, spice baby: It's said variety is the spice of life. But let's be honest -- spices are really the spice of life. Pepper, oregano, vanilla ... parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme. In this hour of To the Best of Our Knowledge, things get spicy. After mouthwatering features on salsas (10min) and vanilla (3min), we start with the spice that started it all -- salt. Mark Kurlansky talks with TTBOOK host Jim Fleming about the long and dramatic history of salt, the subject of his book Salt: A World History (9min). Also Corby Kummer, the food writer for The Atlantic Monthly, talks with TTBOOK interviewer Anne Strainchamps about fleur de sel, a gourmet sea salt imported from France (5min); and spice maven Bill Penzey, whose family began the Wisconsin-based Penzeys Spices in 1957, tells Anne about fennel seed (2min). Next, Jack Turner, Rhodes Scholar, MacArthur Foundation Junior Research Fellow and author of Spice: The History of a Temptation, tells Jim that spices seemed magical in the Middle Ages and it was only when they became common and cheap in the 17c and 18c Euro-American economy that people began to accept them as food (5min). Then Pat Willard, the author of Secrets of Saffron, tells TTBOOK interviewer Steve Paulson why saffron is more than a flavoring, eg Cleopatra's aphrodisiac of choice and the Prozac of 17c England (10min); see the TTBOOK website for Pat's recipe for saffron consommé from her book Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice (10min). Finally, spice maven Bill Penzey tells Anne about another exotic spice as we travel to the Spice Islands to taste fresh nutmeg (2min). (WPR, To the Best of Our Knowledge, RealAudio 00:52)

  • History of music & fashion, Pt 3 of 6 -- Heaven on earth: Handel’s operas were 18c London’s equivalent of Cats. So how did he become a Great Classical Composer? How did he go from being popular to worthwhile? Why have certain types of music been fashionable at certain moments in history, and what this might tell us about the way in which human beings hear, appreciate and use music? Presenter Andrew Ford explores the transitory (and often unmusical) nature of fame. (Australian Broadcasting Corp, Radio National, Big Ideas, RealAudio 55min)

    Week of 7-25-05 SATURDAY

  • IRA disarmament in review: BBC Northern Ireland political editor Mark Devenport examines the main political events of the week, which included the IRA's announced commitment to renounce violence in favour of the political process. Devenport's guest is Peter Hain, the Northern Ireland Secretary in PM Tony Blair's Labour cabinet. (BBC Radio Ulster, Inside Politics, RealAudio 13min [avail thru August 5th])

  • Excavating women: Sandi Toksvig -- solicitor, novelist, traveller, raconteur -- welcomes three females for whom a spot of dirt, a metre or two of mud or seemingly impenetrable rock holds no fears in the pursuit of their work. They were -- or, in one case, are -- in the business of digging. Sandi's guests are travel writer Andrew Eames, biographer Karolyn Shindler, and London Natural History Museum curator Jo Cooper. Eames is author of The 8.55 to Baghdad, which traces the journey of Agatha Christie from London to Baghdad, from the collapse of her marriage to Archie Christie to her meeting with archaeologist Max Mallowan, in Ur. Shindler has been tracing the exploits of Edwardian palaeontologist Dorothea Bate, a woman who might have been lost to us but for the diaries and labels dotted around the Natural History Museum; she has pieced together clues about Dorothea from her notebooks. Cooper is a museum curator with a penchant of birds, her favourite being the moa, from New Zealand, which stands at 2 metres high. Cooper has actually walked in Dorothea's footsteps: in Gibraltar, she was working on the bird collection started by Dorothea Bate. In the final minutes of her show, Sandi also welcomes travel writer and photographer Victor Borg, who was born and brought up on the island of Gozo -- the smaller, northern island that is part of Malta. Growing up, a national passion was and is fireworks. (BBC Radio 4, Excess Baggage, RealAudio 30min)

  • Save a Torah: The Book Guys -- book appraiser Allan Stypeck and Washington DC radio host Mike Cuthbert -- welcome Rabbi Menachem Youlus of Save a Torah, Inc., who describes his work locating, restoring and finding homes for Torahs hidden or lost during the Holocaust. (The Book Guys, RealAudio 55min)

  • On this day, 1974 -- Peace deal for Cyprus: Foreign ministers from Greece, Turkey and the UK have signed a peace agreement to settle the Cyprus crisis. After 5 days of talks in Geneva, Constantine Karamanlis of Greece, Bulent Ecevit of Turkey and James Callaghan of the UK have agreed a deal to end weeks of fighting on the Mediterranean island. Mr Callaghan said:"It creates conditions under which Greece and Turkey can draw back honourably from making war on each other." He has described it as a" common sense agreement", but Greek diplomats say it leaves Turkey -- which invaded the republic of Cyprus on 20 July -- in a stronger position. Under the ceasefire, Turkish troops are prevented from making further advances and a UN-patrolled buffer zone will be established to keep warring Greek and Turkish factions apart. Representatives from Greece, Turkey, the UK and the UN will determine the precise location and size of the buffer zone tomorrow morning, according to the positions of the opposing forces at 2000 GMT this evening. The agreement is in line with UN Security Council Resolution 353, demanding withdrawal of all unauthorised troops and seeks to restore the terms of the peace agreed in Nicosia in 1960, which established independence and power-sharing. Greece breached the 1960 treaty 10 days ago by instigating a coup against elected Cypriot president Archbishop Makarios. Turkey responded by sending in troops, since the Greek puppet regime threatens its minority on the island. Turkish soldiers were still arriving on the island last night, swelling their force -- permitted under the 1960 treaty -- to 35,000 men and 300 tanks and other armour. Speaking in London, the exiled president said he was pleased with the peace as long as all parties kept to it. Greek, Turkish and British ministers will meet again in Geneva on 8 August to discuss further details of the settlement. Greek-Cypriot and Turkish-Cypriot delegates will be invited to the conference on 10 August. (BBC News, RealAudio 1min)

    Week of 7-25-05 FRIDAY

  • Alexis de Tocqueville's persistent political clout: Friday marks the 200th anniversary of the birth of French writer Alexis de Tocqueville, who visited America in 1831 and recorded his impressions of the nation's unique brand of democracy. Eric Weiner reflects on De Tocqueville's observations, and how the Frenchman's musings still have a political impact many generations later. (NPR, Day to Day, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 4min)

  • Not your usual summer reading: For some, the summer is a time to indulge in frothy beach reading: the latest chick lit or globetrotting, highly unbelievable thriller. But book critic Maureen Corrigan has taken a different tack this year: She's catching up on more substantial reading that she hasn't had time for yet. Corrigan found that David McCullough's 1776 piqued her curiosity about that era of American history. Now, she wants to tackle other books to learn more. Corrigan discusses her catch-up reading list -- and other books to which it has led her. Corrigan's Summer Catch-Up Reading List: 1776 by David McCullough; Making an Exit by Elinor Fuchs; and Lost in the Forest by Sue Miller. Books to read after 1776: George Washington: Man and Monument by Marcus Cunliffe; The American Revolution by Gordon S. Wood; and Washington's Crossing by David Hackett Fischer. (NPR, Fresh Air from WHYY, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 6min)

  • The Catholic church & evolution: Can science and faith co-exist? Joe Palca leads a discussion of evolution and the Catholic church with guests Edward J. Larson, the Herman E. Talmadge Chair of Law and Richard B. Russell Professor of American history, University of Georgia; and author of Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America's Continuing Debate Over Science and Religion. (NPR, Talk of the Nation, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 18min)

  • Timothy Naftali & Blind Spot: Timothy Naftali, an historian of national security, relates the story of America's decades-long attempt to fight terrorism. Naftali is an associate professor of history at the University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs and contractor during 2003-3004 for the 9/11 Commission. He is the author of Blind Spot: The Secret History of American Counterterrorism. (WAMU, The Diane Rehm Show, RealAudio 52min)

  • The Life of Uncle Tom’s Cabin: While today many think of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin as typifying egregious stereotypes of African Americans, the novel was hugely popular for over one hundred years. Why did the abolitionist tale have such a big impact? Literary scholars Jim O'Loughlin and Kenneth Warren join Chicago Public Radio's Gretchen Helfrich for the discussion. O'Loughlin is assistant professor of English, University of Northern Iowa, and coauthor of Daily Life in the Industrial United States: 1870-1900. Warren is professor of English language and literature, University of Chicago, and author of So Black and Blue: Ralph Ellison and the Occasion of Criticism. (PRI, Odyssey, RealAudio 52min)

  • Romeo Dallaire: Ten years ago this month, the horror now known as the Rwandan Genocide began. More than 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were massacred by extremists in Rwanda, killed in their homes, on the streets, and in churches. The rivers themselves were choked with bodies. Romeo Dallaire was at the center of that frenzy of death as the UN commander of peacekeeping in Kigali. He pleaded with his superiors at the United Nations for more troops; but his requests were denied. Since then, Dallaire has lived his own private hell as both a witness to those massacres, and as the man whose mission was doomed to failure by global indifference. Originally broadcast in April 2004. (NPR, The Connection, RealAudio 48min).

  • IRA announces end to violence: British military commanders are dismantling some bases and security posts in Northern Ireland. This follows an order from the Irish Republican Army Thursday for all of its volunteers to disarm, effectively ending a 36-year guerilla campaign against the British government. The paramilitary group fought for the reunification of Ireland’s 32 counties and to end British rule in Ireland. Over the past 36 years, sectarian fighting left over 3,600 people dead. On Thursday the IRA stated it remains fully committed to the goals of Irish unity and independence and that the armed struggle was entirely legitimate. But the group said it would pursue its goals through political, not violent, means. While Unionist politicians in Northern Ireland expressed skepticism about the sincerity of the announcement, many other officials in Britain and Ireland praised the move as a potential turning point. However, veteran journalist Ed Moloney -- author of The Secret History of the IRA and former Northern Ireland editor for the Irish Times and Sunday Tribune -- told Democracy Now! that the move is not as significant as the IRA claims. He says “the commitment from now on to use exclusively peaceful methods is meaningless because they signed up to the commitment when they joined the all-party talks out of which came the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. They’re really formalizing the obvious." British and Irish politicians are now in talks to determine how to restore power-sharing in the government of Northern Ireland. Initial measures will include amnesty for paramilitary fugitives and other measures enabling autonomous governance. (Democracy Now! MP3, RealAudio & RealVideo 33min)

  • IRA to disarm: Yesterday's announcement by the IRA is a profound landmark in Northern Ireland's history, but how is the new agreement going to affect those that have suffered at the hands of the IRA? Paula McCartney speaks to Audrey Carville. Says Arlene Foster, Democratic Unionist Party member of Northern Ireland's suspended assembly:"It seems to me that of course there has been a political decision. It isn't based on security analysis and I think the Secretary of State should look very carefully at that." (BBC World Service, Europe Today, RealAudio 3min)

  • IRA to disarm: Austin Hunter, editor of the Unionist newspaper, the Belfast News Letter, and Stephen O'Reilly, deputy editor of the nationalist Irish News, review the Northern Irish papers' response to the IRA's statement. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealAudio 4min)

  • IRA to disarm: RTÉ Reporter Declan McBennett gets reaction among late night shoppers in Belfast. Denis Bradley, Deputy Chair of the Northern Ireland Policing Board, says Sinn Féin participation is vital. Senator George Mitchell, who chaired the talks that produced the Good Friday Agreement, believes the IRA will act on its statement. Tommie Gorman, RTÉ Northern Editor, says the statement is similar in importance to the Good Friday Agreement. Austin Hunter, editor of the Belfast News Letter, and Stephen O'Reilly, deputy editor of The Irish News, discuss contrasting community responses to the statement. (RTÉ Radio 1, Morning Ireland, RealAudio 31min)

    Week of 7-25-05 THURSDAY

  • IRA says armed campaign is over: The IRA's statement, in which its leadership ordered members to stop the armed campaign, was read via DVD by former IRA prisoner Seanna Walsh:"The leadership of Oglaigh na hEireann has formally ordered an end to the armed campaign. This will take effect from 4pm this afternoon. All IRA units have been ordered to dump arms. All Volunteers have been instructed to assist the development of purely political and democratic programmes through exclusively peaceful means. Volunteers must not engage in any other activities whatsoever. The IRA leadership has also authorised our representative to engage with the IICD [Independent International Commission on Decommissioning] to complete the process to verifiably put its arms beyond use in a way which will further enhance public confidence and to conclude this as quickly as possible. We have invited two independent witnesses, from the Protestant and Catholic churches, to testify to this. The Army Council took these decisions following an unprecedented internal discussion and consultation process with IRA units and Volunteers. We appreciate the honest and forthright way in which the consultation process was carried out and the depth and content of the submissions. We are proud of the comradely way in which this truly historic discussion was conducted. The outcome of our consultations show very strong support among IRA Volunteers for the Sinn Fein peace strategy. There is also widespread concern about the failure of the two governments and the unionists to fully engage in the peace process. This has created real difficulties. The overwhelming majority of people in Ireland fully support this process. They and friends of Irish unity throughout the world want to see the full implementation of the Good Friday Agreement. Notwithstanding these difficulties our decisions have been taken to advance our republican and democratic objectives, including our goal of a united Ireland. We believe there is now an alternative way to achieve this and to end British rule in our country. It is the responsibility of all Volunteers to show leadership, determination and courage. We are very mindful of the sacrifices of our patriot dead, those who went to jail, Volunteers, their families and the wider republican base. We reiterate our view that the armed struggle was entirely legitimate. We are conscious that many people suffered in the conflict. There is a compelling imperative on all sides to build a just and lasting peace. The issue of the defence of nationalist and republican communities has been raised with us. There is a responsibility on society to ensure that there is no re-occurrence of the pogroms of 1969 and the early 1970s. There is also a universal responsibility to tackle sectarianism in all its forms. The IRA is fully committed to the goals of Irish unity and independence and to building the Republic outlined in the 1916 Proclamation. We call for maximum unity and effort by Irish republicans everywhere. We are confident that by working together Irish republicans can achieve our objectives. Every Volunteer is aware of the import of the decisions we have taken and all Oglaigh are compelled to fully comply with these orders. There is now an unprecedented opportunity to utilise the considerable energy and goodwill which there is for the peace process. This comprehensive series of unparalleled initiatives is our contribution to this and to the continued endeavours to bring about independence and unity for the people of Ireland." (BBC TV News, RealVideo 4min)

  • Reaction to IRA statement: Leading figures have been giving their reaction to the IRA's statement that it has formally ordered an end to its armed campaign and will pursue exclusively peaceful political means. Video is provided from British Prime Minister Tony Blair (3min), Democratic Unionist Party Leader Ian Paisley (3min), Sinn Féin leader Gerry Adams (6min), An Taoiseach [The Irish Prime Minister] Bertie Ahern (17min), as well as printed reactions from 16 other key persons including President George W Bush, who said:"This IRA statement must now be followed by actions demonstrating the republican movement's unequivocal commitment to the rule of law and to the renunciation of all paramilitary and criminal activities. We understand that many, especially victims and their families, will be sceptical. They will want to be certain that this terrorism and criminality are indeed things of the past." (

  • IRA announces end to armed campaign: Donagh Diamond reports as the Provisional IRA calls an end to its paramilitary campaign. An Taoiseach [the Irish Prime Minister], Bertie Ahern, speaks about how Sinn Féin's political aims could be affected by today's IRA statement. Paul T Colgan looks at the moves within the republican movement towards achieving their aims through political means. Minister for Justice Michael McDowell, Caoimhghín O'Caoláin of Sinn Féin, and Edwin Poots of the Democratic Unionist Party speak about the implications of the IRA statement. Peter Hain, UK Northern Ireland Secretary, discusses the opportunity presented by the IRA's decision to end armed struggle. Clare Murphy reports on the policing reforms in Northern Ireland and the current structure of the Police Service of Northern Ireland. Denis Bradley, vice-chair of Policing Board, speaks about the issue of attracting Catholics to the PSNI. Diarmuid Ferriter, historian, considers the impact of decades of violence in Northern Ireland. Journalist Mairtín O'Muilleoir of the pro-Sinn Féin Daily Ireland, Alex Atwood of the Social Democratic & Labour Party, and Alan McFarland of the Ulster Unionists discuss the future of government in the North. (RTÉ One, RealVideo 1hr)

  • Blair & Bush welcome IRA pledge to end violence: The Irish Republican Army says it is ending its armed campaign against British rule and will instead pursue greater autonomy through peaceful means. President Bush is welcoming the announcement, saying it must now be followed-up by action. British Prime Minister Tony Blair says the IRA statement ordering all armed militants to end their 30-year campaign of violence is a step of unparalleled magnitude in recent Irish history:"This may be the day when, finally, after all the false dawns and dashed hopes, peace replaced war, politics replaces terror on the island of Ireland," he said. The prime minister says he welcomes the statement's recognition that the path to political change lies exclusively through peaceful and democratic means. If the IRA promises prove to be permanent and verifiable, Mr. Blair says proper, devolved democratic governance should be restored to Northern Ireland. White House spokesman Scott McClellan welcomed the announcement, saying Washington understands that the call on Irish militants to not engage in any other activities whatsoever means that the IRA will no longer have contacts with any foreign paramilitary or terrorist organization. The White House says it understands that victims of IRA violence and their families will be skeptical about the announcement, which it says must now be followed by actions demonstrating the movement's unequivocal commitment to the rule of law. (Voice of America, RealAudio 3min)

    Week of 7-25-05 WEDNESDAY

  • Investigating the President, now & then: Seven years ago this summer, the nation was transfixed by the continuing spectacle of Kenneth Starr and his grand jury investigation of President Clinton. This year, there's another grand jury looking into potential wrong doing in the White House, but this time the probe is being conducted very differently, reports Don Gonyea. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 3min)

  • History of organized labor evolves: The secession this week of the largest union group within the AFL-CIO is not the first splinter that labor has suffered this century. NPR Senior News Analyst Daniel Schorr asks whether there are lessons to be learned from history. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 3min)

  • Historian William G. McLoughlin's New York Times obituary corrected after 13 years: On Monday, The New York Times ran a correction on the obituary it published for the late William G. McLoughlin. McLoughlin died in December 1992, making the correction 13 years in coming. Robert Siegel talks with Martha Everatt, McLoughlin's daughter, and Charles Strum, the obituary editor of The New York Times. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 5min)

  • Edward Bunker, prison novelist, 1933-2005: Edward Bunker died Tuesday at age 71 of complications from diabetes. Born in Hollywood, Bunker spent his childhood in foster homes and reform school. He went to San Quentin prison at age 17 and was their youngest inmate. While incarcerated, Bunker wrote the crime fiction classic No Beast So Fierce, which first came out in 1973. The novel, about a former criminal trying to go straight, was the basis of the film Straight Time starring Dustin Hoffman. Bunker also acted in more than two-dozen films. Notably, he played Mr. Blue in the Quentin Tarantino film Reservoir Dogs. His last published book was the 2000 memoir Education of a Felon, and his last onscreen appearance was as a convict in the remake of The Longest Yard. This story was originally broadcast on July 12th 1993. (NPR, Fresh Air from WHYY, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 20min)

  • History of the imagination: What comprises imagination? How does it actually work? And what does it produce? These questions have long intrigued artists and scientists alike. How have we imagined the imagination? Forest Pyle and art historian Claudia Swan join Chicago Public Radio's Gretchen Helfrich for the discussion. Pyle is author of The Ideology of Imagination: Subject and Society in the Discourse of Romanticism. Swan is author of Mimesis and Imagination in Seventeenth Century Dutch Art. This story was originally broadcast on December 4th 2003 (PRI, Odyssey, RealAudio 52min)

  • UN to define"terrorism"? BBC Radio 4's Today programme reports that UN Secretary General Kofi Annan has urged world leaders to agree on a universal definition of terrorism. The proposed convention has been stuck in a committee since 1996, when it focused on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Arab League Secretary General Amr Moussa backed Mr Annan's latest definition, which calls terrorism any act intended to intimidate a population or to compel a government or an international body to act."The targeting and deliberate killing of civilians and non-combatants cannot be justified or legitimised by any cause or grievance," adds the definition on which Mr Annan is urging member states to agree (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealAudio 2min). The search for a UN definition of terrorism is much contested, says Mark Malloch Brown, Mr Annan's chief of staff (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealAudio 5min)

  • John McCain on loyalty, honor, courage: Senator John McCain is reviewing the icons in his life, men of substance and honor, the characters who inspired his own drive to serve the country. In his new memoir, the Senator lauds the likes of Teddy Roosevelt, Barry Goldwater, and Robert Jordan... Robert Jordan? Yes. The inspired, doomed protagonist of Hemingway's For Whom The Bell Tolls risks his life, but not his honor, putting his mission and the concerns of others ahead of himself in a bloody, and as it turns out, morally ambiguous civil war. The tale resonated with a young McCain, and Jordan still stands tall on McCain's mantle along with his other heroes in a world"worth the fighting for." Loyalty, honor and courage, from the Spanish Civil War to the Senate floor. (NPR, The Connection, RealAudio 48min)

  • Renegade CIA officer Phillip Agee calls outing of Valerie Plame"dirty politics": Whoever in the White House exposed Valerie Plame could be charged under the Intelligence Identities Protection Act. Many believe the law was passed in direct response to former CIA officer Philip Agee blowing the whistle on CIA dirty tricks in his book Inside the Company: CIA Diary. George H.W. Bush, who was vice-president when the law was passed, said some of the criticism of the Agency undermined secret U.S. clandestine operations in foreign countries. So seriously did the Bushes take the crime of exposing CIA operatives that Barbara Bush, in her memoirs, accused Agee of blowing the cover of the CIA Station Chief in Greece, Richard Welch, who was assassinated outside his Athens residence in 1975. Agee sued the former first lady and Mrs. Bush withdrew the statement from additional printings of her book. Still, at a celebration marking the fiftieth anniversary of the CIA, the elder Bush again singled out Agee in his remarks, calling him"a traitor to our country." Agee was interviewed by host and executive producer Amy Goodman in October 2003. (Democracy Now! MP3, RealAudio & RealVideo 17min)

  • Patricia Brady & Martha Washington:Historian Patricia Brady describes Martha Washington as a decisive woman who contributed greatly to the character of America. In her biography, Martha Washington: An American Life, the author chronicles the life of the first First Lady from the beginning of her relationship with George Washington to her dedication to her him during the Revolutionary War period. This event was hosted by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association in Mount Vernon, Virginia. Brady served as director of public relations at the Historic New Orleans Collection for twenty years. She is the author of Nelly Custis Lewis's Housekeeping Book and George Washington's Beautiful Nelly. (C-SPAN2 Book TV, Public Lives, RealVideo 57min)

  • Hal Elliot Wert & Hoover: The Fishing President:Historian Hal Elliott Wert details President Herbert Hoover's passion for fishing in his new book Hoover: The Fishing President: Portrait of the Private Man and His Life Outdoors. The book includes a collection of photos and an interview with now retired U.S. Senator Mark Hatfield (R-OR) describing how President Hoover used the sport as a relief from the pressures of Washington DC. This event was hosted by the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library in West Branch, Iowa. Elliott is professor of American history at the Kansas City Art Institute. (C-SPAN2 Book TV, Public Lives, RealVideo 1hr 5min)

  • Masculinity in the Fifties: What did it take to be a 'real man' in the 1950s? Professor James Gilbert examines this issue in his new book Men in The Middle: Searching For Masculinity in the 1950s and debates with presenter Laurie Taylor how the attitudes and behaviours uncovered by Dr Alfred Kinsey in the 1940s established a far more complex portrait of the American male than the iconic images of John Wayne and James Dean. Gilbert is Distinguished University Professor and founder of the Center for Historical Studies at the University of Maryland. Taylor is a Fellow of Birkbeck College, University of London, where he is visiting professor in the department of politics and sociology; and holds visiting professorships at the London Institute and Westminster University. (BBC Radio 4, Thinking Allowed, RealAudio 10min [16:47-26:50])

  • Where did anthropology go? What can anthropology tell us about the world we live in? It is very good at finding out what makes cultures different but does it retreat from asking what makes them alike? Presenter Laurie Taylor reflects on why the work of current anthropologists is often absent from debates in our wider culture about the contemporary world we live in, with Maurice Bloch, Professor of Anthropology at the London School of Economics, and author of Essays on Cultural Transmission. Taylor is a Fellow of Birkbeck College, University of London, where he is visiting professor in the department of politics and sociology; and holds visiting professorships at the London Institute and Westminster University. (BBC Radio 4, Thinking Allowed, RealAudio 17min [00:16:47])

  • The Count of Doudleby: All over Eastern Europe noblemen and women are returning form the West to re-claim their titles and castles. When the Communists took over Czechoslovakia after the Second World War there was an exodus of aristocrats to all parts of the world. Count Bubna-Litic lived in Perth, Australia, working as a bus driver, his son Dominic sounds like an average Australian. Yet they live in an exotic looking castle in snow-bound Doudleby, Australia. This Street Stories compares their anonymous lives in Australia with their reclaimed lives as Counts. It also discusses the effects of Communism, and how an ex-aristocrat goes about getting a castle back and maintaining it. (Australian Broadcasting Corp, Radio National, Street Stories, RealAudio 44min [avail thru Aug 23rd])

  • On this day, 2003 -- Comic legend Bob Hope dies: Co-star and friend Mickey Rooney gets tuneful as he tells the BBC's Today programme of his memories of working with Bob Hope, the American icon and legendary comedian who has died just two months after celebrating his 100th birthday. Hope had been ill with pneumonia, and died in his sleep at home in Toluca Lake, California, with his family at his bedside. US President George Bush led the tributes which poured in from around the world."Today America lost a great citizen," he said."Bob Hope made us laugh. He lifted our spirits. Bob Hope served our nation. We will mourn the loss of a good man." Film-maker Woody Allen also joined the tributes, saying,"It's hard for me to imagine a world without Bob Hope in it." Film critic Derek Malcolm said he was a talented comic actor:"Many comics are depressed in real life, but he wasn't -- unless he'd had a bad round of golf." Hope was born Leslie Townes Hope in south-east London in 1903, the son of a stonemason and a Welsh concert singer. He lived in Britain until he was four, when his family emigrated to Ohio, in the United States. He trained in vaudeville, the American form of music hall entertainment, and became increasingly well-known through his film, television and radio work. With Bing Crosby, he created one of the big screen's most memorable partnerships, with such classic comedies as Road to Singapore. He was a close friend of many US presidents, including Kennedy, Nixon, Ford and Reagan, and was especially known for his tireless work entertaining American troops wherever they were stationed around the world. He was awarded a Congressional Medal of Honour in 1962 and received an honorary knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II in 1998. But he never won the prize he most wanted -- the Oscar. Introducing the Oscars ceremony in 1968, he joked:"Welcome to the Academy Awards. Or as it's known in my house -- Passover." He was, however, given four honorary Oscars for his contribution to show business. (BBC News, RealAudio 4min)

    Week of 7-25-05 TUESDAY

  • Learning from France: French and American concerns with the quality and equity of healthcare spring from a common source, the revolutionary origins of both countries. The same values of individual choice and collective security underlie the strategies each has adopted. Yet since the end of World War II French and American healthcare strategies have diverged; with France now considered to offer the world's best care. Paul Dutton examines the gap and explains its implications. Dutton is an historian of European Social Welfare and current Fellow of The Woodrow Wilson Center. (Woodrow Wilson Center, Dialogue Radio, QuickTime 29min)

  • Auschwitz oven builders: In the early 1930s, Topf & Söhne was a name that was spoken with respect. The German company became world-renowned for manufacturing custom furnaces and brewmaking equipment. But in 1939, the firm accepted an offer to build large crematoria for Nazi concentration camps. And by the time World War II was over, the words Topf & Söhne were a synonym for death and destruction. Today, many Germans still wonder why a company with no previous ties to the Nazis and no record of Anti-Semitism, accept this contract. This issue is at the center of the new exhibition at the Jewish Museum in Berlin called: Technicians of the"Final Solution" Topf & Söhne -- The Oven Builders for Auschwitz. Hartmut Topf helped organize the exhibition. He is a cousin of Ludwig and Ernst-Wolfgang Topf, who ran the company during the war. We reached Mr. Topf in Berlin. (CBC Radio 1, As It Happens, RealAudio 10min [7:49-17:31])

  • The Cat from Hue: Vietnam. Just say the word, and you shake the great long clanking chain of guilt, anger and retribution forged in the 1960's and 70's. It changed so much, from military strategy to combat journalism, but more, it changed the way an entire generation of Americans related to society, how they understood world events and history. Some fought. Some did not; and the tortured dialogue that's wound around the word Vietnam, has more to do even today with the identity of this nation rather than the small country along western side of the South China Sea. John Laurence spent five years for CBS in the jungle, struggling to explain Vietnam to Americans. Thirty years later, he may have found a better way to make sense of it, for us, and for himself (NPR, The Connection, RealAudio 48min). See also a slide show of Laurence's Vietnam photos.

  • Apartheid amnesty: South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission gave perpetrators of apartheid-era atrocities the chance to come forward and confess their crimes in return for amnesty. But thousands haven't shown up. Now the government is considering taking action against them. The World's Amy Costello reports from Cape Town. (BBC-PRI-WGBH The World, Windows Media Player 7min)

  • Edward Bunker, prison novelist, 1933-2005: We remember Edward Bunker, who died last week at the age of 71. In prison, he learned to write, and went on to pen several successful novels -- among them, Education of a Felon, and No Beast so Fierce. He also adapted some of his books for film, including The Animal Factory. (NPR, Day to Day, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 4min)

  • Genealogy, forensics & the digital age: Many in search of their family trees find themselves drowning in an endless paper trail. Genealogy used to be a matter of dusty records, family Bibles and ship manifests. And frustrated by dim memories, distant archives, faded records and unidentified photos, more than a few have put the search aside for another day. For many, tomorrow may be here. The urge to understand family history has led people to harness the latest technology, from Internet databases to DNA testing to cutting-edge software intended to make the job easier -- and a lot more rewarding. Neal Conan looks at the intersection between modern science and ancient lineages with guests Colleen Fitzpatrick, author of Forensic Genealogy; Megan Smolenyak, author of Trace Your Roots with DNA; and Cynthia Winston, professor of psychology and principle investigator of the Identity and Success Research Lab at Howard University. (NPR, Talk of the Nation, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 30min)

  • Ron Walters & Freedom Is Not Enough: Guest host Andrea Seabrook of NPR talks about the political power of African Americans, from the start of the civil rights era to the 2004 presidential election, with Ron Walters, University of Maryland. (WAMU, The Diane Rehm Show, RealAudio 52min)

  • The Negro Leagues: Jordana Gustafson presents a sound portrait of three retired Negro League baseball players: Carl Long, center field for the Birmingham Black Barons and the first African-American to play professional baseball in North Carolina; George"Smoky" McFadden, pitcher for the Durham Eagles and Durham Rams; and Willie Bradshaw, pitcher for Eagles, the Rams and the Roxboro Colts. (NPR, News & Notes with Ed Gordon, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 5min)

  • ADA marks 15th anniversary: Congress passed the Americans with Disabilities Act 15 years ago, and it has since had a profound impact on the public's attitude toward people with disabilities. It's also playing a key role in the lives of wounded soldiers returning from Iraq. Joseph Shapiro and Steve Inskeep discuss the ADA. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 4min)

  • Senator Harkin on ADA: Sen. Tom Harkin (D-IA) briefly discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act on its 15th anniversary, at the end of a longer interview (00:57:49-1:29:22) on the merits of embryonic stem cell research. (C-SPAN, Washington Journal, RealVideo 4min [1:23:13-1:26:52])

  • Archaeologica week in review -- 18-24 July 2005: The Peruvian ‘writing’ system, the quipu, which used knots and strings to convey information, goes back 5,000 years -- thousands of years earlier than previously believed. Rome's Christian catacombs, intricate labyrinths of burial chambers built between the 3rd and 5th century AD, arose from Jewish tradition of catacomb-building that started a century before the oldest known Christian versions. At Mexico City's Templo Mayor ruins, archeologists have dated to sometime around 1450 AD a rare child sacrifice to the war god Huitzilopochtli, a deity normally honored with the hearts or skulls of adult warriors. In Pompeii, a newly found 20-piece"place setting" of decorated cups and fine silver platters were unveiled after laying hidden for two millennia in the volcanic ash. (The Archaeology Channel, Podcast, RealAudio & Windows Media 9min)

  • On this day, 1956 -- Egypt seizes Suez Canal: Egypt's president, Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser, has announced the nationalisation of the Suez Canal Company to provide funding for the construction of the Aswan High Dam. British and French stockholders who own the Suez Canal Company have reacted with shock to the news. In a two-and-a-half hour speech delivered to a mass gathering in Alexandria, President Nasser said the Nationalisation Law had already been published in the official gazette. Twelve Egyptians have been appointed members of a special board which will manage the newly-nationalised company. President Nasser, who took control of Egypt following a Coup d'Etat four years ago, has been implementing a nationalisation programme in the country, and was vehement in his criticism of the West. He said 120,000 Egyptians had died building the canal but Egypt was receiving just a tiny proportion of the company's £35,000,000 annual earnings. President Nasser's decision to nationalise the Suez Canal company comes following Britain and America's withdrawal of financial assistance towards the Aswan Dam. It is understood the USSR agreed last month to provide an unconditional loan towards the project. (BBC News, RealAudio 2min)

  • On this day, 1952 -- Eva Peron is dead: On the occasion of the 1978 London debut of the musical Evita, Argentinean Estella Frias talks of her childhood during the Peron regime:"We were all brought up to hate and fear the Perons." Here is how the BBC reported Evita's death on July 26th 1952:"Eva Duarte de Peron, wife of the president of the Argentine Republic, has died from cancer, aged 33. Senora Peron passed away at 2025 local time at the presidential residence in the company of her husband General Juan Domingo Peron. The President of the Chamber of Deputies, Dr Campora, immediately submitted a bill to Congress, declaring 26 July as a national day of mourning from now on. Eva Peron, who was recently proclaimed 'spiritual chief of the Argentine nation' by Congress, was born Maria Eva Duarte on 7 May 1919 in the village of Los Toldos. She was the youngest of five children borne illegitimately to Juana Ibarguren and Juan Duarte, who had deserted his legal wife. The family was poor. Before she was 20 Eva had moved to Buenos Aires to pursue her theatrical aspirations. She met General Juan Domingo Peron in 1944 when he was minister of state for war and the couple were married in 1945. The following year General Peron became president. Although hailed a social champion and adored by the working classes, Evita, as she became known, was feared and loathed by the military and the upper classes." (BBC Radio 4 Woman's Hour, RealAudio 6min)

  • On this day, 1945 -- Churchill loses general election: Clement Attlee has been elected Britain's new prime minister after Labour won a sweeping victory in the general election. The outgoing prime minister and great wartime leader Winston Churchill tendered his resignation immediately. The landslide victory comes as a major shock to the Conservatives following Mr Churchill's hugely successful term as Britain's war-time coalition leader, during which he mobilised and inspired courage in an entire nation. Out of 627 seats Labour increased its seats from 164 to 393, giving the party its first independent majority of 159 seats over all other parties. The Conservatives and their allies secured 213 seats, the Liberals 10 and other parties 11. Following the announcement of the results this afternoon, Mr Churchill, who has held the positions of Prime Minister, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister of Defence continuously since May 10, 1940, went to Buckingham Palace to hand in his resignation. Mr Attlee, 62, was welcomed by the King shortly afterwards and asked to form a new Government. In a statement issued from 10 Downing Street tonight Mr Churchill expressed his"profound gratitude for the unflinching, unswerving support" given to him by the people of Britain during the war years. At a news conference this evening, Mr Attlee promised a new world order and an economic policy to raise the standards of life for people all over the world. (BBC News, RealAudio 3min)

    Week of 7-25-05 MONDAY

  • Sir Richard Doll, smoking-fatality researcher, 1912-2005: Sir Richard Doll, the British scientist whose research established the link between smoking and lung cancer, died Sunday at 92. Michele Norris talks to Sir Richard Peto, a professor of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology at Oxford University. Peto and Doll collaborated on a study that showed that smokers died, on average, 10 years younger than their non-smoking counter-parts (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 5min).

  • Rome's cobblestones: Authorities in Italy's capital have decided to stop paving Roman roads with cobblestones. The stones give many roads in Rome a distinctive look -- but authorities say they are hard to maintain, increase the noise made by cars and scooters driven over them and cost too much to import from Asia. Gerry Hadden reports. (BBC-PRI-WGBH The World, Windows Media Player 3min)

  • Germany's Nazi past: Germans have been reflecting on their Nazi past since the end of World War II 60 years ago. Now a panel of historians is investigating foreign minister Joschka Fischer's background. Host Marco Werman speaks with Eckhart Conze of Marburg University, a participating historian. (BBC-PRI-WGBH The World, Windows Media Player 6min)

  • John Emsley, poison & The Elements of Murder:In his new book The Elements of Murder: A History of Poison, chemist John Emsley chronicles cases of accidental and intentional use of lethal substances throughout the ages. Some say Beethoven and Mozart were poisoned to death. Emsley won Britain’s Science Book Prize for his 1995 book Consumer's Good Chemical Guide. He was a researcher and lecturer in chemistry at London University for 20 years before becoming a popular science writer. (NPR, Fresh Air from WHYY, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 40min)

  • Sounds of Philadelphia -- Cameo and Parkway Records: Rock historian Ed Ward tells us about Philadelphia's Cameo and Parkway record labels. From the late 1950s to the late '60s, their hits included"The Twist,""South Street" and"Bristol Stomp." ABKCO Records has just released a Cameo-Parkway four-CD retrospective. (NPR, Fresh Air from WHYY, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 9min)

  • The culture of suicide bombing: In the wake of Friday's bomb attacks in Egypt, NPR's Alex Chadwick talks with Christian Science Monitor Middle East Bureau Chief Dan Murphy about his recent reporting on the culture of suicide bombing. (NPR, Day to Day, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 4min)

  • Native Hawaiians' fight for sovereignty: A move to mandate that native Hawaiians have the same rights of self-government as American Indians and native Alaskans is meeting resistance -- on Capitol Hill and in the islands. Neal Conan examines the controversy over sovereignty for native Hawaiians with Chad Blair, political reporter for Hawaii Public Radio, who has covered the Akaka Bill since its inception in 2000; Daniel Akaka, Democratic U.S. Senator from Hawaii, who introduced S. 147, the Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2005; Bill Burgess, an attorney in Honolulu who opposes the bill because he feels it would establish a"race-based" nation and has argued in opposition to this and other similar cases in court; and Keith Harper, an attorney for the Native American Rights Fund. (NPR, Talk of the Nation, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 34min)

  • Voting Rights Act: On July 26th, civil rights groups from across the country will gather in Washington, D.C. to mark the 40th anniversary of the Voting Rights Act. Several provisions of that landmark act are set to expire two years from now. Host Ed Gordon talks with Wade Henderson, Executive Director of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, and Larry Gonzalez, Director of the Washington Office of the National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials Educational Funds. (NPR, News & Notes with Ed Gordon, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 6min)

  • 1968: According to Bryan Le Beau's guest this week, Mark Kurlansky,"There has never been a year like 1968, and it is unlikely that there will ever be one again." Kurlansky discusses his reasons for this statement and his latest book, 1968: The Year That Rocked the World. And Robert Brent Toplin, Professor of History at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington, comments on why the opposition to the war in Iraq seems muted in comparison to the Vietnam era. (Talking History, MP3 29min)

  • On this day, 1978 -- First"test tube baby" born: The birth of the world's first"test tube baby" has been announced in Manchester, England. Louise Brown was born shortly before midnight in Oldham and District General Hospital. Weighing 5lb 12oz (2.61 kg) the baby was delivered by caesarean section because her mother, Lesley Brown, was suffering from toxaemia. The consultant in charge of the case, Mr Patrick Steptoe, said:"All examinations showed that the baby is quite normal. The mother's condition after delivery was also excellent." Mrs Brown, 29, has blocked fallopian tubes so she and her husband, 39, have been undergoing in vitro fertility treatment. Last November Mrs Brown had an embryo -- of her egg and her husband's sperm -- implanted in her womb after it had been fertilized in a laboratory. The technique is being pioneered by consultant gynaecologist Patrick Steptoe and Cambridge research physiologist Robert Edwards."This work may be developed in other respects. It may include the reversal of sterilization," Dr Edwards told a press conference at Prestwich Hospital, Manchester. More than 5,000 couples have applied for the new fertility treatment already and there are 20,000 women in the UK with blockages similar to that experienced by Lesley Brown. None of the main religions have an official policy on artificial insemination, but the Roman Catholic Church has raised the strongest objection. The Archbishop of St Andrews and Edinburgh, Cardinal Gordon Gray, said:"I have grave misgivings about the possible implications and consequences for the future." Louise Brown's financial future has been assured by the sale of newspaper rights for her story, worth about £300,000. (BBC News, RealVideo 2min)

  • On this day, 1969 -- Kennedy pleads guilty over car crash: Senator Edward Kennedy has pleaded guilty to leaving the scene of a crime and has been sentenced to a two-month suspended jail sentence. The verdict follows a tragic car accident on the island of Chappaquiddick, east of Martha's Vineyard, a week ago in which 29-year-old Mary Jo Kopechne was drowned. Ms Kopechne was a former secretary to Senator Kennedy's late brother Robert. Senator Kennedy was driving back to Edgartown, the main town on Martha's Vineyard, from a party on Chappaquiddick when his car careered off a narrow bridge and into a creek. He managed to escape from the vehicle but Mary Jo was killed. He did not report the incident to Martha's Vineyard police until the next morning, some eight hours after the accident. Police found her body in the back seat of the overturned car. This evening, the Massachusetts Democrat senator made a speech on national television defending his actions on the night of 19 July. He denied any improper relationship with Mary Jo and said he was not driving under the influence of alcohol. He said he was in a state of shock when he emerged from the creek and confused by"a jumble of emotions". He added that he made several attempts to find Mary Jo by diving down into the water. He gave up and said he remembers little of how he got back to his hotel in Edgartown except that he swam the narrow channel because there were no night ferries and nearly drowned in the process. He acknowledged that he must now decide whether or not to resign as senator. Mary Jo's bereaved mother said she hoped he would not resign."I am satisfied with his statement and hope he decides to stay in the Senate," she said from her home in New Jersey. (BBC News, RealAudio 4min)

  • On this day, 1943 -- Mussolini steps down: The Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, is reported to have stepped down as head of the armed forces and the government. King Victor Emmanuel has assumed control of the army and issued a statement saying his country would"through the valour of her troops and the determination of her civilian population, find, in the respect of her old institutions, the way of recovery". Marshal Pietro Badoglio is the new prime minister. He said the war would go on and he urged the people to rally round the King. He also gave a warning that any attempt to disrupt public order would be severely dealt with. The resignation of Mussolini, Adolf Hitler's junior partner, will be seen as a blow to the Axis coming hot on the heels of the Allies' invasion of Sicily. Reports from Sicily say most of the island is now in Allied hands, apart from the mountainous area in the north-east, where they are still meeting tough resistance from the German military. The Times diplomatic correspondent says:"Mussolini, who will be 60 on Thursday, has been ill in recent months, but his resignation is not covered with the easy pretence of ill-health. The people know plainly that he has resigned because he is a failure -- a failed criminal." Rome Radio announced the news of Mussolini's departure. Afterwards the Italian national anthem was played, rather than the Fascist hymn,"Giovenessa", which has previously ended all bulletins. Berlin has tried to minimize the significance of Mussolini's departure. Reports on Berlin radio said the change at the top was a matter of"Italian internal politics". (BBC News, RealAudio 1min)

    Week of 7-18-05 SUNDAY

  • History of music & fashion, Pt 2 of 6 -- Heaven on earth: Throughout history the church has inspired and probably paid for more music than any other establishment. But what sort of music is appropriate for God? Even if we believe God to be unchanging, religious music has been as subject to fashion as any other sort of music. Andrew Ford considers these changes, from mediaeval times to the present. Why have certain types of music been fashionable at certain moments in history, and what might this tell us about the way in which human beings hear, appreciate and use music? Beginning with the most visible of musical fashions -- dance crazes -- Ford moves on to the role of religion in both inspiring and denying novelty in music, to musical entrepreneurs, to the transitory (and often non-musical) nature of fame, to the rise and decline of the recording industry, and finally to nostalgia -- the fashion that keeps on renewing itself. (Australian Broadcasting Corp, Radio National, Big Ideas, RealAudio 55min)

  • Von Trapped: A dark tale about a woman obsessed with The Sound of Music and the Von Trapp Family as well as other things Austrian. That is, until she realizes Austria's recent history is not just about apple strudel, singing nuns and happy blond children. The producer is Natalie Kestecher of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. This feature was awarded the bronze medal at the inaugural Chicago Third Coast International Audio Festival in 2001. (Soundprint, RealAudio 29min)

  • On this day, 1959 -- Khrushchev & Nixon have war of words: Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev and US Vice-President Richard Nixon have had a tense exchange of words about the merits of communism versus capitalism. This is the latest and most public of a series of impromptu debates between the two leaders which started yesterday on Mr Nixon's arrival in the USSR at the start of his 11-day visit. This time, the two men were touring the American trade exhibition in Moscow's Sokolniki Park ahead of its opening this evening. They stopped in front of a mock-up American kitchen displaying the latest gadgets -- washing machines, toasters and juicers. Mr Khrushchev dismissed the exhibits and said:"You Americans expect that the Soviet people will be amazed. It is not so. We have all these things in our new flats." Mr Nixon replied:"We do not claim to astonish the Soviet people. We hope to show our right to choose. We do not wish to have decisions made at the top by government officials who say that all homes should be built in the same way." Mr Khrushchev went on to demand both sides remove"foreign bases". Mr Nixon retorted:"The moment we place either one of these powerful nations, through an ultimatum, in a position where they have no choice but to accept dictation or fight, then you are playing with the most destructive power in the world." Pointing his finger just inches from Mr Nixon's face, Mr Khrushchev replied sternly,"Who is giving the ultimatum?" In the end, Mr Nixon apologised for being a poor host and the two men agreed to thank the exhibit hostess for letting them argue in her kitchen. The exhibition was formally opened this evening, with Mr Nixon passing on a message of goodwill from President Eisenhower and Mr Khrushchev inviting the president to visit the USSR. (BBC News, RealVideo 1min)

    Week of 7-18-05 SATURDAY

  • Army historian in Iraq: The true story of any conflict, from Gettysburg to Fallujah, is mostly lost forever, left behind on the battlefield. What remains is the stuff of history books -- the letters and recollections of survivors. It is this material that seven Army historians are racing to preserve in Iraq. Judging the value of their work will fall to future academics, when their records are declassified. But until then, we have the accounts of participants in the project, like Lt. Col. John Boyd. Boyd talks with host and managing editor Brooke Gladstone from Baghdad. (NPR On the Media, MP3 7min)

  • Hollywood's WWII myths: At the same time that events on the battlefields of WWII were being documented by newspapers and radio, Hollywood was re-framing the wartime sentiments of the homefront. In his memoir, Good Morning, Mr. Zip Zip Zip, film critic Richard Schickel examined the myths that wartime America built for itself on the silver screen. He shares some of his favorite clips with host and managing editor Brooke Gladstone. (NPR On the Media, MP3 6min)

  • On this day, 1974 -- Greek military rule gives in to democracy: Greek expatriots celebrate in London as the military government in Greece has collapsed, and the former prime minister Constantine Karamanlis has been invited to return. Huge crowds gathered to greet him at Athens airport and there has been jubilation in the streets of the Greek capital to mark the beginning of a return to democracy. Conservative Mr Karamanlis, 67, was prime minister for an unprecedented eight years until the centre-left won power in the country's last democratic election in 1963. He has been in self-imposed exile in Paris since then but he was one of eight former senior politicians invited to return yesterday by the foundering military leadership. A military junta led by Colonel Papadopoulos, Colonel Makarezos and Brigadier Pattakos seized power in Greece in April 1967. They imposed strict controls over the media and judicial system, suppressed any political opposition and dismantled the reforms of the last elected prime minister, Georgios Papandreou. A spokesman for the Greek armed forces explained the junta's decision to step down,"in view of the position in which the country finds itself". The regime, now controlled by Brigadier Ionnides, has crumbled over the growing crisis in Cyprus following the Turkish invasion two days ago. The Greek National Guard staged a coup on the island last week to replace elected Greek-Cypriot leader Archbishop Makarios with Nicos Sampson, who fell from power yesterday. Mr Karamanlis' return from exile has been welcomed by the Turkish Government -- which sent him messages of congratulation, and the Turkish press has hailed him as"Turkey's friend". Former Greek King Constantine -- exiled since failing to topple the 1967 coup -- has been in talks with British Prime Minister Harold Wilson at 10 Downing Street. Mr Karamanlis will choose his cabinet tomorrow to include experts and representatives from both leading parties from the 1963 poll. General Gizikis has said he will remain as Greek President until the new government is running smoothly. (BBC News, RealVideo 3min)

    Week of 7-18-05 FRIDAY

  • Assassination: Sandi Toksvig and guest co-host Jack Klaff interview Richard Belfield, author of an exposé whose contents are indicated by its UK title, Terminate with Extreme Prejudice: Inside the Assassination Game -- First-Hand Stories from Hired Killers & Their Paymasters; and its US title The Assassination Business: A History of State-Sponsored Murder. Klaff is an actor and playwright. Toksvig is a prolific comedienne, writer, pundit and broadcaster whose media career includes writing numerous comedy and drama scripts for Britain's Channel 4, the BBC and TVS; co-writing and presenting the long running British children's TV show Number 73; writing two successful children's books; and appearing as a regular on many successful British TV shows, such as Whose Line Is It Anyway,Call My Bluff,Time Team and Jackanory. (LBC 97.3, The Best of Sandi Toksvig, Podcast 7min [7:53-15:28] avail thru July 24th)

  • 50th anniversary of a great gospel concert: July 22nd 2005 marks the 50th anniversary of a landmark in gospel music, the Great Shrine Auditorium Concert. From member station WCBE in Columbus, Ohio, Jack Marchbanks has the story of how this concert has influenced and shaped gospel and secular music over the last five decades. (NPR, News & Notes with Ed Gordon, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 6min)

  • Long John Baldry, 1941-2005: When youngsters like Eric Clapton, Keith Richards and Jeff Beck were just dreaming about performing the Blues, Long John Baldry was up there on a London stage stirring the Mississippi mud. And when those nascent rock legends decided to pick up their guitars in public, the tall drink of bourbon invited them up to play with him. Baldry never achieved the fame of his protegés -- but he carved out a comfy little corner of the musical world for himself just the same. Long John Baldry died last night. He was 64. The lanky vocalist started belting out blues and folk in the 'fifties. Baldry was singing those tunes at a time when almost nobody else in England was. He blazed a trail for young English rockers, like the Rolling Stones and Rod Stewart, who would later go on to invade North America. Baldry eventually followed them, settling in Vancouver. While many of his morethan forty albums ventured into the realm of pop, Long John never forgot his roots in the music of the deep south. (CBC Radio 1, As It Happens, RealAudio 1min [25:27-26:25])

  • Theology of terrorism: In the wake of the London bombings, Tony Blair claimed that the perpetrators were motivated by"a perverted and poisonous interpretation of Islam." But what does Islam really say about the use of violence? In this week's Analysis, presenter Edward Stourton tries to get beyond the often heard platitude that"Islam is a religion of peace" and the less often voiced but widely felt prejudice that because it was born in war Islam is a religion of the sword. He examines the vigorous debates currently taking place within Islam on the theological limits of violent jihad. Even within the militant camp there are now deep divisions over whether terrorist tactics are justified. Some argue that a war against all non-Muslims and Muslim"apostates" is a religious duty. Others say that a war is only valid under recognised spiritual leadership and on Islamic territory. Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, one of the most influential TV clerics, condemns 9/11 but supports suicide bombing in Israel. A fundamentalist leader in Britain preaches that all such attacks are against Islam. Whilst some young Muslims are being drawn into support for terrorism, a number of former jihadists have been convinced that their old beliefs were a perversion of the true faith. Stourton talks to Muslim and non-Muslim experts on Islamic theology, to former mujahideen fighters and to a Yemeni judge who is attempting to tackle the would-be bombers on their own ground: belief. Interviewees include Professor Tariq Ramadan, leader European Islamic scholar and author of To Be A European Muslim; Abu Khadeejah Abdul-Waahid, Specialist in Islamic Affairs, Salafi Publications & Islamic Centre, Birmingham UK; Dr Malise Ruthven, writer on Islamic affairs and author of A Fury for God: The Islamist Attack on America; Professor Richard Bonney, Director of the Centre for the History of Religious and Political Pluralism, University of Leicester, and author of Jihad: from Qur'an to bin Laden; Dr Maha Azzam, Associate Fellow, Middle East Programme, The Royal Institute of International Affairs; Khalid Khalifa, former member of the Egyptian militant group Gamma Islamiya; Noman Benotman, veteran of the Afghan Jihad, former member of the Shura Committee of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group and founder member of the Libya Human and Political Development Forum; and Judge Hamoud al-Hitar, leader of Yemeni project to re-educate Al Qaeda prisoners in Islamic theology. (BBC Radio 4, Analysis, RealAudio 29min).

  • Singapore's Raffles Hotel: Did you know that Singapore's landmark Raffles Hotel used to be a 10-room bungalow? Or that a python was once caught in one of the hotel's gardens? The Raffles Hotel in Singapore has been sold to American equity firm, Colony Capital, and there have been concerns about what this would mean for the famous 19th century hotel, which many Singaporeans regard as an icon. The illustrious Raffles Hotel has been described as the Grand Old Lady of the East. And what a fitting title that is. Built in 1887, many identify it with the old-world charm and grandeur of Singapore's colonial past. Leslie Danker is the hotel's longest serving employee. He joined the Raffles Hotel 33 years ago in 1972, and started his career there at its food and beverage department. In a chat with him, Leslie, who is now Guest Relations Manager, told Yvonne Gomez a bit about the hotel's history. (RSI, Connections, Windows Media Player 5min)

  • Seattle underground: You’ve seen it many times in movies about the future -- freedom fighters living underground in ruined buildings that once used to grace the surface because the air above ground has been poisoned by nuclear fallout, and the earth is either being controlled by aliens or some repressive government. Seattle’s buried buildings are not quite the centre of political resistance but what remains of the city that once was. In one part of Seattle, there exists the buried first stories of buildings that used to stand at the city’s original level, about 8 to 32 feet below ground. Tours of Seattle’s underground show visitors the original entrances to still-existing 19th century buildings. Jim Jackson used to live in Seattle and spoke to Yvonne Gomez about his recent return to the city for a visit. (RSI, Traveller's Tales, Windows Media Player 4min [1:30-5:36])

    Week of 7-18-05 THURSDAY

  • John Ostrom, influential paleontologist, 1928-2005: John Ostrom, a Yale Univ paleontologist who pursued the idea that birds descended from dinosaurs, helping to revolutionize our thinking about the extinct creatures, has died. He was 77. Ostrom died last Saturday of complications from Alzheimer's disease at an assisted living center in Litchfield CT. He was best known for his 1964 discovery of Deinonychus, a small 2-legged carnivorous dinosaur whose name means “terrible claw." In 1969, Ostrom published a controversial theory that Deinonychus was a warm-blooded creature, contradicting the belief, widely held by scientists at the time, that dinosaurs were cold-blooded. Ostrom was also known for pursuing the idea, first advanced in the 19th century, that Deinonychus and other bipedal theropod dinosaurs (a group that includes Tyrannosaurus rex and Velociraptor) are the ancestors of all birds. Ostrom first advanced this theory in the 1970s, to the derision of fellow paleontologists. But numerous feathered dinosaur fossils discovered in China over the last decade have helped validate Ostrom's findings. NPR's Robert Siegel discusses Ostrom's life and legacy with Robert Bakker, director of the Morrison Natural History Museum in Morrison CO. Bakker was Ostrom's student research assistant and was with him in Montana when he first discovered Deinonychus. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 5min).

  • Rwandan genocide: The Rwandan Genocide ended 11 years ago. In just 100 days in 1994, an estimated 800,000 people were murdered, many of them hacked to death. Most of the killers were ethnic Hutus and most of the victims were Tutsis. The international community did virtually nothing to stop it. But in the genocide's aftermath, the UN created the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. The tribunal has its critics: those who say it is costing too much, working too slowly or not up to the task. But the tribunal has won some historical firsts, including the 1st conviction in history for the crime of genocide. Stephen Rapp is the chief of prosecutions at the tribunal. We talk with him about what he has faced -- and heard -- at the tribunal and whether it can ever see enough justice done for the victims of Rwanda. (NPR, The Connection, RealAudio 48min)

  • Sports & resistance: Two weeks after the London bombings that left over 50 people dead and hundreds wounded, the city's mayor, Ken Livingstone, is blaming western foreign policy as motivating the attackers and giving rise to Muslim extremism. While the aftermath of the London bombings continue to be front-page news around the world, few people remember that, one day earlier, London won a closely-fought bid to host the 2012 Olympics. History shows that the bringing of Olympics to a city also brings the utter immiseration of civil liberties. Host and executive producer Amy Goodman speaks with Dave Zirin, news editor of the Prince George's Post, for which he writes the weekly column"Edge of Sports." He is the monthly sports commentator for Air America's So What Else Is News and his new book is What's My Name, Fool?: Sports & Resistance in the United States. (Democracy Now! MP3, RealAudio & RealVideo 33min)

  • On this day, 1969 -- America lands man on moon: American Neil Armstrong has become the 1st man to walk on the moon. The astronaut stepped onto the moon's surface, in the Sea of Tranquility, at 0256 GMT, nearly 20 minutes after first opening the hatch on the Eagle landing craft. His colleague Edwin"Buzz" Aldrin watched from inside the lunar module and spoke the 1st words of man on the Moon:"Tranquility Base. The Eagle has landed." The world watched as Armstrong put his left foot down and declared: "One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" (BBC News, RealVideo 5min). He described the surface as being like powdered charcoal, and the landing craft left a crater about a foot deep. The historic moments were captured on television cameras installed on the Eagle and turned on by Armstrong. Armstrong spent his 1st few minutes on the moon taking photographs and soil samples in case the mission had to be aborted suddenly. He was joined by Aldrin at 0315 GMT, and the 2 collected data and performed various exercises -- including jumping across the landscape -- before planting the Stars and Stripes flag at 0341 GMT. They also unveiled a plaque bearing President Nixon's signature and an inscription reading:"Here men from the planet earth first set foot upon the Moon July 1969 AD. We came in peace for all mankind." After filming their experience with a portable television camera the astronauts received a message from the US President. Nixon, in the White House, spoke of the pride of the American people and said: declared: "This certainly has to be the most historic telephone call ever made" (BBC News, RealVideo 3min). As Aldrin and Armstrong collected samples, Michael Collins told mission control in Houston he had successfully orbited the Moon in the mother ship Columbia, and take-off was on schedule for 1750 GMT this evening. If you've read this far, you'd probably enjoy Google Moon.

    Week of 7-18-05 WEDNESDAY

  • James Montgomery Doohan, Scotty from Star Trek, 1920-2005: We remember James Doohan, the actor who played Montgomery"Scotty" Scott, chief engineer of the Enterprise on the original Star Trek TV series. He died at age 85 early Wednesday morning at his home in Washington state. Enterprise Captain James T. Kirk's famous command --"Beam me up, Scotty" -- stuck with Doohan throughout his career as an actor. Canadian by birth, Doohan grew up with his alcoholic father and joined the Canadian forces when he was 19. He fought with the Allies in WW2 and fought at Normandy on D-Day. After the war, he pursued an acting career that spanned Canada, New York and Hollywood. He starred in more than 400 television shows as well as the 1st 7 Star Trek movies. Undoubtedly, Doohan will best be remembered by his legions of fans round the world as the resourceful starship USS Enterprise engineer with a wild Scottish brogue. Guests are Robert Justman, associate and supervising producer of the original Star Trek series and Star Trek: Next Generation; and author and blogger Wil Wheaton, the actor who played Ensign Wesley Crusher on Star Trek: The Next Generation. (NPR, Day to Day, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 9min)

  • Gerry Thomas, inventor of TV dinner: When they first graced North American tables and TV trays, they were like metallic harbingers sent from some utopian future. The aluminum trays heralded a time when the dinner plate would embrace its destiny, when all elements of a repast would be separated by dividers. Now here we are in the 21st century, and we still have stupid, unsegmented plates. But you can still buy Gerry Thomas's frozen brainchildren at any supermarket, and dream of better days ahead. Gerry Thomas, inventor of the TV dinner, died on Monday. He was 83. In the early Fifties, Gerry Thomas was a traveling salesman, working for CA Swanson & Sons. It was during a time of particular crisis for the company that Thomas dreamed up his innovation -- and despite initially low expectations from Swanson's, the TV dinner found a remarkably large audience. There was something about the"plates," with their separate segments containing turkey, corn-bread stuffing, peas and sweet potatoes, that appealed to people. Of course, the food within the plates wasn't so hot, no matter what the temperature. Still, in 1954 alone, Americans ate more than 25m of the reheatable entrées. In 1997, a TV dinner tray and Gerry Thomas's handprints were immortalized outside Mann's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood. And in 1999, Thomas's tray was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. They were remarkable tributes to the Howard Hughes of frozen food. In 1999, As It Happens guest host Anne Lagacé Dowson spoke with Gerry Thomas, on the 45th anniversary of the 1st TV dinner. Here's part of their conversation, for the record. (CBC Radio 1, As It Happens, RealAudio 5min [8:42-13:46])

  • Shakespeare's accent: The lights go down, and the audience hushes. Then the curtain rises and the thespian before you begins his soliloquy. But forsooth! What's this! His accent sounds like an odd mixture of Australian, Cornish, Irish and Scottish -- with a dash of Yorkshire. Will theatregoers find the exercise weary, stale, flat and unprofitable -- or mutter to themselves,"Though this be madness, yet there is method in it"? Giles Block hopes for the latter reaction from theatregoers when they come to see his production of Troilus and Cressida. He's directing the first-ever full-run production of a Shakespearean play in a Shakespearean accent. For help with his endeavor, he called in accent specialist David Crystal. As It Happens reached Block at Shakespeare's Globe Theatre, London; and Prof Crystal on vacation in Southern Cornwall. (CBC Radio 1, As It Happens, RealAudio 9min [14:22-23:29])

  • Robert Pape & Mia Bloom on suicide terrorism: The London bombings have drawn attention to suicide terrorism as a growing global phenomenon and not just a tactic in regional conflicts. As we try to make sense of the tragedy, how can we understand the spread of suicide bombing? (PRI, Odyssey, RealAudio 52min)

  • New Yorker covers: There is no shortage of things to say about those New Yorker magazine covers. They are timeless, yet timely. Hip, but refined. They make us laugh and give us pause. And sometimes they are a little New York-centric. Saul Steinberg's"A View of the World From 9th Avenue" is one of the most famous sketches to ever grace The New Yorker. Like many covers, it found a way to make all of us laugh. A current exhibition of New Yorker covers reminds us how well the illustrations have captured the moment -- and more -- for the past 80 years. The magazine's stunning response to 9/11, the ominous, almost empty, black cover of the twin towers, has become an icon. (NPR, The Connection, RealAudio 48min)

  • Marshall Islands nuclear tests: One nuclear bomb can ruin your whole day, so imagine what 67 can do. Our documentary examines the legacy of radiation in the Marshall Islands and recalls Churchill's famous caution,"We shape our dwellings and, afterwards, our dwellings shape us." Bearing that in mind, something is terribly wrong in the Marshall Islands. Away out on this string of Pacific coral, babies are being born with old faces, and worse. The native culture that makes its home on the remote atoll is being deformed as well. And everyone thinks they know why. Nearly 60 years ago, the US military needed a place to set off some nukes. Although the weapon had already done its terrible job on Japan, it still needed more elaborate testing. And the isolation of the Marshall Islands seemed to fit the bill. The people living there were agreeable enough too, and moved aside. But all these years later -- as David Kattenburg tells us in tonight's documentary -- it's clear they didn't move far enough. (CBC Radio 1, Dispatches, RealAudio 16min)

  • Disco: From its roots in the New York gay scene, disco rose phoenix-like from the flames of a post-Vietnam, Nixon-era America. Presenter Laurie Taylor traces the history of disco music with Peter Shapiro, journalist and author of Turn the Beat Around: The Secret History of Disco; and Bill Brewster, DJ, expert on dance music culture, and coauthor of Last Night A DJ Saved My Life. They examine an age of hedonism, strobe lighting and the glitterball to discover disco's impact on the pubs and clubs of a drab 1970s Britain. (BBC Radio 4, Thinking Allowed, RealAudio 14min [14:04-27:39])

  • Alexandra, the last Tsarina: Alexandra, the last Tsarina of Russia, is well-known for her close relationship with the holy peasant Rasputin, which helped bring about the fall of the Romanov dynasty. But a new exhibition at the National Museums of Scotland reveals a side of her that is little-known to most people. She was a devoted wife, a loving mother who nursed her own children and even trained as a nurse during WW1. Maureen Barry, exhibition officer, talks about the last Tsarina. (BBC Radio 4, Woman's Hour, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 9min)

  • On this day, 1944 -- Hitler survives assassination attempt: Hitler's chief-of-staff's deputy, Gen Walter Warlimont, describes the bombing at Rastenberg -- broadcast March 1967. On July 20th 1944, the BBC reported:"Adolf Hitler has escaped death after a bomb exploded at 1242 local time at his headquarters in Rastenberg, East Prussia. The German News Agency broke the news from Hitler's headquarters, known as the"wolf's lair," his command post for the Eastern Front. A senior officer, Col Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg, has been blamed for planting the bomb at a meeting at which Hitler and other senior members of the General Staff were present. Hitler has sustained minor burns and concussion but, according to the news agency, managed to keep his appointment with Italian leader Benito Mussolini. Hermann Goering, commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe and Hitler's designated successor, went to see Hitler when he heard about the attack. The German News Agency said the German people were deeply grateful that no serious harm had come to their leader and that fate had allowed him to 'accomplish his great task. ...The attempt which has failed must be a warning to every German to redouble his war effort,' said the newsreader. And the deputy head of the press, Helmut Suendermann, stated: 'The German people must consider the failure of the attempt on Hitler's life as a sign that Hitler will complete his tasks under the protection of a divine power.' This is the 3rd attempt on Hitler's life and underlines the tension in Germany now faced with a 2-front war as the allies take northern France and the Red Army close in on the Reich. This week has seen the heaviest American bombing of Germany since they entered the war. The 8th Air Force from Britain and the 15th Air Force from Italy sent about 5,500 heavy bombers and some 4,000 fighter planes to attack oil and aircraft stores in Germany and Austria. The Soviet Army has made major advances on the front line between Brest-Litovsk and Lvov -- a strategic city that is the key to capturing southern Poland. (BBC News, RealAudio 8min)

    Week of 7-18-05 TUESDAY

  • William Westmoreland, 1914-2005: By most standards, Gen William Westmoreland's military career was as successful as they get. He went to South Carolina's Citadel military college. He graduated from West Point as 1st captain of the cadets, the academy's highest rank and honor. He served with distinction in WW2 and reached the rank of Major General by the age of 42. He went on to achieve the rank of full general -- that's 4 stars -- and retired from the military as Army chief of staff in 1972. Despite all his achievements, though, Gen Westmoreland will always be remembered for his disastrous tenure as chief of military operations in Vietnam between 1964 and 1968. David Halberstam is the author of The Best and the Brightest and was a New York Times correspondent in Vietnam. (CBC Radio 1, As It Happens, RealAudio 8min [20:22-28:45])

  • Shakespeare's accent: Shakespeare's Globe Theatre in London will soon become the 1st professional theatre company in centuries to stage an entire run of a Shakespeare play in the original pronunciation. The actors in Troilus & Cressida will recite their lines with accents that are believed to be close to what would have been heard in Shakespeare's day; Robert Siegel talks with actor Peter Forbes, who plays the role of Pandarus in the production (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 7min). From the BBC News website, listen to actor Philip Bird recite a speech he delivers in Troilus & Cressida in the role of Hector, in both contemporary and Elizabethan pronunciations (RealAudio 1min).

  • William Westmoreland, 1914-2005: Gen William Westmoreland, who commanded American forces in Vietnam from 1964 to 1968, died Monday night in Charleston SC. He was 91. Pulitzer Prize-winning author Stanley Karnow talks about Westmoreland and his insistence that the United States"did not fulfill its commitment to South Vietnam." (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 4min)

  • Robert Pape on suicide terrorism: The London bombings are only one example of suicide terrorism, a technique that goes back to 1 AD, says Robert Pape, author of Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism, and dir, Chicago Project on Suicide Terrorism. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 5min)

  • 1979 Greensboro Massacre: "On November 3, 1979, at the corner of Carver and Everitt Streets, black and white demonstrators gather to march through Greensboro, North Carolina, a legal demonstration against the Ku Klux Klan. A caravan of Klansmen and Nazis pull up to the protesters and open fire."Eighty-eight seconds later, five demonstrators lie dead and ten others wounded from the gunfire, recorded on camera by four TV stations. Four women have lost their husbands, three children have lost their fathers. After two criminal trials, not a single gunman has spent a day in prison, although a civil trial won an unprecedented victory for the victims: For one of the only times in US history, a jury held local police liable for cooperating with Ku Klux Klan in a wrongful death." That is the introduction to the book Through Survivors" Eyes: From the Sixties to the Greensboro Massacre written by one of the survivors, Sally Bermanzohn. This weekend, the Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission met to hear testimony from perpetrators and victims in the massacre. Host and executive producer Amy Goodman speaks with a survivor of the massacre. (Democracy Now! MP3, RealAudio & RealVideo 4min)

  • Renaissance women: Has the status of Renaissance Women been underestimated? A new book, Renaissance Woman, argues that we should see the invention of printing in 1456 as a milestone in women's education. The author, Gaia Servadio, joins presenter Jenni Murray along with Helen Hackett, author of Women & Romance Fiction in the English Renaissance to debate whether educated Renaissance women were the exception or the rule. (BBC Radio 4, Woman's Hour, RealAudio 9min)

    Week of 7-18-05 MONDAY

  • Sir Edward Heath, 1916-2005: The death of former British PM Edward Heath in his 90th year removes another giant from the political stage -- 50 years in the House of Commons, at the top of politics at one of the most tumultuous times in modern history. In Parliament (via BBC TV News), Heath's career was celebrated by PM Tony Blair (RealVideo 5min), Conservative Party leader Michael Howard (RealVideo 5min), and Liberal Democrat Party leader Charles Kennedy (RealVideo 4min). BBC Radio 4 broadcast a thoughtful, affectionate obituary called "Rationality and Politics" (RealAudio 45min). Earlier in the day, BBC Radio 4's Today program included 4 remembrances, starting with a brief look back at the political life of Sir Edward Heath (RealAudio 3min). Next were tributes from Tony Benn and Robert Temple Armstrong -- Benn is a former Labor MP, and Armstrong is a former secretary of the cabinet under PM Margaret Thatcher (RealAudio 10min). Then followed an anaylsis of Heath's political career and tributes from Douglas Richard Hurd, Peter Carington and Michael Howard -- Hurd was Heath's private secretary and, later, Thatcher's foreign secretary; and Carington was a long-time cabinet Minster under a succession of Conservative PMs and former secretary-general of NATO (RealAudio 10min). Last thoughts were offered by friends who knew Heath in different ways, Michael Heseltine, Claus Moser and Betty Boothroyd -- Heseltine was deputy PM in John Major's Conservative government; Moser has spanned the worlds of music, Whitehall and academe; and Boothroyd is former speaker of the Commons (RealAudio 7min).

  • Juan Cole on Iraq-Iran rapprochement: Juan Cole, prof of history at the Univ of Michigan, is interviewed on the occasion of the historic visit made by Iraq's transitional Prime Minister, Ibrahim Jaafari, to Iran last weekend. The old Arab adage"The enemy of my enemy is my friend" may be the truth in Iraq now that Saddam Hussein has been ousted from power. The new Iraqi government is dominated by the Shiite community that Saddam used to oppress, and the ongoing insurgency has created a common enemy that's bringing Iran and Iraq closer together. So 17 years after the Iran-Iraq war ended, Jaafari met with top Iranian officials and renewed economic and military ties between the 2 countries. (CBC Radio 1, As It Happens, RealAudio 8min [14:33-22:52])

  • Fur trader's apology: It's easy to romanticize the life of 18c sailors. Brave men risked their lives on uncharted waters, hoping to make their names and the fortunes of their families. One of those men was Capt Robert Gray. In the spring of 1792, the Yankee explorer and fur trader led an expedition up the Pacific Coast of North America. He was the 1st white man to discover the Columbia River, allowing the USA to claim the entire Pacific Northwest. His discovery made him an American hero. But one man's conquest is often another man's loss and, on Saturday when a group of Captain Gray's descendants sailed into Vancouver Island's Clayoquot Sound on a replica of his ship, they were there to remember a less glorious moment from the historic journey. Will Tremblay had this to say to his native hosts, for the record. (CBC Radio 1, As It Happens, RealAudio 2min [12:00-14:14])

  • Suicide terrorists: The motivations of suicide terrorists are discussed by Robert Pape, author of Dying to Win: The Secret Logic of Suicide Terrorism, and dir, Chicago Project on Suicide Terrorism. (C-SPAN, Washington Journal, RealVideo 59min)

  • 75th anniversary of UK's Family Planning Assn: To mark the 75th anniversary of Britain's Family Planning Assn, Woman's Hour looks at the impact that contraception has had on our lives, from the social and medical aspects of better health and choice for women, to whose responsibility is it to teach children about the issue. Presenter Jenni Murray also discusses contraception's future and legacy -- has it really liberated women's sexuality? -- with Alex Bilmes, features editor of GQ magazine; Hera Cook, author of The Long Sexual Revolution: English Women, Sex & Contraception 1800-1975; Lesley Hall, author of Sex, Gender & Social change in Britain Since 1880 and senior archivist, Wellcome Library; Julie Kosmala, mother of a teenage girl; Kaye Wellings, prof of sexual health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine; and Anne Weyman, chief executive of Britain's Family Planning Assn. (BBC Radio 4, Woman's Hour, RealAudio 42min)

  • Colonizing London's slums: This is the story of one of Victorian Britain's strangest yet most socially influential experiments, where highly privileged, university students -- the future elite -- lived amongst the poorest of the poor in an attempt to change the face of society forever, an experiment which has been revived 120 years on. In 1873, Church of England curate Samuel Barnett and his wife, Henrietta, rejected an affluent parish and settled instead in the squalor of London's East End. There, amidst the terrible housing, unsanitary conditions and high crime, they witnessed the miseries and growing poverty that industrialization had brought in its wake. Their response was radical. Backed by an elite band of Oxbridge-educated social reformers, the Barnetts decided the only answer was to urge Britain's most privileged sons and daughters to live and work amongst its most destitute. They would come"to learn as much as to teach; to receive as much as to give." This would, the Barnetts were determined, connect the"two nations" of rich and poor into one and by molding tomorrow's thinkers and leaders, change society forever. Their utopian community was called a"settlement" and, in 1884, Toynbee Hall, Britain's 1st settlement, opened in the heart of London's Whitechapel district. Over the next few years, Toynbee's success as a beacon of social reform led to hundreds of settlements springing up, not just in inner cities across the country but around the world wherever industrialization had wrought a physical separation of the classes. In Britain, some of the most enduring ideas in social policy stemmed from the settlements -- youth clubs, juvenile courts, citizens' advice bureaus, toy libraries and many others. Future Labor PM Clement Atlee and economist William Beveridge were just 2 of the reformers whose ideas were profoundly influenced by the time they spent as volunteers in the slums. In Colonizing the Slums, historian Richard Weight explores the history of this unique yet little-known movement, looking at its heyday and its partial decline in the 60s and 70s. Through interviews with local historians, settlement workers and politicians such as former Labor MP Tony Benn, he traces the diverse strands of thought from Christian Socialism to the reforming zeal of certain Oxbridge colleges that motivated these pioneering reformers, and asks whether they were as imbued with the colonizing mentality of their contemporaries, the missionaries. The program also investigates the current revival of the settlements and their legacy to modern social work in Britain. Finally, Weight asks whether we can still learn from settlements now that there's a fierce debate about the boundaries of the welfare state. (BBC Radio 4, Real Audio 30min)

    Week of 7-11-05 SUNDAY

  • Whatever happened to anarchism? Pt 2 of 2: In the concluding part of his series, journalist Wayne Brittenden wonders whether global capitalism and the decline of ideology might kill off libertarian socialism for good. (BBC Radio 4, Westminster Week, RealAudio 14min)

  • Arthur Fletcher, former head of United Negro College Fund: Phyllis Fletcher of member station KUOW remembers her grandfather, Arthur Fletcher. The former head of the United Negro College Fund coined the well-known phrase"A mind is a terrible thing to waste." Arthur Fletcher died last Tuesday at age 80. (NPR, Weekend Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 3min)

  • International battle against fundamentalist terrorism: The global threat of terrorism and the measures taken by countries around the world are examined by correspondent Roisín Duffy in a sequence of expert interviews. (RTÉ Radio 1, This Week, RealAudio 8min)

  • History of music & fashion, Pt 1 of 6 -- Dirty dancing: The most visible musical fashions are those we dance to, and dance steps come and go as fashion dictates. Queen Elizabeth I created a scandal when she danced the volta. The waltz, though it now seems unlikely, was also once considered outrageous. Andrew Ford asks: Are the biggest fashions in dance also always the dirtiest? Why have certain types of music have been fashionable at certain moments in history? And what might this tell us about the way in which human beings hear, appreciate and use music? Beginning with the most visible of musical fashions -– dance crazes -– Ford moves on to the role of religion in both inspiring and denying novelty in music, to musical entrepreneurs, to the transitory (and often non-musical) nature of fame, to the rise and decline of the recording industry, and finally to nostalgia -– the fashion that keeps on renewing itself. (Australian Broadcasting Corp, Radio National, Big Ideas, RealAudio 55min)

  • Linking Australia by rail, Adelaide to Darwin: The notion of an Australian rail line from Adelaide to Darwin was first thought of in 1864, but it took another century and a bit more to get there. Early attempts were made at both ends of the continent. In South Australia at the turn of the 20th century a line ran north from Port Augusta to Oodnadatta and eventually to Alice Springs in 1929. Meanwhile, starting from Darwin in the 1880s, the North Australian Railway ran south to a newly discovered goldfield at Pine Creek and later to Birdum and Larrimah. The defense demands of WW2 might have seen the missing section completed, but priority went to the Stuart Highway, and it took another 50 years for the Ghan to run from Adelaide to Darwin. The earlier attempts to link north and south contrast markedly with the ease with which the final section -- Alice Springs to Darwin -- was completed ahead of schedule and with no major construction problems. Bill Bunbury explores the different railway ventures that eventually linked a continent north and south. (Australian Broadcasting Corp, Radio, National Hindsight, RealAudio 54min [avail thru August 13th])

  • Karl Marx: "Workers of the World Unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains";"Religion is the opium of the people";"From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs." That should be enough for most of you to work out whom BBC Radio 4 listeners have voted as their favorite philosopher: the winner of the In Our Time Greatest Philosopher Vote, chosen from 20 philosophers nominated by listeners and carried through on an electoral tidal wave of 28% of our 'first-past-the-post' vote, is the communist theoretician, Karl Marx. (Top 10: Marx, 27.93%; David Hume, 12.67%; Ludwig Wittgenstein, 6.80%; Friedrich Nietzsche, 6.49%; Plato, 5.65%; Immanuel Kant, 5.61; Thomas Aquinas, 4.83%; Socrates, 4.82%; Aristotle, 4.52%; Karl Popper, 4.20%.) So, when you strip away the Marxist-Leninism, the Soviet era and later Marxist theory, who was Karl Marx? Where does he stand in the history of philosophy? He wrote in his Theses on Feuerbach,"Philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it" -- which begs the question, is he really a philosopher at all? Melvyn Bragg hosts a round-table discussion with Anthony Grayling, professor of philosophy, Birkbeck College, Univ of London; Gareth Stedman Jones, prof of political science at Cambridge Univ; and Francis Wheen, journalist and author of the biography Karl Marx and Idiot Proof: Deluded Celebrities, Irrational Power Brokers, Media Morons, and the Erosion of Common Sense. Baron Bragg of Wigton, Cumbria, is Chancellor of Leeds Univ and a Governor of the London School of Economics. Besides being a BBC broadcaster, he has written, edited and produced The South Bank Show since 1978 for London Weekend Television, for which he has been Controller of Arts since 1990. He's written 19 novels (and won the WH Smith Literary Award), plus 11 histories, biographies and other nonfiction. (BBC Radio 4, In Our Time, BBC Radio Player, MP3 & Podcast 45min)

    Week of 7-11-05 SATURDAY

  • British jihad: There is a war raging for the soul of Islam, reports senior correspondent Michael Goldfarb. It is a global war whose frontline extends into the heart of Britain. There, radical preachers extol the romance of martyrdom to a generation of immigrant youngsters unsure of their place in Modern European society. What is radical Islam's appeal to young British Muslims? Why did some 9/11 hijackers find Britain a convenient staging post for the attacks? How did 2 middle-class Muslims, college kids, end up on suicide missions in Israel? (Inside Out Documentaries, QuickTime, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 49min)

  • Sati re-emerges: A new wave of Hindu fundamentalism is seeing the re-emergence of Sati (or Suttee), a Hindu custom outlawed since 1855 in which a widow threw herself on her husband's funeral pyre. Although the custom was meant to be a voluntary act, many women were forcibly thrown into the flames. (RTÉ Radio 1, World Report, RealAudio 3min)

  • Nuclear anniversary: It's been 60 years since the USA exploded the 1st nuclear device, in the desert of New Mexico, from where journalist Claire Marshall reports. Also, Hans Blix speaks by phone about the legacy of that nuclear explosion and what it means for today's warfare. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealAudio 6min)

    Week of 7-11-05 FRIDAY

  • JFK memorabilia: The JFK Presidential Library & Museum is jam-packed with artifacts from the late president's life. But until this week, it was missing a couple of thousand key items. That's because they were with Robert L White, a man from Maryland who was a long-time fan of JFK. But when White died 2 years ago, the museum's curators saw a chance to negotiate with his estate to bring his collection of JFK memorabilia into its collection. They succeeded and, this week, the artifacts finally arrived. Deborah Leff, the museum's director, Deborah Leff, speaks from Boston. (CBC Radio 1, As It Happens, RealAudio 7min [20:48-28:12])

  • Major Taylor, the"Worcester Whirlwind": As the Tour de France heads into its 2nd week, with all eyes on 6-time winner Lance Armstrong, it's worth remembering a great cyclist from the past. Commentator Lynne Tolman tells the story of Marshall J"Major" Taylor, who won his 1st bike race at age 13, in the year 1892. But Taylor, an African American, was banned from competition in his hometown of Indianapolis, and by a major national biking association. Taylor's trainer moved with him to a more tolerant community, Worcester MA, where Taylor developed into the"Worcester Whirlwind." By 1898, racing where he could, he was a record-breaking sprinter and a successful endurance racer, too. After the turn of the century, Taylor moved on to dominate competition in Europe and Australia before retiring in 1910. He made a significant amount of money in his professional racing career, but business reversals and racial obstacles made his later life difficult. He is buried in a pauper's grave in Chicago. But he's remembered every year back in Worcester with the George Street Bike Challenge. It's a sprint along a street where Taylor once trained -- and it's all uphill. (NPR, News & Notes with Ed Gordon, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 2min)

  • Death downwind from nuclear test: In 1953, a 32-kiloton nuclear bomb was detonated at a Nevada test site. Within 2 years, some farmers and much of their livestock living downwind of the blast contracted cancer and died, most likely because of the nuclear fallout. Independent producer Claes Andreasson presents the story of that nuclear blast and the implications for those who lived near it. (NPR, Day to Day, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 4min)

  • Deep-sea exploration: People have wondered about the ocean depths for centuries. Joe Palca traces the use of technology to explore the deep sea from the 1800s on with the authors of 2 new books on deep-ocean exploration: Brad Matsen, author of Descent: The Heroic Discovery of the Abyss: and Helen Rozwadowski, author of Fathoming the Ocean: The Discovery and Exploration of the Deep Sea. (NPR, Talk of the Nation, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 35min)

  • Looking back at White House press relations: Relations between the White House and its press corps have turned sour this week over the Karl Rove controversy. ABC correspondent Ann Compton about the storied relationship between journalists and presidential administrations. Compton's White House career has spanned 6 presidents. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 5min)

  • Killing in the name of religion: Brian Lamb, C-SPNA chairman and CEO, interviews Jessica Stern about religion and the London terror attacks. Stern is a lecturer in public policy at Harvard's John F Kennedy School of Government and author of Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill and The Ultimate Terrorists. (C-SPAN, Washington Journal, RealVideo 57min)

  • Tolpuddle Martyrs: A sycamore tree in Dorset, England -- famous for being the site of one of the first ever trade union meetings -- has been dated for the first time, substantiating the legendary site where 6 agricultural laborers met in 1834, then arrested, prosecuted for trade union activities, and sentenced to transportation -- a key event in the foundation of modern trade unionism. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealAudio 4min)

  • Suicide attacks"about strategy, not religion": Suicide bombers are driven by strategic goals rather than religious fanaticism, and the war in Iraq will lead to further terrorist attacks, according to a US professor who has studied every suicide attack carried out over 2 decades. Robert Pape, director of the Chicago Project on Suicide Terrorism, has studied every single suicide attack in the world between 1980 and 2003 and has come to some worrying conclusions about the way in which Western democracies are pursuing the fight against terrorists. While British authorities say they cannot be sure last week's bombings in London were suicide attacks, Pape says he is certain al-Qaeda is responsible."The London bombings are part of al-Qaeda's strategic logic that they have been pursuing with increasing vigor since 9/11," Pape said."The strategic logic which holds these attacks together is not religion but a specific strategic goal -- to compel the United States and other Western states with forces on the Arabian peninsula to pull those forces out. The London attacks are simply the next step in al-Qaeda executing its strategic logic." (Australian Broadcasting Corp, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 7min)

  • On this day, 1995: Serbs force Muslims out of Srebrenica: Thousands of Muslim refugees are fleeing the captured"safe area" of Srebrenica forced out by the Bosnian Serbs. United Nations officials say it is the biggest"ethnic cleansing" operation since WW2. Some 40,000 women, children and elderly people have been ordered to leave the compound at Potocari where they had been under the protection of Dutch peacekeepers. The Dutch soldiers -- part of the UN peacekeeping force -- appear to have been powerless to defend Srebrenica against the Serbs who seized control of the town on July 11th. Reports say all Muslim men over 16 were rounded up as they attempted to flee the advancing Serbs -- but these have not yet been confirmed. The Bosnian Serbs have refused access to journalists and international organizations. There are many tales of atrocities -- rape, massacres and psychological torture -- circulating among the refugees now arriving in the northern Bosnian town of Tuzla. The biggest fear is for the men who have been left behind. Many wives and families fear they will never see them again. One woman told relief workers she had seen the Serbs slit her husband's throat and that she had seen at least 8 other bodies. The Bosnian PM, Haris Siladjdzic, has blamed the Bosnian Serbs for the atrocities:"Massive massacres were committed by Serbian terrorists upon the civilians of Srebrenica," he said. (BBC TV News, RealVideo 3min)

  • Mother of London bomb victim pleads for son: Anthony Fatayi-Williams was last seen on July 7th at about 8:30 AM at London's Camden Town Tube station. He was on his way to work at Amec Offshore Services, near Liverpool Street station, but is thought to have taken an alternative route to work, via King's Cross station, because of delays on the Tube's Northern Line. He died in the Number 30 bus blast at Tavistock Square. His death was confirmed when an inquest was opened in London yesterday. In the days after the bombings, Fatayi-Williams' mother, Marie, flew to the UK from Nigeria to try to find her son, and made an emotional plea for information about his whereabouts:"My son, Anthony, is my first son, my only son, 26, my only son, the head of my family. In African society, they hold on to sons. He has dreams and hopes, and I, his mother, must fight to protect them. . . . This is not a good day. Five days on -- Five days on, and we are waiting to know what has happened to him. . . . Here today we have Christians, Muslims, Jews, Sikhs, Hindus -- all of us united in love for Anthony. Hatred begets only hatred. It is time to stop this vicious cycle of killing." (BBC TV News, Windows Media Player 1min)

    Week of 7-11-05 THURSDAY

  • "Londonistan": London is known as the city in Europe with a heart for radicals. Karl Marx was one of the more famous dissidents to take up residence there after he was expelled from Paris in 1849. More recently, London has extended the same tolerance to Muslim immigrants who have moved to the city in great numbers. But in the wake of last week's bomb attacks and the knowledge that 4 of the alleged suicide bombers were British-born Muslim citizens, this long tradition of openness is now being questioned. On BBC Radio 4 the Today Program started the morning with 3 reports on Britain's Muslim community post-July 7th. Is challenging dangerous rhetoric by so-called Muslim fanatics an attempt to silence political Islam? British MP Shahid Malik says no, but members of certain Muslim groups in the UK say this would violate Britain's free-speech rights (RealAudio 4min). Does the Muslim Council of Britain condemn only some and not all suicide bombing? MCB's Inayat Bunglawala explains (RealAudio 12min). What do young British Muslims really think about the London terrorist attack? Zubeida Malik investigates (RealAudio 5min).An in-depth report on The Connection indicated people blame UK immigration policies for creating"Londonistan," a safe haven where Islamic radicals have been ignored and allowed to organize and where, as the winds shift, many Muslims and Arab now worry the city that once took them in may now turn against them (NPR, RealAudio 48min). Correspondents for The World offered 2 perspectives on the growing Muslim community in Britain: host Marco Werman talked with MP Shahid Malik, who says last week's attacks are the most profound challenge yet faced by the British Muslim community -- Malik represents a town that was home to one of the suspected suicide bombers (BBC-PRE-WGBH, Windows Media Player 8min); and Jennifer Glasse investigated the roots of radicalism in Britain, where as much as 20% of the population is Muslim in some areas and where Islamic fundamentalists may have helped to radicalize pockets of disaffected Muslim youth (BBC-PRE-WGBH, Windows Media Player 5min).

  • Preserving languages: RTÉ Radio 1 reporter Colman O'Sullivan filed a 2-part series on the impact of immigration to Ireland on the use of the Irish language. In Pt 1 he looked into objections to a refugee center raised by some residents of a Gaeltacht [Gaelic-speaking] area in County Galway (Morning Ireland, RealAudio 5min); while Daithí MacCárthaigh, President of Conradh na Gaeilge, disputed the objections made by the Gaeltacht residents (Morning Ireland, RealAudio 3min). In O'Sullivan's Pt 2 he focused on a campaign group mostly made up of immigrant gaeilgeoirí [Irish speakers] (RTÉ Radio 1 Morning Ireland, RealAudio 4min). A global view was taken by the guests of Odyssey, who asked, What drives such efforts to save a language? Despite the fact that Irish has been disappearing from everyday use in Ireland, the EU has made Irish one of its official languages (Chicago Public Radio, Odyssey, RealAudio 52min).

  • Arthur Fletcher,"Godfather" of affirmative action: Arthur Fletcher, a presidential advisor to Richard Nixon and an early booster of affirmative action, died Tuesday at age 80. His life and legacy are remembered by Karen Grigsby Bates (NPR Day to Day, RealAudio & Windows Media 2min) and Ed Gordon (NPR, News & Notes with Ed Gordon, RealAudio & Windows Media 2min).

  • Suicide bombing reaches the west: Last week's attacks are believed to mark the first suicide bombings in Western Europe. NPR's Mary Louise Kelly reports on the implications of the spread of a tactic that's long been mostly a phenomenon of the Middle East and Iraq. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 4min)

  • Richard Clarke on Rove/Wilson & Iraq insurgency: Counterterrorism Expert and author of Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror Richard Clarke joins Al Franken and Katherine Lanpher for a discussion about Karl Rove, Joseph Wilson and the growing insurgency in Iraq. (Air America, The Al Franken Show, Windows Media Player 12min)

  • The great sorting-out: In"Survey: America" in the July 16th edition of The Economist, the magazine's Washington bureau chief, John Parker, says America is an extraordinarily dynamic country, but its very mobility may now be drawing people apart."Immigration is still more like the traditional melting-pot... What you see are Hispanics following the same path of upward mobility and assimilation that previous generations of Hispanics, Italians, Jews and so on have followed.” (The Economist, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 10min)

  • Remembering Rainbow Warrior: Twenty years ago, the Greenpeace flagship Rainbow Warrior was bombed by French govt agents and sunk in a harbor in Auckland, New Zealand. The French newspaper Le Monde recently revealed that the late French President Francois Mitterrand personally approved the sinking of the ship. Host and executive producer Amy Goodman speaks with David Robie, an independent journalist who was on board the ship and wrote the book Eyes of Fire: The Last Voyage of the Rainbow Warrior. (Democracy Now! MP3, RealAudio & RealVideo 9min)

  • Iggy Pop, original punk: The work of the artist formerly known as James Jewell Osterburg Jr is collected in a new CD, A Million in Prizes: The Iggy Pop Anthology. Iggy Pop's career began in the late 1960s as frontman for The Stooges. A solo career produced more pioneering music even as Pop overcame a heroin addiction. (NPR, Fresh Air from WHYY, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 43min)

  • Trinity's 60th anniversary: On July 16th 1945 a successful atomic test in the New Mexico desert launched the nuclear age. Weeks later US planes dropped A-bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending WW2 combat in the Pacific. Neal Conan and eyewitness Ben Benjamin discuss the 60th Anniversary of the Trinity Test Site explosion. Benjamin, the retired supervisor of Sandia Laboratory's photo-optical division, was at the Trinity Test Site as part of the photographic team working on the Manhattan project. (NPR, Talk of the Nation, RealAudio & Windows Media 12min)

  • Viking remains found in Dublin: Ed O'Sullivan, site director of an archaeological dig in Dublin's Golden Lane, Ship Street, explains the significance of the remains found of a 1st-generation Viking warrior dated to AD 9c. (RTÉ Radio 1, Morning Ireland, RealAudio 5min)

    Week of 7-11-05 WEDNESDAY

  • Northern Ireland's marching season: 80 police officers were injured in July 12th evening Orange parades in the north Belfast area of Ardoyne, says RTÉ reporter Paul Tanney (RTÉ Radio 1 Morning Ireland, RealAudio 4min). Sinn Féin condemned the Belfast violence in the Ardoyne area after an Orange Order parade, reports Tommie Gorman, RTÉ Northern editor, gathering reactions to last night's violence (RTÉ1 One News, RealVideo 2min). The PSNI praised Sinn Féin and blamed republicans for the parade riots, says Gorman in a follow-up report in which a spokesman for the Police Service of Northern Ireland accused dissident republicans for trying to kill republicans during last night's parade riots (TV Six One News, RealVideo 2min). An eyewitness Catholic priest commented on the Belfast violence in a BBC report, arguing there should be a review of parades after police were attacked during last night's Orange march (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealAudio 3min).

  • Australian SAS troops and commandos returning to Afghanistan: Australian PM John Howard yesterday announced that 150 Special Air Service (SAS) troops would begin a 1-year deployment to Afghanistan in September, a decision that won't increase the chances of a terrorist attack in Australia, says Howard:"If you imagine you can buy immunity from fanatics by curling yourself in a ball and apologizing to the world for who you are, not only is that morally bankrupt, it's also ineffective" -- yet analysts have raised concerns that the deployment could leave Australia vulnerable if disaster strikes (2min video: RealPlayer or Windows Media). The decision by Australia follows similar deployments by the United States and NATO (5min audio: MP3 or RealPlayer or Windows Media). Retired Brig Jim Wallace, a former commander of SAS and special forces in Australia, comments on whether or not the return of Australian troops to Afghanistan is a sign that they should never have been pulled out in the first place (6min audio: MP3 or RealPlayer or Windows Media). The Afghan Interior Ministry spokesman Lutfullah Mashal says Australian special forces would be best suited on security operations in the volatile border regions, but would also be welcome assisting provincial reconstruction teams (6min audio: MP3 or RealPlayer or Windows Media).

  • Suicide bombing reaches the west: With the attacks in London last week, suicide bombing has come to the west, reports The World's Jeb Sharp. (BBC-PRI-WGBH The World, Windows Media Player 5min)

  • Understanding the Brits' stiff upper lip: Linguist Geoff Nunberg reflects on the use of the terms"Brits" and"stiff upper lip" when referring to the British, especially in reports of the July 7th London bombings. (NPR, Fresh Air from WHYY, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 5min)

  • Galatoire's: 100 years of an eating institution: New Orleans is a city obsessed with food and, this year, one of its landmark eateries is celebrating its 100th anniversary. Located in the city's French Quarter, Galatoire's restaurant has been serving specialties like Trout Marguery, Crabmeat Ravigote and Oysters en Brochette for a century. The recipes came from France with founder Jean Galatoire, who bought an existing restaurant on the site of his namesake bistro in 1905. He soon sent for his 3 nephews from southern France. Their grandchildren now run the place. The line for a lunch table starts early in the morning. Many line up not just for a good seat, but to ensure they are served by their regular waiter -- it's common for the same waiter to have served a family for generations. Over the decades, celebrities who have joined the queue include Tennessee Williams, Harpo Marx and Mick Jagger -- and even a few US presidents. To commemorate Galatoire's centennial, 2 of the restaurant's regulars, Kenneth Holditch and Marda Burton, have written a book, Galatoire's: Biography of a Bistro. They join NPR's Debbie Elliott for a Friday lunch dining experience, and share the storied restaurant's recipes for Oysters Rockefeller, Shrimp Clemenceau and Crabmeat Yvonne. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media Player 7min)

  • UK military criticized after proposing compensation for WW2 Japanese POWs: Parliament has criticized Britain's Ministry of Defense for its compensation plan for Japanese prisoners during WW2. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealAudio 11min)

  • Marx voted"Greatest Philosopher": In Our Time presenter Melvyn Bragg discusses his listeners' selection of Karl Marx as the Greatest Philosopher of all time. (BBC Radio 4, Today, RealAudio 7min)

  • On this day, 1985 -- Live Aid makes millions for Africa: The Live Aid concert for the starving in Africa has raised triple the £10m expected. Described as the Woodstock of the 80s, the world's biggest rock festival was organized by Boomtown Rats singer Bob Geldof to raise money for famine relief in Africa. The transatlantic concert began in London's midday sunshine with a fanfare for Prince Charles and Princess Diana, and Status Quo performing"Rocking All over the World." Stars were helicoptered into the arena in a line-up that included David Bowie, Wham, and royal favorites Dire Straits. Frequent appeals by Bob Geldof reminded viewers of the motive for the occasion:"Don't go to the pub tonight. Please stay in and give us your money. There are people dying now." Nine months after the droughts, disease and famine in northeastern Africa were brought to the media's attention, the UN has warned that 160m people are still affected. Governments have begun a global relief operation but there are still problems of distribution in the worst hit areas -- mainly Sudan and Ethiopia. (BBC News, RealVideo 2min)

  • Won't get fooled again: Watch LIVE8 performances from Black Eyed Peas, Andrea Bocelli, Coldplay, DMC, Paul McCartney, Tim McGraw, Pink Floyd, Shakira, U2, The Who and 96 more artists -- every song from Berlin, London, Paris, Philadelphia, Rome and Toronto. (AOL Music, on-demand, no cost)

    Week of 7-11-05 TUESDAY

  • Northern Ireland's marching season: Early this morning, Catholic priest Aidan Troy described the atmosphere in the flashpoint Ardoyne area in north Belfast where, last year, loyalists and nationalists pelted each other with missiles as the Orangemen passed through the staunchly Catholic area after the day's festivities in the city center (RTÉ Radio 1 Morning Ireland, RealAudio 6min). Then, during today's annual July 12th Orange Order morning parades in Ardoyne, RTÉ's Michael Fisher and Tommie Gorman filed reports live from the parades in Belfast, including an interview with Sinn Féin pres Gerry Adams (RTÉ1 One News, RealVideo 4min). At mid-day, RTÉ reporter Brendan Wright outlined a protest by nationalist residents in Dunloy, County Antrim (RTÉ1 Six One News, RealVideo 2min); then, late in the afternoon, Gorman again reported live on nationalists' preparations to protest the loyalists' evening parades in Ardoyne (RTÉ1, Six One News, RealVideo 4min).

  • Bob Woodward & The Secret Man: Diane Rehm talks with Washington Post reporter and editor Bob woodward, who continues to flog his new book, The Secret Man: The Story of Watergate's Deep Throat, in which he discusses the role of Mark Felt, former No. 2 man at the FBI, as the mysterious informant Deep Throat, who put Woodward and Carl Bernstein on the map and helped to bring down President Richard Nixon. (WAMU, The Diane Rehm Show, RealAudio 52min)

  • The Untouchables: Their name evokes images of the wretched of the earth. The Untouchables are the lowest of the low on India's caste ladder, and a fact of life for 160m people living in India. Known as Dalits, they still face violence and discrimination. In an excerpt from a BBC Radio 1 documentary in which journalist Richard Phinney travels to the villages and hi-tech cities of modern India to explore what it means to be an Untouchable today, he explores the plight of the Jogini. Once a year, in a Hindu temple in Andhra Pradesh, a young Dalit girl is dedicated to the goddess. From that point on, the girl is called a Jogini and is not to marry. Instead, as Phinney explains, she becomes a village prostitute, serving men from higher up on the caste ladder. As many as 10,000 Dalit girls are still sold into prostitution each year under the pretense of being dedicated to the goddess. (CBC Radio 1, Ideas, RealAudio 4min)

  • Jefferson's Garden: Thomas Jefferson -- author of the Declaration of Independence, 3rd president of the United States, founder of the Univ of Virginia -- also liked to dig around in the dirt. In his garden at Monticello, Jefferson had 170 different types of fruit, 330 different vegetables, countless flowers and a grove of meticulously selected trees. What's more, he kept careful and detailed notes of what was planted. Peter Hatch, Director of Grounds and Gardens at Monticello, talks about Jefferson's gardening legacy, what the former president's botanical inclinations tell us about the man and about life in America at the turn of another century. Hatch is author of The Gardens of Thomas Jefferson's Monticello and The Fruits and Fruit Trees of Monticello. (NPR, The Connection, Real Audio 48min)

  • The story behind Grant Wood's American Gothic: The Grant Wood painting American Gothic is a touchstone of American culture, depicting an upright Midwestern family on the farm. The story behind the painting is the subject of Thomas Hoving's book American Gothic: The Biography of Grant Wood's American Masterpiece. A native of Iowa, Wood and his paintings were rooted in the Midwest. His style, however, owed something to the realism of 15c northern European artists. Susan Stamberg interviews Hoving, already a best-selling author and once the director of New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, about his exploration into Wood's most famous painting. (NPR, Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 7min)

  • Monument to Irish Korean War victims: Paschal Sheehy, RTÉ Southern editor, attends the unveiling of the monument in County Kerry, Ireland. (RTÉ1, Six One News, RealVideo 2min)

  • Sir Francis Drake monument defaced in Ireland: Councillor Paula Desmond of Cork County Council discusses why she thinks there is a place in local history for a new monument to Britain's Sir Francis Drake, whose exploits defending against the Spanish Armada are traditionally associated with this part of Ireland. (RTÉ Radio 1, Morning Ireland, RealAudio 2min)

  • AD 500 -- Women's status: : By AD 500, the Romans had left Britain and the country was being fought over by British Celts, Picts, Saxons and the Irish. Each people had its own attitudes with regards to the position of women -- a British-Celtic woman in Wales could take her husband to a divorce court for the infamous impotence test, while the Anglo-Saxon St Hilda had the ear of Kings. Host Jenni Murray talks to Simon Young, author of a new book called AD 500: A Journey Through the Dark Isles of Britain and Ireland -- which your editor has read and enjoyed -- Sally Crawford, lecturer in Medieval Archaeology, Univ of Birmingham. (BBC Radio 4, Woman's Hour, RealAudio 9min)

  • The Autobiography of Medgar Evers:Myrlie Evers-Williams and Manning Marable recount the civil rights movement through the eyes of Medgar Evers. The Autobiography Of Medgar Evers details the life of the civil rights leader, including his involvement with voting rights for African Americans. During the event, both Marable and Evers-Williams, the widow of Medgar Evers, stress the importance of being active in politics and becoming familiar with current political figures. This event was hosted by Karibu Bookstore in Hyattsville MD. (C-SPAN2, BookTV Public Lives, RealVideo 1hr 13 min)

  • Archaeologica week in review -- July 4th-10th: In southern Mexico, researchers think they may have found footprints that mark the oldest evidence for the presence of humans in the Americas. In the city of Palmyra in the Syrian desert, archaeologists believe they have found the earliest known template for the image of St George slaying the dragon, in a mosaic floor dating from approximately AD260 that depicts the figure who became the patron saint of England. At the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Egyptian and Italian conservationists and curators have inaugurated a laboratory for restoring and preserving papyrus. In Agra, India, archaeologists have found a new structure adjoining the Taj Mahal, reviving the legend of the Black Taj Mahal; according to preliminary investigations, the structure served as a rest house for travelers. (The Archaeology Channel, Podcast, RealAudio & Windows Media 9min)

    Week of 7-11-05 MONDAY

  • Srebrenica, 10 years later: Today's top international story is the poignant commemoration Monday in Srebrenica of the 10th anniversary of Europe's worst massacre since WW2. Listen to the BBC report from July 11th 1995, when the Bosnian Serb army seized control of the UN"safe area" of Srebrenica after Dutch peacekeepers were forced to withdraw. Some 1,500 Serb troops overran the lightly-armed Dutch troops, despite two NATO air strikes on Serbian tanks inside the enclave. The Bosnian Prime Minister, Haris Silajdzic, called the NATO response"too little, too late" and said the people of Srebrenica had been"betrayed." Up to 30,000 refugees from the mainly Muslim town were then reported to be fleeing to the north while the USA questioned the UN's ability to carry out its"humanitarian mission" in the region. Today

  • The World's Jeb Sharp looked back at the tragedy and its causes (BBC-PRI-WGBH, Windows Media 5min). We heard eyewitness accounts from

  • Rob de Wijk who, in 1995, was deputy to the Dutch chief of defense, and is now a director of the Netherlands Institute of International Relations (NPR's Talk of the Nation, RealAudio & Windows Media 8min); and from

  • New York Times reporter David Rohde in Srebrenica (NPR Day to Day, RealAudio & Windows Media 7min); and

  • the story of 2 Srebrenica survivors was reported by KWMU's Matt Sepic of Saint Louis (BBC-PRI-WGBH The World, Windows Media 4min). During

  • today's ceremony at the Potocari cemetery in Srebrenica Seán Whelan, RTÉ Europe editor, provided further details on the 10th anniversary of the massacre (RTÉ Radio 1 Morning Ireland, RealAudio 13min); and

  • NPR reporter Sylvia Poggioli interviewed Magbula Velik, who -- angry that indicted Serbian war criminals are still free -- came to Srebrenica from her new home in San Francisco to bury the remains of her father, a victim of the massacre (NPR All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media 4min). Hope for the future is suggested by

  • Nerma Jelacic, director of the Balkan Investigative Reporters Network. In an interview with CBC Radio 1, she says that, despite the refusal by many Serbs to acknowledge that the Srebrenica massacre actually happened, she has been meeting with Serbs and Muslims in the region over the last several weeks. (As It Happens, RealAudio 9min [1:24-10:49])

  • Northern Ireland's marching season: Richard Dowling, RTÉ North-East correspondent, visited anthe Orangemen's resolve and regalia (RTÉ1 Nine News, RealVideo 2min). Meanwhile, Unionist politicians appealed for calm on the eve of the July 12th parades following 2 gun attacks in Belfast this morning, explains RTÉ's Michael Fisher (One News, RealVideo 2min).

  • Al-Qaeda: Many say the attacks in London on Thursday have the hallmarks of an al-Qaeda operation. In Hour 1 of today's program, Diane Rehm talks about how the organization may have evolved since 9/11, and the threat it poses today, with Roger Cressey, former counter-terrorism official in the Clinton and Bush administrations; and Tod Lindberg, editor of Policy Review and a research fellow at the Hoover Inst. (WAMU, The Diane Rehm Show, RealAudio 52min)

  • The Historian:In Hour 2 of today's program, Diane Rehm talks with Elizabeth Kostova about her novel The Historian -- one of the summer's hottest reads, and the 1st novel by a woman who wrote in obscurity for 10 years. Kostova talks about writing a fresh take on the Dracula legend as seen through the eyes of scholars. (WAMU, The Diane Rehm Show, RealAudio 52min)

  • Blair & Clarke address House of Commons: PM Tony Blair and Home Secretary Charles Clarke address the British House of Commons on the London bombing. (C-SPAN, RealVideo 1hr 3min)

  • Stephen Wermiel & Herman Belz on Court Nominations: Stephen Wermiel, law prof at American Univ, and Herman Belz, history prof at Univ of Maryland, discuss the history of Supreme Court nominations -- specifically past selection, nomination and confirmation processes. (C-SPAN, RealVideo 58min)

  • Jared Diamond -- The rise & fall of civilizations: A new, 3-part National Geographic series called Guns, Germs and Steel debuts Monday night on PBS. Based on the Pulitzer Prize-winning book by Jared Diamond, the series looks at why some civilizations have risen faster than others. The presentation begins in Papua New Guinea, and then follows Diamond, professor of geography at UCLS, as he travels to the Fertile Crescent and across the globe in search of the root cause of economic and political inequality. His answer? Geography. Some civilizations grew in locations favorable to agriculture, allowing them to develop technologies and social institutions to overtake others. Germs also played a role in history, decimating some populations with diseases to which others were immune. Diamond argues this is how Eurasians came to dominate the world. This year, Diamond published a book that looks at the demise of civilizations. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed examines, among others, the disappeared cultures of Easter Island, the Anasazi, the Mayans and the Greenland Vikings. (NPR, Talk of the Nation, RealAudio & Windows Media 40min)

  • The Scopes trial: On July 10th 1925, the case of Tennessee v John Thomas Scopes, better known as the Scopes monkey trial, opened in Dayton TN. It was a public clash between proponents and opponents of teaching evolution in the schools. According to John Herron's guest this week -– Edward Larson -- the trial took on a life and meaning of its own. Edward Larson, is prof of History and Law at the Univ of Georgia, and the author of Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America’s Continuing Debate over Science and Religion. And William Ashworth comments on HL Mencken’s account of the Scopes trial. Ashworth is prof of History at the Univ of Missouri–Kansas City and consultant for the History of Science at the Linda Hall Library of Science, Engineering and Technology. (Talking History, MP3 29min)

  • Frances Langford, actress, dies: A remembrance of actress Frances Langford, who captivated thousands of soldiers with her steamy rendition of"I'm in the Mood for Love." Langford played Don Ameche's insufferable wife Blanche in the popular radio comedy The Bickersons. She also appeared in 30 movies, including Yankee Doodle Dandy and The Glenn Miller Story. She was 92. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media 3min)

  • Queen of screwball comedy: Carole Lombard was one of the most accomplished actors in Hollywood in the 1930s and early 40s. Married to Clark Gable, she was at the height of her fame when she died in a plane crash at the age of only 33 in 1942. As Britain's National Film Theatre stages its first ever retrospective of her films, Woman's Hour assesses her life, work and legacy with Ian Christie, prof of film and media history at Birkbeck, Univ of London; and Hilary Smith, National Film Theatre. (BBC Radio 4, Woman's Hour, RealAudio 8min)

  • London in the wake of terrorist attacks: . BBC political editor Andrew Marr reflects on last week's bombings in London in a round-table discussion with Frank Gardner, BBC security correspondent; Dylan Jones, editor of GQ magazine; Tessa Jowell, Britain's Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport and now Minister for the Olympics; and Steven Levitt, prof of economics, Univ of Chicago, and co-author with Stephen J Dubner of Freakonomics. (BBC Radio 4 Start the Week, BBC Radio Player 42min [avail thru July 17th])

  • Drumcree parade passes off peacefully: Brendan Wright reports on this year's Drumcree Orange Order parade in Co Armagh. (RTÉ1, Nine News, RealVideo 2min)

  • Whatever happened to anarchism? Pt 1 of 2: Earlier anarchist thinkers could never have imagined that the powerful nation states they hated so much would be undermined not by popular revolt, but by global corporatism. Twenty years ago, covering an anarchist conference in Venice, journalist Wayne Brittenden became fascinated with the diversity of delegates -- from Spanish Civil War veterans to squatters, Ivy League professors and punk rockers. He reflects on this extraordinary event and on the heyday and potential fate of a largely forgotten political movement. (BBC Radio 4, Westminster Week, RealAudio 13min)

  • Songs of Guernsey, ancient & authentic: Eight centuries ago, the residents of an island just off the Normandy coast of France pledged their allegiance to the British Crown. But for the people of Guernsey,"allegiance" certainly didn't mean giving up a colorful and vivid cultural identity. To this day, islanders remain proud and fiercely independent, and they have kept alive a unique local language, Guernesiais. A new CD of ancient songs from the Isle of Guernsey has been released by the Harp Consort: Les Travailleurs de la Mer. Director Andrew Lawrence-King, a native of Guernsey, talks about the project, subtitled"Ancient Songs from a Small Island." (NPR, Weekend Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 11min)

  • WW2 service of remembrance in London: One million poppies have been dropped on thousands of people gathered in London's Mall for Commemoration Day, marking 60 years since the end of WW2. Part of a flypast of WW2 aircraft, the poppies were released by a Lancaster bomber over The Mall as Queen Elizabeth II and members of the Royal Family looked on. The Queen earlier addressed the crowd, speaking of the"present difficult days for London" after Thursday's bombings. She said the people of the war generation had set an example. (BBC News, RealVideo 2min)

  • Londoners & the spirit of London: Much has been said of the grit and determination of Londoners over the last few days, and if you live there or you have passed through at all since Thursday, host Fi Glover says she is sure that you will have heard at least one person say that Londoners have lived through attacks before and nothing will dent their spirit. To talk about how the whole of last week has affected London, Glover speaks to novelist Diran Adebayo; journalist and writer Kate Adie; architect and broadcaster Maxwell Hutchinson; and author PD James, Baroness James of Holland Park. They all live in London -- but would they call themselves Londoners? And can they identify what this spirit is? (BBC Radio 4, Broadcasting House, RealAudio 21min [10:22-31:23] avail thru July 16th)

    Week of 7-4-05 SATURDAY

  • Rainbow Warrior sinking remembered, 20 years on: On the 20th anniversary of the bombing of the Greenpeace ship, The Rainbow Warrior, its crew still believes justice was never done. The sinking of the 40m former trawler in Auckland harbor on the night of July 10th 1985 still ranks as one of the biggest political and diplomatic scandals of the reign of the late French president Francois Mitterrand. (Australian Broadcasting Corp, MP3, RealAudio & Windows Media 3min)

  • Bicentenary of Robert FitzRoy -- Darwin's skipper, 1st weather forecaster: John McCarthy is joined in a discussion of Robert FitzRoy and South Atlantic travel by travel and sports writer Charlie Connelly; Christabelle Dilks, author of Footprint Handbook: Argentina and Backpackers Bible: Patagonia; and freelance travel writer Rob Crossan. Robert FitzRoy was born in Suffolk, England, on July 5th 1805, entered the Royal Naval College in 1818 and the next year entered the Royal Navy. In 1828 he was given his 1st command, The Beagle, which was carrying out the survey of the coasts of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan. After returning to London in 1830, The Beagle was assigned to continue this survey and left England in December 1831, carrying the young Charles Darwin as naturalist. On this 2nd voyage FitzRoy visited the Cape Verde Islands, the South American Coast, the Strait of Magellan, the Galapagos Islands, Tahiti, New Zealand, Australia, the Maldives and Mauritius before returning to England. The voyages of The Beagle established FitzRoy as an excellent navigator, a sound surveyor and a man of science. The Beagle returned to England in October 1836. In 1839 the 3-volume Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle Between the Years 1826 and 1836 was published, FitzRoy being largely responsible as editor and author for the 1st 2 volumes, Darwin for the 3rd. In 1837 FitzRoy was awarded a gold medal, known as the Premium medal, by the Royal Geographical Society. After retiring from active service in 1850, the event that probably gave FitzRoy the greatest personal satisfaction was his election as a fellow of the Royal Society in 1851, supported by 13 fellows, including Charles Darwin. By seniority he was promoted rear admiral in 1857, and vice admiral in 1863. (BBC Radio 4, Excess Baggage, RealAudio 45min)

  • Srebrenica massacre 10 years on: Mustapha Ceric is the Reis-ul-Ulema of Bosnia-Herzegovina -- the spiritual leader of Bosnian Muslims. Ahead of the 10th anniversary of the massacre of more than 7,000 Muslim men at Srebrenica, Ceric talks with Carrie Gracie about the legacy of that terrible day and how he and his community have dealt with it. He discusses their relations with the Serbs, his feelings towards those who still protect the murderers, his hopes for reconciliation, and how the last 10 years have tested his faith. (BBC World Service, The Interview, RealAudio 27min [avail thru July 15th])

  • Daddy More Bucks: From the Cleavers to the Jeffersons and the Simpsons, the American dream has always been alive and well in the world of the TV family. But collectively, the sitcom breadwinners seem to be outpacing their real world counterparts. According to a survey by, today’s TV dads earn twice as much as TV dads of the 1950s. Host and managing editor Brooke Gladstone muses on the representation of social mobility in sitcomlandia. (NPR On the Media, MP3 4min)

  • Scopes monkey trial 80th anniversary: On the 80th anniversary of the Scopes monkey trial, host and managing editor Brooke Gladstone looks back on the original trial of the century -- a case that pitted Darwin against Adam, and redefined the media's role in the courtroom. Univ of Georgia history prof Edward Larson explains how the Scopes case revolutionized trial coverage, and launched the legal system towards the era of Court TV. (NPR, On the Media, MP3 12min)

  • London bombings -- Crisis management: The world is still feeling the effects of the recent terrorist attack in London. Weekend America host Bill Radke talks about leadership in difficult times, and past leaders who had the right stuff, with prof Ronald Heifetz, author of Leadership on the Line: Staying Alive Through the Dangers of Leading. And from London, Stuart Nelson Clarke, co-editor of A Bibliography of Virginia Woolf, describes London's historic Tavistock Square, the site of one of the London bombings and, ironically, also the home of many peace monuments. (APM, Weekend America, RealAudio 11min)

  • Londoners, strengthened by history, rebound: People in London woke up Friday morning after the worst terrorist attack on British soil, returned to public transportation and tried to get on with normal life. Londoners seem determined not to be derailed by Thursday's events, and many chalk it up to the city's history. (NPR, Weekend Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 4min)

  • "Original meaning" & the next Supreme Court justice: Stanford history prof Jack Rakove explains what people mean when they refer to the"original meaning" of the Constitution's framers. Senate Judiciary Cmte members are divided on whether President Bush's Supreme Court nominee should represent a judicial philosophy based on what drafters of the Constitution had in mind in 1787. (NPR, Weekend Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 5min)

  • London bombings -- Implications Europe-wide: Seán Whelan, RTÉ Europe editor, offers a commentary on the timeline between the massacre in Srebrenica 10 years ago and Thursday's bombings in London. (RTÉ Radio 1, World Report, RealAudio 3min)

    Week of 7-4-05 FRIDAY

  • Stonehenge quarry found? Experts in the field of"partyology" agree that ancient get-togethers were a real drag. Without refrigeration, the potato salad went bad almost immediately, killing dozens of guests. And without television, the small talk stalled after brief discussions of the best way to dry animal pelts. And then there was the arduous task of hauling all those enormous, ceremonial stones 250 miles for ambience. OK, so Stonehenge was probably not designed as elaborate party decor. Although it could have been: even at this late date, there's still no definitive explanation of why it was built. But thanks to the work of Bournemouth Univ prof Tim Darvill and his team, the quarry from which the standing stones came may have been located. (CBC Radio 1, As It Happens, RealAudio 7min [15:16-22:35])

  • G8 outcomes hailed by LIVE8 organizers: Bob Geldof and Bono have hailed the progress made at the G8 summit, reports RTÉ Economics Editor George Lee. But there was a mixed response from anti-poverty organizers to today's outcome at Gleneagles, Scotland. (RTÉ1, Nine News, RealVideo 3min)

  • Al-Qaeda sympathizers in Ireland? David Davin-Power, RTÉ Political Correspondent, reports on Taoiseach [PM] Bertie Ahern's comments regarding the security situation in Ireland in the wake of yesterday's London bombings. (RTÉ Radio 1, News at One, RealAudio 3min)

  • London bombings: Richard Whelan, author of the forthcoming Al-Qaedism: The Threat to Islam and the Threat to the World and Bill Durodie of Britain's Royal Military College of Science, debate the background to yesterday's bomb attacks in London. (RTÉ Radio 1, Morning Ireland, RealAudio 7min)

  • Al-Qaeda & Europe: Alex Standish, editor of Jane's Intelligence Digest, puts al-Qaeda at the top of the list of suspects in yesterday's attacks in London. He speaks with host Lisa Mullins about what authorities know of al-Qaeda's presence in Europe and why some analysts think London became too safe a haven for radical Islamic groups. (BBC-PRI-WGBH, The World, Windows Media 4min)

  • Coca-Cola in the Arab world: Host Lisa Mullins speaks with Financial Times reporter Neil McDonald in Baghdad about Coca-Cola's efforts to make a comeback in the Arab world. Coke's business ties to Israel led to a boycott by the Arab League in 1968. The boycott ended in 1991, but Pepsi continues to be the drink of choice in the region. Coke wants to change that with a distribution deal in Iraq. (BBC-PRI-WGBH, The World, Windows Media 4min)

  • Sudan civil war: There may be a glimmer of hope today for war-torn Sudan. The 21-year-long civil war came to a symbolic end today with the swearing-in of the country's new vice-president. And an agreement between the government and 2 rebel groups offers some hope for an end to the conflict in Sudan's western Darfur region. Host Lisa Mullins speaks with the BBC's Alfred Taban, who's been reporting from Sudan for nearly 25 years. (BBC-PRI-WGBH, The World, Windows Media 5min)

  • Supreme Court term reviewed by Theodore Olson: At the Federalist Society, former US Solicitor General Theodore Olson reviews the 2004-05 US Supreme Court term. He discusses key cases, including MGM Studios Inc v Grokster, and comments on decisions concerning eminent domain, capital punishment, the Ten Commandments and other issues. (C-SPAN, RealVideo 1hr)

  • History of Al-Qaeda: Yesterday's London bombings showcased the evolution of al-Qaeda and its tactics over the years. NPR's national security correspondent Jackie Northam looks at the pre- and post-9/11 strategy of the terrorist organization. NPR also provides an excellent timeline of al-Qaeda attacts since 2001, accompanied by an analysis of al-Qaeda's evolution since 9/11. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 5min)

  • UK women's WW2 memorial: On Saturday Queen Elizabeth II will unveil memorial in central London dedicated to the millions of women who contributed to the war effort 6 decades ago. The unveiling takes place against the backdrop of very recent terror in London."We will not be terrorized," said Tony Blair in response to the horrific attacks. But the attacks seemed aimed to cause maximum terror, striking at the familiar, disrupting every day routine to devastating effect. Fear is the immediate natural response, but what's the longer term psychological impact on those involved directly and indirectly? Before introducing today's special edition of Woman's Hour, presenter Jenni Murray is joined by Felicity de Zulueta, consultant psychiatrist at the Maudesley Hospital in London and an expert on post-traumatic stress disorder; and Lesley Abdela, who works with women in emerging democracies and has 1st-hand experience of being in dangerous and life-threatening situations. The special edition then opens with former Speaker of the House of Commons Betty Boothroyd, Baroness Boothroyd of Sandwell, who is Patron of The Women of World War II Trust, who joins Woman's Hour ahead of the unveiling of the memorial to the women who served in WW2. The monument in London's Whitehall depicts the uniforms and working clothes worn by women during the war. Part of the cost of the memorial had been raised by Baroness Boothroyd's appearance on the British Who Wants to Be a Millionaire quiz show in 2002. Then, discussing the war's impact on love, marriage and divorce, and how the war affected the attitudes and aspirations of the next generation of women, Baroness Boothroyd is joined by Penny Summerfield, prof of modern history, Manchester Univ, and author of such books as Reconstructing Women's Wartime Lives: Discourse and Subjectivity in Oral Histories of the Second World War. And Lizz Pearson reports from the recent reunion of Britan's 93rd Searchlight Regiment, which was formed in October 1942 using volunteers from the Auxiliary Territorial Service. (BBC Radio 4, Woman's Hour, RealAudio 58min)

    Week of 7-4-05 THURSDAY

  • Weighing Al-Qaeda's past in London attacks: While there's no definitive word on who was responsible for today's terror attacks in London, they resemble previous strikes by al-Qaeda: multiple, nearly simultaneous explosions, designed to maximize civilian deaths while damaging the economy. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media 3min)

  • London bombings -- Bush statement: Pres Bush makes a statement from Gleneagles, Scotland on a series of explosions that occurred in London this morning. (C-SPAN, RealVideo 3min)

  • London bombings -- G8 leaders' statements: From Gleneagles, Scotland PM Tony Blair accompanied by G8 Leaders makes a 2nd statement on the terrorist attacks in London. (C-SPAN, RealVideo 3min)

  • London bombings -- Blair statement: British PM Tony Blair holds news conferences this morning from Scotland. He responds to several blasts that went off on the London subway system and on one double-decker bus during London's morning rush hour. (C-SPAN, Real Video 3min)

  • Bob Woodward on Deep Throat: For 34 years Bob Woodward has been a reporter and editor at The Washington Post. His new book, The Secret Man: The Story of Watergate's Deep Throat, is about Mark Felt, the confidential source he and reporting partner Carl Bernstein relied on in the Watergate story. Woodward's other books include Plan of Attack, about how and why the Bush administration decided to wage war in Iraq, and All the President's Men, written in 1974 with Bernstein about Watergate. (NPR, Fresh Air from WHYY, RealAudio & Windows Media 45min)

  • Power politics in Africa: Fourteen years ago, Eritrea, a tiny African country on the Red Sea, bested the larger army of neighboring Ethiopia and became independent. It seemed to offer Africa a blueprint for change --debt-free, corruption-free and ready to rebuild. Five years later the promise of what Eritrea might have become was gone. Now locked in permanent military alert because of a border dispute with Ethiopia, it's in the midst of an economic crisis and drought. In her new book, I Didn't Do It for You: How the World Betrayed a Small African Nation, journalist Michela Wrong looks back at the history of Eritrea, and how it mirrors the battered story of the continent -- colonial exploitation, Cold War manipulation and decades of armed conflict. (NPR, The Connection, Real Audio 48min)

  • Ten Commandments -- Historical or religious? The Supreme Court has renewed the battle over whether the Ten Commandments are part of our general cultural heritage. The debate also presupposes a religious significance of the tablets. How important are the Commandments in Judeo-Christian tradition? (PRI, Odyssey, RealAudio 52min)

  • Christopher Marlowe: In the prologue to The Jew of Malta Christopher Marlowe has Machiavel say:"I count religion but a childish toy,/ And hold there is no sin but ignorance./ Birds of the air will tell of murders past!/ I am ashamed to hear such fooleries./ Many will talk of title to a crown./ What right had Caesar to the empire?/ Might first made kings, and laws were then most sure/ When, like the Draco's, they were writ in blood." By the age of 29 Marlowe was a brilliant scholar, a popular playwright, an international spy, a forger, a homosexual and was accused of atheism. His hugely ambitious characters, like Tamburlaine and Faustus, are often taken to be versions of Marlowe himself, a subversive who also counted religion as a" childish toy." By the age of 30 Marlowe was dead. Was Marlowe assassinated by the Elizabethan state? How subversive was his literary work? And had he lived as long as his contemporary Shakespeare, how would he have compared? Melvyn Bragg hosts a round-table discussion with Jonathan Bate, prof of English literature, Univ of Warwick; Katherine Duncan-Jones, sr research fellow, English faculty, Oxford Univ; and Emma Smith, lecturer in English, Oxford Univ. Baron Bragg of Wigton, Cumbria, is Chancellor of Leeds Univ and a Governor of the London School of Economics. Besides being a BBC broadcaster, he has written, edited and produced The South Bank Show since 1978 for London Weekend Television, for which he has been Controller of Arts since 1990. He's written 19 novels (and won the WH Smith Literary Award), plus 11 histories, biographies and other nonfiction. (BBC Radio 4, In Our Time, RealAudio 45min)

  • Early music: This year, Britain's York Early Music Festival celebrates the female muse: patron, composer and performer. Carole Cerasi, one of the UK's leading harpsichordists, has been invited to the festival to play the music of the 17c composer Elisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre. Cerasi chose to make her recording debut with the complete harpsichord suites of Elisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre and her CD went on to win the 1999 Baroque Instrumental Gramophone award. (BBC Radio 4, Woman's Hour, RealAudio 6min)

    Week of 7-4-05 WEDNESDAY

  • Elouise Cobell, Indian Trust Lands lawsuit, lead plaintiff: The lawsuit by Elouise Cobell and 350,000 Indians against Interior Secretary Gale Norton alleges that the federal government mismanaged the Indian Trust Lands. The class action lawsuit seeks to force the federal government to account for billions of dollars that Cobell says are owed to approximately 500,000 American Indians and their heirs, held in trust since the late 19c. (C-SPAN, RealVideo 43min)

  • '70s FBI director L Patrick Gray dies: L Patrick Gray, who was the acting director of the FBI during the Watergate scandal, has died at 88. Gray had been back in the news recently, expressing shock that his former deputy, Mark Felt, had been"Deep Throat," the Washington Post's secret source for Watergate details. One of Felt's apparent motivations for supplying the information was that he had been passed over as director of the FBI in favor of Gray. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media 3min)

  • Recalling the art of screenwriter Ernest Lehman: Robert Siegel talks with actress Eva Marie Saint, and her husband, producer/director Jeffrey Hayden. Saint and Hayden talk about the recent death of Hollywood screenwriter Ernest Lehman. Saint co-starred in North by Northwest, which Lehman wrote, and she and her husband were close friends of Lehman's. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media 5min)

  • Adm James Stockdale dies at 81: One of the most highly decorated officers in US Naval history has died. Adm James Stockdale, a war hero, long-time prisoner of war -- and one-time vice-presidential candidate -- was 81 years old. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 4min)

  • L Patrick Gray, Watergate-era FBI director, dies: L Patrick Gray, whose brief stint as acting FBI director was marked by the Watergate break-in, has died. Gray was 88. Recently Gray said he felt betrayed by his deputy, W Mark Felt, who acted as a source for stories in The Washington Post about the burglary of the offices of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate complex. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 4min)

    Week of 7-4-05 TUESDAY

  • Julian Barnes on Arthur & George:British novelist Julian Barnes, a conspicuous Francophile, has chosen a very English subject for his latest book -- the story of Arthur Conan Doyle's fight to clear the name of a man convicted of The Great Wyrley Outrages. Arthur & George, set in the late 19c and featuring Conan Doyle as one of its protagonists, is based on the true story of an injustice of the magnitude of the Dreyfuss Affair. In a searching interview Philip Dodd finds out why the English forget such scandals and what attracted Julian Barnes to the story. Dodd is Director of Britain's Institute of Contemporary Arts. (BBC Radio 3, Night Waves, BBC Radio Player 21min [26:51-47:53])

  • Mt Rushmore clean-up: In South Dakota, the 4 famous faces on Mt Rushmore are getting a well-needed scrub. The monument to presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln has become threatened by colonies of microbes. Michele Norris talks with Thorsten Moewes of the Alfred Karcher Co about its efforts to clean the monument. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media 4min)

  • Scopes monkey trial remembered: Eighty years ago, in July 1925, the mixture of religion, science and the public schools caught fire in Dayton TN. The Scopes trial -- or"monkey trial," as it was called -- dominated headlines across the country. The trial lasted just a week, but the questions it raised are as divisive now as they were back then. NPR looks back at the Scopes trial, the events that led up to it, and its aftermath. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media 13min)

  • Scopes monkey trial echoes in Maryland: The teaching of evolution fuels a dispute over modern approaches to the topic in Cecil County MD. The case comes as historians note the 80th anniversary of the Scopes Monkey Trial in Dayton TN. (NPR, All Things Considered, RealAudio & Windows Media 8min)

  • The Historian:A novel about vampires prowling around dark forests and damp crypts in Central Europe may not seem like ideal summertime reading, but The Historian, a debut novel about Dracula by Elizabeth Kostova, is shaping up to be one of this season's big beach books. Book critic Maureen Corrigan has a review. (NPR, Fresh Air from WHYY, RealAudio & Windows Media 7min)

  • Thomas Oliphant on Praying for Gil Hodges:In 1955 the Brooklyn Dodgers finally won their first World Series. A journalist recalls what the Dodgers meant for him, his family and their Brooklyn neighborhood 50 years ago. (WAMU, The Diane Rehm Show, RealAudio 52min)

  • Holocaust museum in Nazareth: The World's Aaron Schachter reports from Nazareth on the Arab world's first Holocaust Museum. (BBC-PRI-WGBH, The World, Windows Media 5min)

  • Beyond remote viewing -- US Army's paranormal research: Levitation, telepathy, and psychic insight. They're supposed to be staples of magical theatre -- not the battlefield. But after the horrors of the Vietnam War, the US Army was willing to try almost anything to improve its edge. Some military officials began dreaming of the day when soldiers could bend metal with their minds, charm enemy forces with virtual hugs, or just give 'em the old Evil Eye. So over the course of the next 25 years, the US Army invested roughly $20m into a secret psychic spy program frequently referred to as"Star Gate." Jon Ronson is an investigative journalist based in London. He has just published a book detailing some of the little-known secret projects the military oversaw during that period -- called Men Who Stare at Goats. Jon Ronson joined host Mark Kelly from London. (CBC Radio 1, The Current, RealAudio 22min)

  • LBJ envisioned the internet: If you listened to the radio show"On The Media" on June 24, 2005, you would have heard an interesting little sound bite. On November 7th 1967 in a speech founding the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Johnson took a minute to share his vision of the future -- his vision of the internet -- 25 years before it actually came to be. (Little City Radio, MP3 1min)

    Week of 7-4-05 MONDAY

  • Oak Island: For sale: a treasure of a property, strewn with holes, abandoned shovels and broken dreams. And caveat emptor: the lucky buyer may lose their money -- and their marbles -- seeking a legendary fortune that has eluded treasure hunters for hundreds of years. The enduring historical mystery that is Oak Island is up for sale, complete with its storied"money pit." The company that owns most of the 40-hectare land mass off the coast of Nova Scotia will give it up for C$70m, after the company's 2 owners had a falling out. Interviewee: Mark Finnan, author of Oak Island Secrets. (CBC Radio 1, As It Happens, RealAudio 7min [7:39-24:50])

  • Ebony magazine turns 60: Linda Johnson Rice, publisher of Ebony magazine, talks about its anniversary and the magazine's latest move to license the Ebony brand. (NPR, News & Notes with Ed Gordon, RealAudio & Windows Media 4min)

  • The kitchen of a civil rights hero: The Kitchen Sisters have a tribute to Georgia Gilmore, one of the unsung heroes of the civil rights era. Gilmore turned her Montgomery AL home into a restaurant and raised money for the movement by selling pies and cakes in local businesses. Gilmore liked to call her establishment the Club from Nowhere and served patrons including Martin Luther King Jr and John F Kennedy. (NPR, News & Notes with Ed Gordon, RealAudio & Windows Media 7min)

  • Leaves of Grass published 150 years ago: Karen Grigsby Bates presents an appreciation of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass, a volume of poetry that transformed American verse. It was published 150 years ago this month. (NPR, Day to Day, RealAudio & Windows Media 4min)

  • What our Founding Fathers wore: Shorts and swimsuits are typical American fashion for Independence Day. But Ralph Archbold, a Ben Franklin impersonator in Philadelphia, spends the day wearing heavy wool, just as the Founding Fathers would have in 1776. He shares his thoughts about what it must have been like for them to sweat through the birth of the country. (NPR, Day to Day, RealAudio & Windows Media 2min)

  • Celebrating Walt Whitman & Leaves of Grass:On July 4th 1855 a book of poetry by an unknown by the name of Walt Whitman came out to mixed reviews and widespread disinterest. Eventually, it changed the way poets thought ... and sang ... of themselves. Lynn Neary leads a discussion on Leaves of Grass with Ed Centeno, collector of Walt Whitman memorabilia; Michael Cunningham, author of several books, including The Hours and, most recently, Specimen Days, loosely based on the poems of Walt Whitman; and Ed Folsom, prof of English at the Univ of Iowa, editor of Walt Whitman Quarterly Review; author of Rescripting Walt Whitman; and co-director of the online Walt Whitman Archive. (NPR, Talk of the Nation, RealAudio & Windows Media 5min)

  • David McCullough on 1776:Pulitzer Prize-winning author and historian David McCullough guides us through a pivotal year in American history. (WAMU, The Diane Rehm Show, RealAudio 52min)

  • Jim Lehrer on The Franklin Affair:In his 15th novel, PBS news anchor Jim Lehrer investigates a possible 18c scandal. His new book, The Franklin Affair, uncovers some little known controversies about the life of Benjamin Franklin and provides a satire of the world of founding father biographers. He talks about the research he did for the book and what it taught him about modern journalism. Lehrer is executive editor and anchor of The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer on PBS and author of 2 memoirs, 3 plays and 15 novels. (WAMU, The Diane Rehm Show, RealAudio 52min)

  • Beyond the Founding Fathers: In remembering the American Revolution, we tend to think of our founding fathers: Jefferson, Franklin, Madison and others who articulated the ideas of independence. But what did revolution mean for the rest of America's colonial population? Gretchen Helfrich's guests are Woody Holton, visiting fellow, Newberry Library, asst prof of history, Univ of Richmond, and author of Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, & The Making of the American Revolution in Virginia; and John Smolenski, prof of history, Univ of California Davis, and co-editor of New World Orders: Violence, Sanction, and Authority in the Colonial Americas. (PRI, Odyssey, RealAudio 52min)

  • Arthur Conan Doyle's campaign against racism & injustice: Horse maiming, threatening letters and the bespectacled solicitor -- a very English miscarriage of justice. BBC political editor Andrew Marr welcomes novelist and essayist Julian Barnes to discuss his new novel Arthur and George, in which the events of 100 years ago set off contemporary echoes. Barnes tells us why the creator of Sherlock Holmes campaigned against racism and injustice in a round-table discussion with Simon Anholt, an advisor on branding to governments and NGOs; Tracy Jeune, exec producer of My Life as a Child, a series filmed by children; and controversial philosopher Peter Singer, editor of In Defense of Animals. (BBC Radio 4, Start the Week, BBC Radio Player 9min [01:05-13:15] avail thru July 10th)

  • Readings from the Declaration of Independence: NPR hosts and reporters read Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence, accompanied by"On the Threshold of Liberty" by Mark Isham. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 9min)

  • Earth Day founder Gaylord Nelson dies: The founder of Earth Day, former Wisconsin Governor and Senator Gaylord Nelson, died Sunday at the age of 89. Nelson once said Earth Day was an attempt to get politicians to notice environmental problems. From Wisconsin Public Radio, Chuck Quirmbach has a remembrance. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 2min)

  • Ideals that shaped America: The ideals that have shaped what it means to be American are the subject of Neil Baldwin's latest book, The American Revelation: Ten Ideals That Shaped Our Country from the Puritans to the Cold War. Baldwin takes the work of 10 idealists to paint a picture of the American spirit as it has been defined over the last 300 years. Individuality, unity and destiny are among the themes explored by Baldwin. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 7min)

  • A People's History of the United States -- Dramatic reading of Howard Zinn's classic work: This weekend is a national holiday commemorating July 4th when American colonies declared their independence from England in 1776. While many in the US hang flags, attend parades and watch fireworks, Independence Day is not a cause of celebration for everyone. For Native Americans, it is a bitter reminder of colonialism, which brought disease, genocide and the destruction of their culture and way of life. For African Americans, Independence Day did not extend to them. While white colonists were declaring their freedom from the crown, that liberation was not shared with millions of Africans who were captured, beaten, separated from their families and forced into slavery thousands of miles from home. Today we’ll hear excerpts of Howard Zinn’s classic work A People’s History of the United States. It was first published 24 years ago. The millionth copy of the book was recently sold. To celebrate this feat, the great historian gathered with a group of actors, writers and editors for a public reading of the book at the 92nd Street Y in New York. The cast included Alice Walker, Kurt Vonnegut, Danny Glover and James Earl Jones. (Democracy Now! MP3, RealAudio & RealVideo 59min)

  • Independence Day: Host Bryan Le Beau and guest Matthew Dennis continue their yearlong look at the American holiday calendar and discuss the origins and history of Independence Day. Dennis is prof of history, Univ of Oregon, and author of Red, White, and Blue Letter Days: An American Calendar. Also Max Skidmore, Curator's Prof of Political Science and Thomas Jefferson Prof, Univ of Missouri, Kansas City, comments on the role of the nation's ex-Presidents. (Talking History, MP3 29min)

    Week of 6-27-05 SUNDAY

  • Violence & Morality: Novelist and journalist William Vollman, author of a 7-volume study of the moral calculus of violence, has published a 1-volume summary called Rising Up and Rising Down: Some Thoughts on Violence, Freedom and Urgent Means; he talks with Steve Paulson about when violence is justified and when it isn't (01:03-00:13:55). Historian Harold Schechter, author of Savage Pastimes, tells Anne Strainchamps that violence has always been an important part of popular entertainment and our ancestors enjoyed truly grisly spectacles; even a generation ago, TV was a lot more violent, and we hear the clips to prove it (14:20-28:48). Essayist Sarah Vowell, author of Assassination Vacation, talks with Steve Paulson about her obsession with presidential assassinations and the lingering mystery and drama surrounding the murder of Abraham Lincoln (29:28-39:55). Stephen Mitchell reads from his new translation Gilgamesh: A New English Version, the epic poem of ancient Mesopotamia, and talks with Jim Fleming about what the story means and how it resonates with what's happening in Iraq today (40:50-51:40). (WPR, To the Best of Our Knowledge, RealAudio 52min)

  • The Founders: Gore Vidal, who has explored American history in his novels for half a century, and has now published a book of essays, Inventing a Nation: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, tells Steve Paulson why he greatly admires the founding fathers and why we don't have politicians like them today; also, we hear a bit of Stan Freberg's history of the USA (01:30-14:55). Historian Garry Wills, author of Negro President: Jefferson and the Slave Power, tells Jim Fleming the term"Negro President" had nothing to do with Sally Hemings, Jefferson's slave mistress, but instead referred to the three-fifths rule which gave Southern slave holders more electoral votes; Wills details Jefferson's complex relationship with slavery and says its legacy still haunts us; and we hear a poem by Langston Hughes and a song by Paul Robeson (15:30-27:58). Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, author of The Age of Homespun: Objects and Stories in the Creation of an American Myth, tells Anne Strainchamps that Colonial American women showed their patriotism by learning how to weave because making homespun meant they weren't buying English cloth (27:58-36:05). The Complete History of America (Abridged) features the customary brevity and humor of the Reduced Shakespeare Company (38:00-51:40). (WPR, To the Best of Our Knowledge, RealAudio 52min)

  • Whitman's Leaves of Grass Marks 150th Anniversary: "I lean and loafe at my ease...observing a spear of summer grass." This summer marks the 150th anniversary of Walt Whitman's exuberant free-verse work Leaves of Grass. Published in July 1855, the book expanded poetry's boundaries. (NPR, Weekend Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 7min)

  • G8 Protests: As the leaders of the G8 countries prepare to meet in Scotland, political activists and non-governmental organizations are mounting a vigorous campaign to force poverty to the top of the G8 agenda. Thousands took part in a huge demonstration Saturday in the streets of Edinburgh. (NPR, Weekend Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 2min)

  • Stanley Weintraub on Iron Tears, A British View of American Revolution: Stanley Weintraub discusses Iron Tears, his recently published history of the American Revolution from the British perspective. King George III and Britons in the 1770s felt the colonists were complaining too much about too little...especially the taxation question. (NPR, Weekend Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 7min)

    Week of 6-27-05 SATURDAY

  • LIVE 8 -- Canadian Perspective on Aid to Africa: Today's LIVE 8 concert in Barrie ON is the starting point for a discussion of the worldwide LIVE 8 campaign on Media Zone, Radio Canada International's weekly forum where Canadian journalists express their ideas about topical issues facing Canadians. Host Ian Jones talks with Bill Fletcher, Jr, President of TransAfrica Forum, Washington DC; Jerry Kaplan, Canadian political activist and consultant to the UN on African affairs; Guy Nixon, arts reporter for the Globe and Mail newspaper; and Derek Quinn, RCI's foreign affairs expert. (RCI, Media Zone, Windows Media 27min [available thru July 8th 2005])

  • LIVE 8 -- US Perspective on Aid to Africa: Hosts Bill Radke and Barbara Bogaev speak with correspondents in Philadelphia and London, live from the Live8 concerts to support aid to Africa. Then Bogaev finds out what it takes to engage Americans in a charitable cause. (APM, Weekend America, MP3 & RealAudio 14min)

  • Sandra Day O'Connor Stepping Down: This week, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor announced her retirement. In this segment, we hear Justice O'Connor in conversation with Walter Isaacson of the Aspen Institute, talking about growing up in the West, and how she was surprised when President Reagan nominated her to the Supreme Court. (APM, Weekend America, MP3 & RealAudio 14min)

  • LIVE 8 Concerts & Edinburgh Rally Target Poverty: Today's Make Poverty History rally is under way in Edinburgh, Scotland. And a linked series of LIVE 8 concerts are held in 9 cities across the world. The efforts are aimed at encouraging G8 leaders to take action to end poverty in Africa. (NPR, Weekend Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 3min)

  • Does 'Make Poverty History' Meet a Need? A loose coalition banded under the name"Make Poverty History" prompts Scott simon to think about the efficacy of food aid programs and the state of African democracy. He concludes that the best use of any aid may be to give Africans confidence in their own future. (NPR, Weekend Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 3min)

  • Will Hemingway's Idaho Retreat Become an Open House? Ernest Hemingway's last home was in Ketchum ID near Sun Valley. That's where the literary and cultural icon took his own life with a shotgun on July 2nd 1951. Today, the house is the object of a dispute over whether it should be open to the public. The house, still full of Hemingway memorabilia, is owned by The Nature Conservancy, which is considering making it available for tours and literary events. And, as Elizabeth Wynne Johnson reports, many in the local community think it's a good idea. But the house sits on a private road with few neighbors, each of whom spent millions to live there. They've offered millions more to buy the Hemingway house for fair market value and move it to another location nearby. Still a legal fight remains a distinct possibility, as some argue that privileged neighbors should not be able to prevent the public from seeing the house as Hemingway saw it. Hemingway kept his own life in Idaho private. Unlike his Cuban finca, he didn't make it a character in his novels. But he was known for his parties there, and for enjoying a drink with the locals. And he's buried there in Ketchum, his grave marked by a plain granite slab and, Johnson notes, a carefully placed bottle of Jack Daniel's. (NPR, Weekend Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 5min)

  • Folk Legend Pete Seeger Looks Back: Pete Seeger has written some of the best-known ballads of the 20th century:"If I Had a Hammer,""Where Have All the Flowers Gone" and"Turn, Turn, Turn" among them. Now 86 and living in upstate New York with his wife Toshi, he talks with Scott Simon about his lengthy, influential career. That career's beginnings came in a job he took at age 20, working with Alan Lomax at the Library of Congress. There, Seeger discovered"a whole batch of great songs, songs like 'The House of the Rising Sun,' 'Home on the Range,' hundreds of songs." From there, Seeger and his banjo became the conduits for American folk music for generations of audiences, from the 1940s on. He also became a political activist and advocate for peace, the environment and civil rights. Studs Terkel recently wrote of Seeger in The Nation,"For sixty-five years, he has held forth continuously through periods known more for their bleakness than for their hope... Wherever he was asked, when the need was the greatest, he, like Kilroy, was there. And still is." (NPR, Weekend Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 14min)

  • Recalling a US Camp for WW2's Unwilling Draftees: Sixty-five years ago this fall, the US implemented the first peacetime draft in its history. The peace, of course, did not last; and by the time WW2 ended, some 10m men had been drafted. However, not every draftee either went into the military or went to jail. Men who opposed war for religious reasons were given an option, and about 50,000 took it. Most went into the military as noncombatants, but about 12,000 of these conscientious objectors (COs) performed civilian work in the national interest. Nearly all the civilian work camps were run by peace churches such as the Quakers and the Mennonites; but there were 2 government-run camps for the few hundred COs who opposed the churches' participation. And in 1944 and 1945, about 100 of them were sent to a camp in a town called Germfask, in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The Germfask camp was much like other work camps at the time -- rural and rustic, with quonset huts alongside a stream. But at Germfask, the assignees were a different cut: Many of them had been to college, and for the most part, they were more political than the average CO. Time magazine reported in February 1945 that this group posed a challenge to Selective Service officials, describing them as"draft-age Americans who have refused to fight, who now decline to work, and spend most of their waking hours finding new and more ostentatious ways of thumbing their noses at authority." NPR's Marcus Rosenbaum spoke with some of the men who were there and some of the people from the area who remember them. (NPR, Weekend Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 9min)

  • "Geldof Behind the Times"? There is a jolly atmosphere at LIVE 8's Africa Calling concert in Cornwall, England, but backstage quite a few artists, including Peter Gabriel, are disappointed that LIVE 8 Organizer Bob Geldof could not make more space for black artists in LIVE 8's London concert, reports Patrick Barkham from the Eden Project in Cornwall. (Guardian Unlimited, RealAudio 2min)

    Week of 6-27-05 FRIDAY

  • Pres Bush Announces Retirement of Sandra Day O'Connor: From the White House Rose Garden in Washington DC, Pres Bush talks about the retirement of Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor. (C-SPAN, Real Video 3min)

  • Senators Comment on Retirement of Sandra Day O'Connor: The career of Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor is lauded by Sen Bill Frist (R-TN) (12min), Sen Edward Kennedy (D-MA), Sen Daniel Akaka (D-HI), and Sen Chris Dodd (D-CT) (24min), Sen Mitch McConnell (R-KY) (2min), Sen Arlen Specter (R-PA) (13min) and Sen John Warner (R-VA) (21min). (C-SPAN, Real Video)

  • Early Motown Singles Compiled on CD: Say the word"Motown" and an immediate image forms in your head: maybe Smokey, or Diana or Stevie, or the Temptations doing their famous steps. Or one of dozens of other classic Motown artists. But before the Motown sound had written itself into America's musical DNA, before there was even a Motown label, there was an idea in the head of Berry Gordy, Jr. Rock historian Ed Ward takes us back to the early days of Motown. The first volume of The Complete Motown Singles has just been released on the Hip-O Select label, with 11 volumes to come. (NPR, Fresh Air from WHYY, RealAudio & Windows Media 5min)

  • Evaluating O'Connor's 2 Decades on the Court: Sandra Day O'Connor was the 1st woman named to the US Supreme Court when Pres Reagan nominated her in 1981 to fill the seat vacated by Potter Stewart. Often the deciding vote on a divided court in recent years, O'Connor today resigned after more than 2 decades on the 9-member high court. Madeleine Brand discusses O'Connor's career and legacy with Slate legal analyst Emily Bazelon and with Jeffrey Rosen, legal affairs editor at the New Republic magazine. (NPR, Day to Day, RealAudio & Windows Media 8min)

  • History of the Computer Chip: Ira Flatow welcomes Leslie Berlin, project historian for the Silicon Valley Archives and author of The Man Behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley, to look back at the invention of the computer chip and the role of the inventors who helped build today's digital world. Berlin is currently a visiting scholar at Stanford Univ. (NPR, Talk of the Nation Science Friday, RealAudio & Windows Media 26min)

  • Role of Iran's President-Elect in 1979 Hostage-Taking Disputed: Did Iran's new president take part in the 1979 hostage crisis? Some Americans held captive say Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was among their captors. Iran denies it. Gary Sick, a member of the US National Security Council in 1979, offers his insights. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 3min)

  • Villaraigosa Brings L.A.'s Latino Heritage Full Circle: Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa takes office in Los Angeles today. He's the city's first Latino mayor since 1872. William Deverell, author of Whitewashed Adobe, tells Renee Montagne about the historical significance of Villaraigosa's rise to power. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 5min)

  • David McCullough & 1776: The battles for American independence from Britain form the latest chapter of American history to draw David McCullough's attention. A 2-time Pulitzer Prize winner, McCullough reports on the reality of life at war in 1776. The author follows George Washington and his army as they fight to end British rule in America. McCullough reaches beyond oft-told, often mythical notions of the colonies' struggle for independence to glimpse history through the lives of people from all ranks of society. (NPR, Morning Edition, RealAudio & Windows Media 6min)

  • WW2 Women Welders: On July 8th, the long awaited memorial honoring the 7m British women who made such an important contribution to WW2 will be unveiled in Whitehall, London. Conscription for women began in 1941 and, by 1943, 9 out of 10 single women aged 20-30 were working in factories, on the land or in the armed forces. In Yorkshire, for instance, 2 groups of women were taught to be welders by Violet Pearson, the daughter of a major factory owner in the area. She was apparently a dynamic character, and a number of her trainees wrote to her after they’d finished. The letters ended up in the Mass Observation archive at the Univ of Sussex, which is where Dr Margaretta Jolly found them. In Jolly's book Dear Laughing Motorbike she used these accounts and interviewed some of the surviving members of the group to create a vivid picture of these women's lives. (BBC Radio 4, Woman's Hour, RealAudio 8min)

    Week of 6-27-05 THURSDAY

  • Was Iran's President-Elect a 1979 Hostage-Taker? Robert Siegel talks with Mark Bowden, national correspondent for the Atlantic Monthly and the author of a forthcoming book, Guest of the Ayatolla. Bowden has been to Iran and interviewed a number of the Iranians who overthrew the American Embassy during the revolution, holding hostages there, and has interviewed other Iranians about their attitudes about it for a book coming out next spring. Bowden says other hostage-takers have told him that the man just elected president of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, was one of the 8 students responsible for planning and executing the hostage-taking. Bowden says the former hostage-takers are not held up as heroes in Iran anymore, that they have been criticized by both the right and the left in recent years. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

  • Lebanese Civil War Is Theme of Beirut Bar: A popular Beirut bar draws its theme from the Lebanese Civil War, which began in 1975 and tore apart what many called the"Paris on the Mediterranean." Bullet holes and signs warning of land mines decorate the walls, and drinkers sit on sandbag chairs. Some patrons hail the bar as evidence of progress in Lebanon, but admit it brings up difficult memories for some city residents. (NPR Day to Day, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

  • National Security Council -- History of the NSC: For nearly 60 years, presidents have relied on their National Security Councils to coordinate America's path through the world, in war and in peace. Neal Conan leads a discussion about the history of the NSC with David Rothkopf, author of Running the World: The Inside Story of the National Security Council and the Architects of American Power. (NPR Talk of the Nation, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:36)

  • Stuff Happens: The Iraq War as History Play: "Stuff happens," Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld told reporters when he was asked to comment on the looting in Iraq following the fall of Baghdad. Stuff Happens is the controversial British play about the lead-up to the Iraq war, now enjoying its American debut in Los Angeles. David Hare's play chronicles the tangled diplomatic maneuvers leading up to the war -- and hints broadly that President Bush and his top advisers intended to invade Iraq even before the Sept 11th attacks. All the main players are here -- Bush, Rumsfeld, Dick Cheney, British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Condoleezza Rice, Colin Powell -- and in many cases, the actual words those real-life leaders said in public statements are part of the dialogue. The scenes that take place behind closed doors, however, are the work of Hare's imagination. Hare says he spoke confidentially to dozens of people involved in the events he portrays, and some scenes echo the recently uncovered"Downing Street Memo," which suggests the Bush administration decided to invade Iraq long before it publicly acknowledged any decision had been made, and even while efforts were being made at the United Nations to preclude a war. But Hare says Stuff Happens isn't some kind of live-action documentary. He calls it a history play."It's about power. And there's one man who understands power, and that's George Bush," Hare says."I describe it as a play about how a supposedly stupid man, George W. Bush, gets everything he wants -- and a supposedly clever man, Tony Blair, ends up with nothing he wants." (NPR Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:07)

  • Merlin: He was sired by an incubus and born of a virgin; he was a prophet, a shape-shifter, a king-maker and a mad man of the woods. In a literary career spanning 1500 years, Merlin, or originally Myrddin, put the sword in the stone, built Stonehenge, knew the truth behind the Holy Grail and discovered the Elixir of Life."Beware Merlin for he knows all things by the devil's craft" say the poisoners in Malory's Morte D'Arthur; but he is also on the side of the good and is almost Christ-like in some of the versions of his tale, and his prophesies were pored over by the medieval Church. Who was Merlinus Ambrosius, as he is sometimes known? Where does his legend spring from and how has it been appropriated and adapted over time? Melvyn Bragg leads a round-table discussion with Peter Forshaw, Lecturer in Renaissance Philosophies, Birkbeck, Univ of London; Stephen Knight, Distinguished Research Prof in English Literature, Cardiff Univ; and Juliette Wood, Assoc Lecturer, Dept of Welsh, Cardiff Univ. (BBC Radio 4 In Our Time, MP3, Podcast & Real Audio 00:45)

    Week of 6-27-05 WEDNESDAY

  • Grand Museum of Egypt: If any mummifed pharaoh deserves some fancy digs, it's King Tut. After all, he's over 3000 years old, and he's spent the last century of his old age being trotted around the globe. So imagine the delight he must have felt, somewhere beneath the bandages last week, when his new model home was unveiled in Egypt. Zahi Hawass, chairman of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, discusses the new Grand Museum of Egypt, which will sit in a desert plateau at the edge of the Nile Valley, about 2km away from the Great Pyramids. (CBC As It Happens, Real Audio 00:05 [starts at 00:11:10])

  • Shelby Foote Interview Rebroadcast: Civil War historian and novelist Shelby Foote died on June 27th at age 88. He is best known for his 3-volume, 3000-page history entitled The Civil War: A Narrative, and for narrating Ken Burns's 11-hour PBS series The Civil War. Terry Gross rebroadcasts her interview with Foote from July 27th 1994. (NPR Fresh Air from WHYY, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:13)

  • "Rock Around the Clock" at 50: The classic song"Rock Around the Clock" went to the top of the Billboard charts on June 29th 1955. It was the first rock 'n' roll record to do so, and it made Bill Haley & the Comets into the first rock stars. Day to Day senior producer Steve Proffitt has a retrospective on the song and its creator. (NPR Day to Day, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

  • Ten Commandments Rulings Split Religious Conservatives: The Supreme Court was divided this week over the issue of displays of the Ten Commandments, deciding such displays are unconstitutional when their purpose is religious, but constitutional when their purpose is historical. Religious conservatives are split on the meaning of the rulings, and whether the issue is settled. (NPR Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

  • Trafalgar Bicentenary Is Politically Correct: Nearly 170 ships crowded the waters off Portsmouth on England's south coast Tuesday night to mark the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar. In the real battle, the British navy routed Napoleon's French fleet. The recreation was watered down a bit. (NPR Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

    Week of 6-27-05 TUESDAY

  • Shelby Foote, 1916-2005: Novelist and historian Shelby Foote died on June 27th, age 88. The native Mississippian gained a sort of celebrity when he lent his gravelly voice to Ken Burns's PBS documentary series The Civil War. Foote spent 20 years working on his 3-volume, 3000-page history of the Civil War. It was little-noticed by the general public before the PBS series featured Foote's genial storytelling style. In 1999, the Modern Library ranked The Civil War: A Narrative as No. 15 on its list of the 100 best English-language works of the 20th century. Among the writer's other works were Stars in Their Courses, about the Gettysburg campaign, and the novels Shiloh and Follow Me Down. Foote, who moved to Memphis TN in 1953, is survived by his wife, Gwyn, daughter Margaret, and son, Huger Lee. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

  • Pledge of Allegiance: In 2002 a federal judge ruled the"under God" portion of the Pledge of Allegiance was unconstitutional because it violated the separation of church and state. An uproar ensued. But as Richard J. Ellis, author of To the Flag: The Unlikely History of the Pledge of Allegiance, points out, those 2 words were not included in the pledge when it was written in 1892 -- they were added in 1950. Ellis is the Mark O. Hatfield Professor of Politics at Willamette Univ, Salem OR. (NPR Fresh Air, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:27)

  • Confederate Battle Flag: John M. Coski is author of The Confederate Battle Flag: America's Most Embattled Emblem, which looks at the flag's history and the various meanings attached to it. Some people view it as a symbol of white supremacy and racial injustice; others think it represents a rich Southern heritage. Coski is historian and library director, Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond VA. (NPR Fresh Air, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:19)

  • Trafalgar Bicentenary: In 1805 the naval hero Horatio Nelson beat Napoleon's fleet, and Britain ruled the seas for the next 100 years. To mark that victory, today Britain's Queen Elizabeth II conducts the world's biggest review of navies. Jonathan Brown, reporter for Britain's daily Independent newspaper, comments that, now France and Britain are friends, it's the Blue Fleet against the Red Fleet. (NPR Talk of the Nation, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:07)

  • Gettysburg Casino Plan: Developers want to build a casino just outside of a Civil War battlefield at Gettysburg. But many local residents and Civil War buffs say their town and nearby battlefield is the wrong place for gambling. Developers want to build the 3000-slot-machine Gettysburg Gaming Resort & Spa less than a mile away from East Cavalry Battlefield, where Confederate Gen. Jeb Stuart was defeated by George Custer, then a young Union officer, in 1863. Backers of the project, who include a local business owner and 6 other investors, say it will create 800 new fulltime jobs and pump millions of dollars into the local economy. But critics say the project threatens to bring traffic problems and could bring problems like prostitution and crime to the region. Preservationists already call US Rte 15, which runs from Gettysburg PA to Monticello VA, one of the most threatened historic roads in the country. (NPR Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

    Week of 6-27-05 MONDAY

  • Archaeologica Week in Review: In England, a series of astonishing archaeological findings of Roman military equipment prove that the Romans arrived decades earlier than previously thought -- and that they had been welcomed with open arms by ancient Britons. In the US Southwest, new research indicates that human impact on the environment, high population levels and social and political factors, including violent conflict, likely played important roles in the abrupt decision of the Puebloan people -- also known as Anasazi -- to abandon the Four Corners region in the 1300s after residing there for hundreds of years. In Iran, archaeologists recently began searching for the location of the ancient Greek Laodicea Temple in Nahavand, Hamedan Province. And in Wales, archeologists have solved one of the greatest mysteries of Stonehenge -- the precise place in Wales from where the bluestones were quarried in about 2500 BC. Plus a few jarring mispronunciations. (The Archaeology Channel, MP3, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:10)

  • Trafalgar Bicentenary: This year marks the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar, one of the greatest battles in naval history. On October 21st 1805 the British Royal Navy clashed with a French and Spanish Fleet off Cape Trafalgar. The British fleet, consisting of 27 ships under the command of Viscount Horatio Nelson, inflicted a crushing defeat on a much superior enemy and captured 18 of their 33 ships. But"Britannia's God of War," as the poet Byron later called Lord Nelson, died in the last moments of the battle. One of the central anniversary events is tomorrow's mockup battle involving 17 ships from 5 nations. But some see this reenactment battle -- in which a"blue" fleet encounters a"red" fleet rather than British ships facing French and Spanish ships -- as too concerned with politically correctness. Lord Nelson's closest living relative, Anna Tribe, speaks from Portsmouth, England. (CBC As It Happens, Real Audio 00:09 [starts at 00:06:35])

  • Last Lynching: Between 1882 and 1968, about 3500 African Americans were lynched in the US. In 1946, 2 African-American couples were lynched by a white mob in Monroe GA. No one was ever convicted in the killings of Roger Malcolm, Dorothy Malcolm, George Dorsey and Mae Murray Dorsey. It is the last unprosecuted public mass lynching in the USA, and a group of elected officials in the Southern states want the case to come, finally, to justice. Tyrone Brooks, a state legislator in GA and the man behind the push for a trial in the slayings, speaks from Atlanta. (CBC As It Happens, Real Audio 00:23 [starts at 00:13:30])

  • Ten Commandments OK'd by Supreme Court to Provide"Context of History": The Supreme Court today ruled that TX may keep its Ten Commandments monument, on the grounds of the state capitol in Austin, reports Nina Totenberg. The majority opinion said the installment treats the commandments as history. But the court also ruled that 2 Kentucky counties unconstitutionally promoted religion by displaying the Ten Commandments in courthouses, contrasting that exhibit with the more neutral use in Texas. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:06)

  • High Court Rulings Split on Ten Commandment Displays: In separate rulings, the Supreme Court ruled today that Ten Commandment displays are allowed on government ground when they"provide a context of history," but not in courthouses when they"make an unmistakably religious statement." Frank Statio's guests are David Savage, Supreme Court reporter, Los Angeles Times, and author, Turning Right: The Making of the Rehnquist Supreme Court; and Noah Feldman, author, Divided by God: America's Church-State Problem -- and What We Should Do About It and prof, New York University School of Law. (NPR Talk of the Nation, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:30)

  • The Bicycle: Fred Nielsen is joined by David Herlihy to retrace the story of the bicycle -- a history of disputed patents, brilliant inventions and missed opportunities. Herlihy is author of Bicycle: The History; and Nielsen is a a member of the history dept at the Univ of Nebraska at Omaha. (Please note: In his discussion of the high wheeler, Herlihy says"solid iron tires" when he means to say"solid rubber tires.") (Talking History, MP3 00:29)

  • Francis Power Cobbe -- Victorian Feminist, Social Reformer & Anti-Vivisectionist: Francis Power Cobbe was the founder of the Society for the Protection of Animals Liable to Vivisection (SPALV) and the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV), 2 anti-vivisection organizations still active today. Cobbe was described as a"larger than life" character by many of her friends, and yet sharply criticized by the medical community as a"liar." To discuss this fascinating and controversial Victorian, Jenni Murray is joined by Lori Williamson, author of the biography Power and Protest and lecturer at Open Univ; and by Ruth Livesey, lecturer and Deputy Dir, Victorian Study, Royal Holloway, Univ of London. (BBC Radio 4 Woman’s Hour, Real Audio 00:08)

    Week of 6-20-05 SUNDAY

  • International Debt: In light of the G8's recent debt forgiveness to the world's poorest 18 countries, the Australian Broadcasting Corp takes a look at the history of international credit to the developing world. Who owes what to whom? Who benefits from debt? And who is to blame when debts get out of hand? Interviewees are Ricardo Ffrench Davis, Prof of International Economics, Univ of Chile, and principal regional advisor of the Economic Commission for Latin America & the Caribbean; Demba Dembele, Dir, Forum for African Alternatives; Herman Schwartz, Dir, Graduate Studies, Dept of Politics, Univ of Virginia, and author, States vs. Markets: Globalization and the International Economy; Susanne Soederberg, Canada Research Chair for Global Political Economy of Development, Assoc Prof, Queens Univ, and author, The Transnational Debt Architecture and Emerging Markets: The Politics and Paradoxes of Domination; and Ian Vasquez, Dir, Project on Global Economic Liberty, Cato Inst. (Rear Vision on Australian Broadcasting Corp's Radio National, Real Audio 00:54 [available through July 23th 2005])

    Week of 6-20-05 SATURDAY

  • Jean-Paul Sartre Centenary: French intellectual Jean-Paul Sartre, born 100 years ago on June 28th, is known for works including Being and Nothingness, the novel Nausea and No Exit, the play that famously concludes,"Hell is other people." But Sartre's views and legacy were not so bleak and misanthropic as that often-quoted line would suggest. In fact Sartre was energetically engaged with his world, a prolific writer who believed in using literature as an expression of freedom and political action. His existentialist philosophy viewed freedom less as a state than as a conscious exercise, a reliance on individual experience and thought. Speaking up for people who have been oppressed or denied power, he expressed disbelief at the treatment of blacks in the United States, and was an outspoken critic of both the American and French governments. (NPR Weekend Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:08)

    Week of 6-20-05 FRIDAY

  • Capt Cook's Newfoundland: One of the best kept secrets in Canadian history is that explorer James Cook made the first accurate charts of Newfoundland -- charts so accurate that some of his data are still used today. Next week"As It Happens" writer Adam Killick will set off on a 3-month solo sailing trip circumnavigating the island of Newfoundland, following Cook's charts. (CBC As It Happens, Real Audio 00:08 [starts at 00:11:30])

  • Indian Leaders Offer to Settle Largest Ever Class Action Lawsuit Against Federal Government: Prominent Native American leaders united this week in a historic effort to resolve a struggle dating back to 1887, offering to settle the largest class action lawsuit against the federal government in US history. Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez speak with the lead plaintiff in the case, Elouise Cobell. The issue is the federal government's care of trust funds belonging to Native Americans. The result is a set of 50 principles adopted by a national tribal task force to change how the Dept of Interior does business with Indian country. Trust funds were set up for Native Americans in 1887 under the General Allotment Act. The policy aimed to absorb Indians into American society by breaking up tribally owned lands. Congress divided 90m acres of reservation land into individualized parcels called"allotments." Congress awarded allotments to each tribal member while leasing the allotments to oil, gas, timber, grazing and mining interests. Some $300m a year currently flows into the trust accounts. For over a centry the money was supposed to pass through to the Native Americans, who claim the Bureau of Indian Affairs didn't always collect lease payments and, when it did, the money went elsewhere. (Democracy Now! MP3, Real Audio & Real Video 00:17)

  • Fatty Arbuckle: Writer Jerry Stahl's book, I, Fatty tells the story of vaudeville and early film actor Fatty Arbuckle. In the early 1900s, Arbuckle was more popular than Charlie Chaplin and became the first screen actor to make a million dollars a year. But in 1921 Arbuckle was accused of the rape and murder of a young actress. Many have called the crime, Arbuckle's presumed guilt, the subsequent trial and his eventual acquittal Hollywood's first celebrity scandal. Stahl is also the author of the best-selling memoir Permanent Midnight, which was adapted into a film by the same name. He has also written for film and television. (NPR Fresh Air from WHYY, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:26)

  • Einstein's Relativity Paper, 100 Years Later: On June 30, 1905, Albert Einstein submitted a paper titled"On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies," which introduced the ideas that would become known as the special theory of relativity. Ira Flatow talks with David Kaiser, associate professor, history of science; lecturer, physics, MIT (NPR Talk of the Nation Science Friday, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:18)

  • VA Makes Amends for Integration-Era School Closures: The legislature in the Commonwealth of Virginia announced the first of $2.2m in scholarships to those who lost educational opportunities in the 1950s and 60s, when a number of the state's public schools closed their doors in protest against forced integration. (NPR Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

  • WW2 War Brides: On July 2, 1946, to the strains of a brass band HMS Victorious steamed out of Sydney Harbor with an unusual cargo -- 600 war brides on an epic journey from Australia to Britain to meet their husbands. It was a journey full of tensions. The women were very young -- two only 15 years old -- on a journey round the world to meet men they’d spent little time with. And the ship was filled with sailors -- 1100 young men bewitched by the brides. Joy Hamilton was one of those women, sailing to meet her husband John, to whom she’s been married for 59 years. Ray Barker was one of the crew on board, just 24 years old at the time. And Jojo Moyes is the writer who uncovered many stories of the voyage in the course of researching her novel Ship of Brides. (BBC Radio 4 Woman’s Hour, Real Audio 00:13)

    Week of 6-20-05 THURSDAY

  • Armenian Genocide: The opening of a Turkish town to tourism is bringing up bad memories of what Armenians call an act of genocide. Reporter Gerry Hadden explains. (BBC-PRI-WGBH The World, Windows Media 00:05)

  • U-2 Spy Plane Crashes: An American spy plane crashed in the United Arab Emirates on June 22, killing its pilot. The Pentagon says the plane, a U-2, was returning from a mission over Afghanistan. Alex Chadwick talks with Slate defense policy analyst Fred Kaplan about the capabilities of the single-pilot spy plane, which can capture real-time information on movements on the ground while flying at the boundary of space. (NPR Day to Day, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

  • High-Flying Facts about the U-2 Spy Plane: Lt Col Tony Bevacqua, who flew the U-2 spy plane for the US Air Force for nearly 20 years, discusses the heritage and capabilities of the reconnaissance aircraft with Alex Chadwick. The U-2 first took to the skies in the 1950s and continues to be a valuable tool for getting real-time information on troop movements and enemy targets. (NPR Day to Day, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

  • Killen Sentenced to 60 Years in Prison: Edgar Ray Killen, 80, received the maximum sentence for the 1964 slayings of 3 civil rights workers in Mississippi. Host Neal Conan talks with Jim Prince, editor of The Neshoba Democrat in Philadelphia MS. (NPR Talk of the Nation, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:07)

    Week of 6-20-05 WEDNESDAY

  • The Lives of US Chief Justices: With Chief Justice William Rehnquist rumored to be ready to retire, Robert Siegel talks to NPR Legal Affairs Correspondent Nina Totenberg about what a Chief Justice does. The administrative duties of the office include assigning which justice will write the majority opinion on a given case, if the chief justice is in the majority. Totenberg also talks about which chief justices are considered among the greats. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

  • Oxford Professors May Lose Sway: Oxford's venerated dons are in an uproar over plans to take power from the Congregation, the university's parliament and supreme organ of power, and give it to a newly created board of trustees. Some dons are worried that the centralization of power would hamstring the 39 individual colleges that make up the university and form the basis of the university's unique system of tutorials: one don and 2 students. Other observers see the reforms as a necessary update to the university's inefficient, medieval decision-making process. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

  • Mary Wollstonecraft: Book critic Maureen Corrigan reviews the biography Vindication: A Life of Mary Wollstonecraft by Lyndall Gordon. (NPR Fresh Air from WHYY, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:06)

  • NH to Honor 1st African-American Novelist: New Hampshire indentured servant-turned-novelist Harriet Wilson wrote Our Nig: or, Sketches from the Life of a Free Black more than a century ago. The work is the first known publication by an African American. Wilson will become the first person of color in New Hampshire history to have a monument in her likeness. The book was first published in 1859 and was re-discovered and published again in the 1980s. Wilson is now considered the mother of the African-American novelist tradition. (NPR News & Notes with Ed Gordon, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

  • A Look at the Edgar Ray Killen Verdict: It's been 41 years since 3 civil rights workers were beaten and shot to death in Philadelphia MS. On Tuesday, there was a small measure of justice -- an 80-year-old former Ku Klux Klan leader was found guilty of manslaughter in the murders, and could spend the rest of his life behind bars. We hear reaction from people where the trial was held in Philadelphia MS. (NPR News & Notes with Ed Gordon, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

  • Miss. Looks to Change Civil Rights Image: Rep. Bennie Thompson (D-MS) talks with Ed Gordon about closing a chapter in Mississippi's history following the conviction of Edgar Ray Killen in the slayings of 3 civil rights workers in 1964. (NPR News & Notes with Ed Gordon, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

  • Miss. Town Reacts to Killen Verdict: The manslaughter conviction of 80-year-old Edgar Ray Killen for the 1964 killings of civil rights workers James Chaney, Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman brings relief to many in Philadelphia MS. Townspeople say they have lived too long with the stain of the murders. (NPR Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:02)

  • Widow of Civil Rights Worker Reflects on Killen Verdict: It's been more than 40 years since civil rights worker Michael Schwerner was killed in Mississippi. Rita Schwerner Bender, his widow, talks about what the Killen verdict means to her. (NPR Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

  • Slain Civil Rights Worker Remembered: Andrew Goodman, one of the 3 civil rights activists slain in Mississippi, spent summers with his family in New York's Adirondack Mountains. People in the village of Tupper Lake NY say Goodman should be remembered as a hero. (NPR Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:03)

  • 120 years of The Lady:England’s oldest weekly magazine for women, The Lady, celebrates its 120th anniversary this year. In 1885 the idea of a women's magazine was still quite radical. The decade before the magazine started, women had begun to claim the right to be recognized as people in their own right and the magazine's founder, Thomas Gibson Bowles, took a gamble that there were enough women sufficiently educated and interested in various topics to subscribe to a weekly specifically designed for them. However, the 1st editor thought the magazine should concentrate instead on practical information. Even today the magazine prides itself on its philosophy of containing no sex, no religion and no politics. After all, as the magazine stated in its first publication,"to look beautiful is one of the first duties of a lady." Anna McNamee went to The Lady's offices, in the heart of London's Covent Garden, where she met Arline Usden, the magazine’s current editor. (BBC Radio 4 Woman's Hour, Real Audio 00:10)

    Week of 6-20-05 TUESDAY

  • Former Klan Leader Convicted in 1964 Killings: A Mississippi jury convicts former Klan leader Edgar Ray Killen of manslaughter for his role in the deaths of 3 voter registration workers in 1964. The guilty verdict was rendered on the 41st anniversary of the murders in Philadelphia MS. Killen, 80, showed no emotion as the verdicts were read as he sat in a wheelchair, wearing an oxygen tube. The murders came to be known as one of the most notorious episodes of the Civil Rights Era; they later inspired the movie Mississippi Burning. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

  • Miss. Court Convicts Killen in Deaths of Civil Rights Workers: A jury in Philadelphia MS convicted 80-year-old Edgar Ray Killen on three counts of manslaughter in the 1964 murders of 3 civil rights workers. Neal Conan examines what the verdict means legally, historically and socially, in Mississippi and across the country, with Manual Roig-Franzia, Washington Post reporter covering the Killen trial; Dick Molpus, former Mississippi secretary of state; Richard Barrett, attorney and general counsel for the Nationalist Movement; and Robert Moses, former field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. (NPR Talk of the Nation, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:34)

  • Former Klan Leader Convicted in 1964 Murders: An 80-year-old former Ku Klux Klansman was convicted of manslaughter Tuesday in the slayings of 3 civil rights workers exactly 41 years ago in a notorious case that inspired the movie Mississippi Burning. (NPR Day to Day, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

  • Germans Still Roiled over Lost Land in Poland: Germany and Poland officially have declared the sensitive subject of land returns closed. Some Germans, who were forced to leave homes in what is now Poland after Germany surrendered in WW2, have been trying to get the property back -- or at least to get recognition as victims. (NPR Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

  • Remembering the Night of 100 Points: Wilt, 1962: On March 2, 1962, a giant rolled into Hershey PA and rolled up 100 points on the New York Knicks. The giant, of course, was the legendary Wilt Chamberlain, the center for the Philadelphia Warriors of the NBA. The Big Dipper, as he liked to be known, was changing the game of basketball every time he stepped onto the court. Juan Williams speaks with author Gary Pomerantz, who says Chamberlain's performance was on par with Babe Ruth breaking the homerun record. Pomerantz chronicles the game in his new book Wilt, 1962: The Night of 100 points and the Dawn of a New Era. (NPR Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:08)

  • Tutankhamen Exhibit: King Tut is taking his show on the road. The famous Boy King's gilded funeral regalia is back on tour in the US, and Egypt is expecting the road trip to be lucrative -- very lucrative. Host Marco Werman speaks with Dr. Lorelei Corcoran, Director, Institute of Egyptian Art & Archaeology, Univ of Memphis, about how much money this tour is likely to raise. (BBC-PRI-WGBH The World, Windows Media 00:05)

  • 16c & 17c Inuit Exploration of British Isles? Neil Curtis, Senior Curator, Marischal Museum, Univ of Aberdeen, comments on a listener's family story that Inuit in kayaks were seen off the coast of northeast Scotland over 200 years ago. (BBC Radio 4, Talking History, Real Media 00:05 [starting at 00:01])

    Week of 6-20-05 MONDAY

  • Harry Dexter White: R. Bruce Craig, author of Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case, discusses the White case with host host Bryan Le Beau. Craig is executive director of the National Coalition for the Promotion of History in Washington, DC. Treasonable Doubt originated as Craig's doctoral thesis. He was plaintiff in a landmark federal court decision that affirmed that grand jury records may be unsealed for historical research. He also played a major role in declassifying the records of the House Un-American Activities Committee. (Talking History, MP3 00:29)

  • Vienna, 1899: Oh, to Be a Poet: Commentator Andrei Codrescu says that Vienna at the end of the 19th century was a great place for a poet. He details the lives and works of some of the people who lived there back then. (NPR Weekend Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

    Week of 6-13-05 SUNDAY

  • Giving Tourists a Truer Look at Plantation Life: The celebration of Juneteenth dates from 1865, when Texas slaves first learned the Civil War was over and they were free. On the 140th anniversary, historical sites in several states are offering a more realistic portrayal of slavery and plantation life. (NPR Weekend Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:06)

  • Wellington's Waterloo: Nearly 200 years of history tells us that the battle of Waterloo was a stunning victory for Britain's Duke of Wellington and a crushing defeat for France's Napoleon Bonaparte. But Wellington's report on the battle downplayed the role of Prussian regiments in the allied army that confronted Napoleon. With Napoleon defeated, there were spoils of war to share, and Wellington wanted to limit Prussia's bargaining power. Years later, a young officer in the British Army decided to build a model of the Battle of Waterloo. The story of Lt. William Siborne's model -- and how his search for the facts wound up ruining him -- is an intricate tale told by historian Peter Hofschroer in Wellington's Smallest Victory: The Duke, the Model Maker and the Secret of Waterloo. (NPR Weekend Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:06)

    Week of 6-13-05 FRIDAY

  • Writers on War: Every war produces its own literature. The novels, memoirs, poetry and essays from the soldiers who fought are often the most poignant reflections on moments of personal tragedy or banality that make the reality of war only too real for those who stayed behind. Neenah Ellis brings us the stories and memories of authors Eugene Sledge, Rolando Hinojosa and James Webb. Sledge, author of With the Old Breed: At Okinawa and Peleliu, discusses World War II battles in the South Pacific; Hinojosa, author of the Klail City Death Trip series of short novels and Korean Love Songs, a collection of narrative poetry, talks about the fight to take Seoul in the Korean War; and Webb, author of Lost Soldiers and 5 other novels, reflects on the landscape of the Vietnam War. (Soundprint, Real Audio 00:29)

    Week of 6-13-05 THURSDAY

  • Mississippi 1964: Civil Rights & Unrest: As the trial of Edgar Ray Killen begins, commentator Walter Cronkite recalls the story of the slaying of 3 civil rights workers in 1964. Cronkite saw the drama unfold amid two struggles: one for civil rights and another against the Vietnam War. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05 Part 1 & 00:08 Part 2)

  • The Federal Deficit: Past, Present & Future: Terry Gross talks with economists Isabel Sawhill and Brian Riedl about the federal deficit: how the country reached this point and how it might get back into the black. Sawhill is a senior fellow and vice president and director of economic studies at the Brookings Institution. Brian Riedl is lead budget analyst and the Grover M. Hermann Fellow in Federal Budgetary Affairs at the Heritage Foundation. (NPR Fresh Air from WHYY, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:29)

  • A New Look at King Tut: Zahi Hawass, Egypt's secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, tells Renée Montagne about the features of a new exhibit,"Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs," opening to the public on 16 June at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (then traveling to Ft. Lauderdale, Chicago and Philadelphia.) It's one of the most highly anticipated art shows this year, generating the kind of buzz King Tut garnered when artifacts from his tomb first toured the USA in 1976, making it the first blockbuster art exhibition. This time some never-before-seen artifacts dating back 3,300 to 3,500 years will be on display, though not the heavy gold mask that was the star of the 1976 exhibit. The big news in the current exhibition is a digital display of what King Tut might have actually looked like, based on a CT scan overseen by Hawass last winter. While Hawass insists on the correctness of the modern Egyptian features of the computer recreation of Tut’s face, protestors at an opening night party insisted the recreation makes Tut out to be “too white.” As Montagne comments, local NAACP leader Fred Shaw said earlier reconstructions have shown King Tut to be"decidedly Negroid." (NPR Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

  • Ancient Seed Sprouts: Alex Chadwick talks with Ira Flatow, host of NPR's “Talk of the Nation Science Friday,” about a 2,000-year-old date seed that has recently begun to sprout in the Middle East. Israeli scientists excavated the seeds from an ancient storeroom found during an archeological dig. (NPR Day to Day, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

    Week of 6-13-05 TUESDAY

  • A History Day That Veers Across Centuries: At the University of Maryland this week, National History Day 2005 is taking place. Students from across the country have gathered to present their papers, exhibits, documentaries, and performances. We hear from Emma Bennett, who performs as folk singer Molly Jackson; from Zoe Ackerman, who models herself after a Quaker who teaches freed slaves to read and write; and from Mackenzie Van Engelenhoven, whose project is about the news boys strike of 1899. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

  • Senate Apologizes for Not Passing Anti-Lynching Legislation: Historian and civil rights leader John Hope Franklin muses on his own brush with a lynch mob back in 1934, when he was a 19-year-old senior at Fisk Univ. On June 13th, the US Senate apologized for not passing anti-lynching legislation in the 1950s. From 1882 to 1968, 4,743 people were killed by lynching. Three out of four of them were African-American. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

  • Smithsonian African-American Museum: Lonnie Bunch, director of the National Museum of African-American History & Culture, discusses plans for a Smithsonian African-American Museum. Bunch says the museum plans to exhibit an array of objects, including the lunch counter from the legendary Woolworth sit-in in Greensboro, NC. The Smithsonian has not released a date for the museum opening. (NPR News & Notes with Ed Gordon, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

    Week of 6-13-05 MONDAY

  • Anti-Lynching Law in US History: Robert Siegel asks Harvard Sitkoff, Professor of History, Univ of New Hampshire, about the history of efforts to pass anti-lynching legislation in Congress. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

  • Jamestown Archeology: There is some serious transatlantic forensic detective work afoot. It all has to do with one Captain Bartholomew Gosnold. He's the man whom many credit for founding the New World's first permanent English colony in Jamestown, Virginia, nearly 400 years ago. Two years ago US archaeologists unearthed remains near the Jamestown Fort that they think may be Gosnold's. Now they're trying to match the DNA of those remains to Gosnold's descendents in Suffolk, England. (BBC-PRI-WGBH The World, Windows Media 00:02)

  • History of Lynchings in America: In light of the Senate apology for never passing an anti-lynching bill, William Fitz Brundge, professor of history, Univ of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, revisits America's history of lynching. (NPR Talk of the Nation, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:17)

    Week of 6-6-05 SUNDAY

  • Scene of the Crime: Interviewer Steve Paulson talks with historian Erik Larson about how his bestseller The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair that Changed America intertwines the true tale of two men -- Daniel H. Burnham, the brilliant architect behind the legendary 1893 World's Fair, and H.H. Holmes, the cunning serial killer who used the fair to lure his victims to their death (00:28:55-00:40:30). Then interviewer Anne Strainchamps discusses 18c British crime and justice with novelist David Liss, winner of the 2000 Edgar Award for Best First Novel for A Conspiracy of Paper. In his new novel, A Spectacle of Corruption, Liss brings the 18c to life in the tale of an innocent man sentenced to hang in a world of open-air courtrooms, thief-takers, defense brokers -- and no defense attorneys (41:30-51:50). Also featured are Edinburgh crime novelist Ian Rankin; Howard Zehr, of Eastern Mennonite University, on the concept of Restorative Justice; and biographer Patrick McGilligan on Hitchcock's leading men (PRI To the Best of Our Knowledge, Real Audio 00:52)

  • The European Union: For over 50 years the European Union (or the European Communities, as they were known) have defined the political, economic and cultural landscape of Europe. From small beginnings in the post-war period, with only 6 founding members, the EU has grown into a massive and very powerful institution that dominates and regulates life across 25 European countries. While there has been ongoing debate around the form and structure of the EU since its establishment, its relentless march towards greater European integration has seemed unstoppable. That is, until May 29 -- when the French people said non to the referendum on the European Constitution. This rejection, and the one a couple days later in the Netherlands, has thrown the European Union and the political elites in Europe into chaos. The crisis has raised many questions about the EU’s political direction and the whole process of European political integration. So, with the ramifications of the recent votes still ringing throughout Europe, presenter Annabelle Quince looks at the history and culture of the EU. Her guests are journalists Frans Andriessen, former Vice President, European Commission, and former Dutch Finance Minister; Bernard Cassen, Le Monde Diplomatique, and Christopher Booker, coauthor, The Great Deception: A Secret History of the European Union (Academi, 2003); Desmond Dinan, Jean Monnet Professor in European Public Policy and Director, International Commerce Program, George Mason Univ, and author, Europe Recast: A History of European Union (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2004); and Dominique Moisi, Senior Advisor, French Institute of International Relations. (Hindsight on Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Radio National, Real Audio 00:54 [available through July 9th 2005])

    Week of 6-6-05 SATURDAY

  • Cold War, Cool Medium: The Cold War was a period of international fear and anxiety. And much of the Cold War was covered on television literally brought into the homes of millions of Americans. Linna Place speaks with Thomas Doherty, author of Cold War, Cool Medium, who examines one aspect of that phenomenon -- television and McCarthyism. (Talking History, MP3 00:29)

  • Army Women Disguised as Men: It was only in 1917, with the establishment of the British Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, that women were officially authorized to enter Britain’s Armed Forces as uniformed troops. Before then, women were prohibited from entering the ranks, but some were so desperate to join they risked life and limb by disguising themselves as men. Martha Kearney talks to Vivien Morgan about those women who were determined to throw off their petticoats and pull on the trousers. Morgan is a lecturer in Journalism, School of Humanities, Kingston Univ, and author of a forthcoming book about the secret lives of women in the 18th century. (BBC Radio 4 Woman’s Hour, Real Audio 00:06)

    Week of 6-6-05 FRIDAY

  • Imperial Prejudice: Sweden is full of robbers, Germans are unclean and Spaniards are cruel. Those nasty generalizations are culled from a series of 19th-century children's guides to the world by Favell Lee Mortimer -- who rarely traveled outside her native England. About her homeland she wrote:"England, what country do you love best? Your own country. I know you do. Every child loves his own country best." Renée Montagne interviews Todd Pruzan, author of The Clumsiest People in Europe: Mrs. Mortimer's Bad-Tempered Guide to the Victorian World, a new book that compiles Mrs. Mortimer's works. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:08)

  • Into the West: Manifest Destiny on the Small Screen: Television critic Andrew Wallenstein reviews the new TNT miniseries Into the West, which cost an estimated $100 million to film. Wallenstein tells listeners whether the contemporary Western saga -- which looks beautiful -- is worth their time. (NPR Day to Day, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

    Week of 6-6-05 THURSDAY

  • David McCullough on 1776:Pulitzer Prize-winning author and historian David McCullough joins Diane Rehm to discuss a pivotal year in American history, the subject of his new book, 1776. (WAMU The Diane Rehm Show, Real Audio 00:52)

    Week of 6-6-05 TUESDAY

  • Norway Celebration: Producer Emma Lydersen reports on Norway's celebration of its 100 years of separation from Sweden ... and how a once-tense union has evolved into a friendly rivalry. (BBC-PRI-WGBH The World, Windows Media 00:03)

  • Ten Commandments: As a foreign correspondent, Chris Hedges has looked at the world through the fog of war. Now he has a different lens. His new book, Losing Moses on the Freeway: The 10 Commandments in America, measures how they influence American life today -- and what we risk by ignoring them. (NPR Talk of the Nation, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:30)

    Week of 6-6-05 MONDAY

  • William Clark: Fred Nielsen discusses William Clark with guest Landon Jones, author of William Clark and the Shaping of the American West and editor of The Essential Lewis and Clark, an edition of both explorers' journals. Nielsen is a member of the History Dept at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. (Talking History, MP3 00:29)

  • "Turn 'Em Loose Bruce": John Kalish reports about the new memorial for one of New York's most controversial judges -- Bruce McMarion Wright, often referred to as"Turn 'Em Loose Bruce." Wright died earlier this year at age 86 and, although considered weak on crime by some members of the police, he was loved within the African-American community. (NPR News & Notes with Ed Gordon, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

  • Restoring Hemingway's Cuba Home: There's a farm on the outskirts of Havana, Cuba, called Finca Vigia. It's known in English as"Lookout Farm." And for more than 20 years it was the home of Ernest Hemingway. It's where the author penned such classics as For Whom the Bell Tolls and The Old Man and the Sea. In recent years Hemingway's old wooden villa has fallen in to disrepair. The roof is leaking and its foundations are crumbling. Now a group of American preservationists has been given permission by the US government to restore the building. Leland"Lee" Cott, chief architect on the project, discusses the restoration with host Marco Werman. (BBC-PRI-WGBH The World, Windows Media 00:08)

    Week of 5-30-05 SUNDAY

  • The Stans -- The Five Nations of Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan now find themselves at the center of attention, with rich oil deposits, US and Russian bases, and Islamic extremism on their doorstep. The Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan and the police shooting of pro-democracy protestors in Uzbekistan created recent headlines. Presenter Annabelle Quince explains the historical context to the current situation in these countries. Her guests are Michael Barry, Near Eastern Studies Dept, Princeton, and author, Figurative Art in Medieval Islam: And the Riddle of Bihzad of Herat (1465-1535) (Flammarion, 2005); Susan Whitfield, International Dunhuang Project, British Library, and author, Life Along the Silk Road (John Murray, 1999); Kirill Nourzhanov, Center for Arab & Islamic Studies, Australian National Univ; Martha Brill Olcott, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; and Anara Tabyshalieva, cofounder, Institute for Regional Studies in the Kyrgyz Republic. (Hindsight on Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Radio National, Real Audio 00:54 [available through July 2nd 2005])

    Week of 5-30-05 FRIDAY

  • Cinderella Man: Director Ron Howard discusses his latest film Cinderella Man, a rags-to-riches true story of boxer James Braddock, whose improbable rise during the Great Depression embodied the hopes of the suffering. Howard says that what makes the movie intriguing is the combination of the protagonist's actions both in life and sport. (NPR Morning Edition, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:06)

  • James Dean: This year marks the 50th anniversary of the death of James Dean. NPR's Bob Mondello has a remembrance of the actor who became an icon after making only three movies. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:06)

    Week of 5-30-05 THURSDAY

  • Deep Throat & Bob Woodward: David Folkenflik discusses today’s front-page story in the Washington Post in which Bob Woodward recounts the details of how he met Mark Felt, now revealed as the confidential informant"Deep Throat." As the relationship between Woodward and Felt developed, it helped Woodward and Carl Bernstein unravel the Watergate story. (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:05)

    Week of 5-30-05 WEDNESDAY

  • Deep Throat & Ben Bradlee: Michele Norris talks to Ben Bradlee of the Washington Post. As editor during Watergate, Bradlee was responsible for overseeing the paper's coverage of the scandal and deciding whether to trust his reporters’ sources, including"Deep Throat." (NPR All Things Considered, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:12)

  • Deep Throat: Alex Chadwick talks with veteran FBI reporter Ronald Kessler about tensions between the White House and the FBI at the time of the Watergate break-in. Kessler says those tensions may have led former top-level FBI agent Mark Felt to become"Deep Throat," the source who helped Washington Post reporters uncover details of the break-in at the Watergate complex and subsequent cover-up by the Nixon administration. (NPR Day to Day, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:12)

  • Gay-Friendly TV Through the Years: Television critic Andrew Wallenstein reviews the new TV Land documentary Tickled Pink, which examines the history of television shows that resonated within the gay community long before homosexuality was openly discussed on the air. (NPR Day to Day, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:04)

  • Christopher Hitchens on Thomas Jefferson: Discussions of the life of Thomas Jefferson often revolve around great issues of liberty and slavery, idealism and hypocrisy. But his words helped transform an uprising into a revolution, and as president, he transformed a group of states along the Atlantic seaboard into a continental power. The always-provocative Christopher Hitchens describes him as the man who designed America. Hitchens new book is Thomas Jefferson: Author of America. (NPR Talk of the Nation, Real Audio & Windows Media 00:17)

    Week of 5-30-05 MONDAY

  • Memorial Day: Host Bryan Le Beau discusses the origins and history of Memorial Day with Matthew Dennis, Professor of History, University of Oregon, and author of Red, White, and Blue Letter Days: An American Calendar. Le Beau is Professor of History and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City. (Talking History, MP3 00:29)

  • The American West Do Into the West and Deadwood hearken a renewed interest in the American West -- or merely Hollywood’s search for fresh storylines? The motives that propelled pioneers, gold prospectors, entrepreneurs, cowboys and finally the US army itself to trek west are as numerous as there were people moving there. For a British perspective on the role of the frontier in the understanding of the American psyche, Melvyn Bragg leads a round-table discussion with Frank McLynn, Dept of Literature, University of Strathclyde, and author of Wagons West: The Epic Story of America’s Overland Trails; Jenni Calder, author of There Must Be a Lone Ranger: The Myth and Reality of the American Wild West; and Christopher Frayling, Rector, Royal College of Art, and author of Spaghetti Westerns: Cowboys and Europeans from Karl May to Sergio Leone. (BBC Radio 4)

  • Lewis and Clark Fred Nielsen discusses Lewis and Clark’s ‘vast enterprise’ with James Ronda, Barnard Chair Professor in Western History, University of Tulsa, whose books include Lewis and Clark among the Indians and Voyages of Discovery: Essays on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Nielsen is a member of the History Dept at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. (Talking History)

  • Jesse James On the publication of his 2002 biography, Jesse James: The Last Rebel of The Civil War, independent historian T.J. Stiles is interviewed by Eileen Dugan, History Professor at Creighton University. (Talking History)

  • The American West, Part 2: Images in Movies On the publication of his 2002 book The Hollywood West: Lives of Film Legends Who Shaped It, Richard Etulain joins host Bryan Le Beau to discuss how Hollywood has represented the West. Etulain is Director Emeritus, Center of the American West, University of New Mexico. Le Beau is Professor of History and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City. (Talking History)

  • The American West, Part 1: Images in Advertising In this Talking History program from 2002, host Bryan Le Beau discusses images of the West in advertising with Elliot West, distinguished Professor of History, University of Arkansas, and author of the essay “Selling the Myth: Western Images in Advertising” in his collection Wanted Dead or Alive. Le Beau is Professor of History and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City. (Talking History)

  • Transcontinental Railroad On the publication of his 2000 book Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad, 1863-1869, historian Stephen Ambrose is interviewed by host Brian Le Beau, Professor of History and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City. (Talking History)

  • Myths of the Gunfighter: Billy the Kid In this 1999 Talking History program, host Brian Le Beau discusses Billy the Kid with Robert Utley, one of the country's most prominent western historians and author of several books, including High Noon in Lincoln,Violence on the Western Frontier and Billy the Kid: A Short and Violent Life. Le Beau is Professor of History and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City. (Talking History)

  • Myths of the Gunfighter: Wyatt Earp In this 1999 Talking History program, host Brian Le Beau discusses Wyatt Earp with journalist and Earp historian Casey Tefertiller, author of the critically acclaimed book Wyatt Earp: The Life behind the Legend. Le Beau is Professor of History and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City. (Talking History)

  • Myths of the Gunfighter: Jesse James In this 1999 Talking History program, host Brian Le Beau discusses Jesse James with Marley Brandt, author of Jesse James: The Man and the Myth. Le Beau is Professor of History and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City. (Talking History)

  • Myths of the Gunfighter In this 1999 Talking History program, host Brian Le Beau interviews Richard Slotkin, author of Gunfighter Nation, about the rise to popularity of the gunfighter in American popular culture. Slotkin is Olin Professor of American Studies, Weslyan University. Le Beau is Professor of History and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City. (Talking History)

  • Edmund Burke v. Warren Hastings: Imperial Misdemeanor? Holding the power of states and corporations to account is a recurrent issue for human society. In 1787, Edmund Burke, MP, instigated the impeachment of Warren Hastings, Governor-General of Bengal and an executive of the East India Company, for ‘high crimes and misdemeanors,’ in a legal case that alerted the establishment to the perils of Empire. The trial lasted seven years and, although Hastings was eventually exonerated, he was left destitute. In this modern-day rematch, actors read the words of Burke and Hastings while historian Lawrence James takes the case for Hastings, arguing that empire, while not blameless, was beneficial to the colonizers as well as the colonized; while Maria Misra, Lecturer in Modern History at Oxford University, champions Burke, countering that expediency is not the same as justice. (BBC Radio 4)

  • Lisa Jardine, Devout Skeptic? Historian Lisa Jardine believes the big ideas concerning God, religion and spirituality are very important, yet she is unconvinced by traditional explanations. As part of her “Devout Skeptics” series, journalist and novelist Bel Mooney interviews Jardine, Professor of Renaissance Studies at Queen Mary, University of London, and Director of the AHRB Research Center for Editing Lives and Letters there, as well as an Honorary Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Jardine is the author of, most recently, On a Grander Scale: The Outstanding Life of Sir Christopher Wren, as well as Worldly Goods: A New History of the Renaissance; Ingenious Pursuits: Building the Scientific Revolution; and The Curious Life of Robert Hooke: The Man Who Measured London. (BBC Radio 4)

  • Crusades Francine Stock talks to the director Ridley Scott about his new movie Kingdom of Heaven. The director of Gladiator, Scott has again been inspired by historical incidents to combine rousing escapades with history lessons -- current and recent US-Iraqi events echoed in a tale of western armies in the Middle East. (BBC Radio 4)

  • Oxyrhynchus -- City of the Sharp Nosed FishOxyrhynchus is the Greek translation for ‘City of the Sharp Nosed Fish,’ as its residents worshipped the sharp-nosed pike that thrived in the Nile nearby. While audio is no longer available for his four 30-minute documentaries from 2002 on the social history suggested by the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Michael Kustow behind-the-scenes comments make the papyri seem like a bunch of postcards from another millennium. Kustow’s remarks are brief (6.5 min.) but the bountiful BBC website devotes seven info-rich webpages to the city and citizens of Oxyrhynchus, here.

  • Death Penalty Many Western nations view America's use of capital punishment as being in conflict with its stance on human rights. Host Bryan Le Beau discusses the paradoxes of America's death penalty with Stuart Banner, Professor of Law, UCLA, and author of The Death Penalty: An American History. Le Beau is Professor of History and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City. (Talking History)

  • Bush's Foreign Policy David M. Kennedy joins Talking History to comment on the legacy of Wilsonian era foreign policy and current American foreign policy. Kennedy is Donald J. McLachlan Professor of History at Stanford University. (Talking History)

  • Robert Oppenheimer He is remembered as the father of the bomb. But the story of J. Robert Oppenheimer is more than how the world's most destructive weapon came to be. A new biography describes a complex, contradictory and at times mystical genius who defies easy labels. Guests: Kai Bird and Martin J. Sherwin, authors of American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer. (NPR)

  • Armenian Massacre Turkey's massacre and deportation of ethnic Armenians during World War I has long been a taboo topic among Turks. But as Turkey pushes to join the European Union, the issue has become a political football. Some European lawmakers have joined Armenian groups demanding that Turkey formally recognize that genocide took place. (NPR)

  • Vietnam 30 Years Later, Pt. 5 In the fifth installment of a weeklong series on the 30th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War, NPR's Michael Sullivan travels to Quang Ngai province, where the massacre of My Lai occurred in 1968. Now, three decades after the end of the Vietnam War, it seems old wounds are slow to heal. (NPR)

  • Vietnam 30 Years Later, Pt. 4 In the fourth installment of a weeklong series on the 30th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War, NPR's Michael Sullivan travels to Hue. In the former imperial capital, tourists attend performances of Vietnam's pre-communist court music, and several five-star hotels are under construction. (NPR)

  • Vietnam 30 Years Later, Pt. 3 In the third installment of a weeklong series on the 30th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War, NPR's Michael Sullivan visits the poor north-central province of Nghe An, which suffered badly during the war -- and is the birthplace of the country's most honored leader. (NPR)

  • Vietnam 30 Years Later, Pt. 2 In the second installment of a weeklong series on the 30th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War, NPR's Michael Sullivan looks at Hanoi, once the capital of North Vietnam and now the capital of a nation reunified under communist rule. (NPR)

  • Vietnam 30 Years Later, Pt. 1 In the first installment of a weeklong series on the 30th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War, NPR's Michael Sullivan takes a look at Vietnam, 30 years after US troops left the country, and journeys on the north-south Highway 1, on the border with China. The first stop is Lang Son, a town the Chinese once occupied. (NPR)

  • Gallipoli Australian, New Zealand and some British troops landed on Turkey's Gallipoli peninsula 90 years ago Monday. Historian Niall Ferguson talks about the bloodiest war in British military history -- known as one of the world's worst military disasters. He says Gallipoli is part of both Turkey's and Australia's national identity. (NPR)

  • Filibusters Robert Siegel talks with Ross Baker, professor of political science at Rutgers University, about the history of the filibuster and procedural change in the Senate. (NPR)

  • Underground Railroad Most American history textbooks paint a romantic picture of the Underground Railroad. In the new book Bound for Canaan: The Underground Railroad and the War for the Soul of America, author Fergus Bordewich challenges those images, telling the story of a bi-racial movement animated by moral outrage, religious fervor and radical politics. (NPR)

  • Nutrition NPR charts the evolution of the Department of Agriculture's nutritional advice to Americans since 1894, finding some common themes through the years. (NPR)

  • Papal Succession Problems with papal succession have dogged the Catholic Church throughout its history. In the past it has led to wars, schisms and intrigue. Often bribery, poison or the dagger decided who became pope. A review of history with NPR's Michael Shuster. (NPR)

  • McDonald's and American Culture NPR's Talk of the Nation: With more than 28,000 restaurants in 119 countries, McDonald's golden arches are recognized in almost all corners of the world. In its 50 years, the hamburger chain has changed the way we eat out, and revolutionized marketing. (NPR)

  • Women's History Month Talking History marks Women's History Month with an interview with Estelle Freedman, the Edgar E. Robinson Professor in US History at Stanford University and author of No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and the Future of Women. She discusses the gradual social change that continues to bring a realization that women are equal to men, with host Bryan Le Beau. (Talking History)

  • Black History Month Bryan Le Beau’s guest, Ken Greenberg, discusses Nat Turner, leader of the slave rebellion in August 1831 and perhaps one of the least understood figures in American history. Ken Greenberg is author of Nat Turner: A Slave Rebellion in History and Memory, and writer and co-producer for"A Troublesome Property," a documentary about Nat Turner. (Taking History)

  • Presidents' Day Matthew Dennis and host Bryan Le Beau continue their yearlong look at the American holiday calendar. They discuss Presidents’ Day and the rise of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln as national heroes. Matthew Dennis is Professor of History at the University of Oregon and author of Red, White and Blue Letter Days: An American Calendar. (Talking History)

  • George Washington & Slavery Talking History’s Fred Nielsen discusses the complex story of George Washington, and his action of granting freedom to his slaves, with Henry Wiencek, author of An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. Wiencek’s previous book, The Hairstons: An American Family in Black and White, received the National Book Critics Circle Award in 1999. (Talking History)

  • Black History Museums Across the country this month, hundreds of museums are highlighting the unique history of African Americans. In Baltimore, the National Great Blacks in Wax museum is marking Black History Month. Guest: Joanne Walter, museum founder and director. (NPR)

  • Stokely Carmichael In the months before his death in 1998, black revolutionary Stokely Carmichael was collaborating with writer Michael Thelwell on his autobiography, Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael. Since then, Thelwell has been working to reclaim Carmichael's history. But that's a difficult task, considering so many people view Carmichael as the man whose views led to the collapse of the civil rights movement. NPR's Roy Hurst reports. (NPR)

  • Malcolm X Juan Williams discusses Malcolm X on NPR. The civil rights leader Malcolm X was assassinated 40 years ago Monday in New York. Malcolm X was both charismatic and feared, and he advocated black power as a response to white racism. His family plans to convert the ballroom where he was killed into a history and educational center. Malcolm X would have been 80 years old this year. (NPR)

  • Slavery Certain events in history people just know -- in Great Britain, it's well-known that King John signed the Magna Carta in 1215; in America, that Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. But few know this seminal event came decades after Britain had already cut its ties to the slave trade. NPR's Tony Cox talks with Adam Hochschild, author of Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves, about that moment in British history and its impact on America's emancipation movement. (NPR)

  • Bush 2005 Inauguration Memorable Inauguration Speeches Are Few NPR's Renee Montagne talks to presidential historian Robert Dallek about memorable inauguration speeches. He says there have been only four standouts -- and that inaugural addresses tend to be well written but short on fresh ideas. (NPR)

  • Tsunami/Krakatoa NPR's Melissa Block talks to author Simon Winchester about his book Krakatoa. The volcano exploded in 1883, killing more than 36,000 people and affecting weather worldwide. Winchester presents details of how word of the event spread and what it was like near the scene in the days leading up to the blast, and about the short- and long-term aftermath. The final explosion created a noise said to be the loudest heard in recorded history. (NPR)

  • Smithsonian Museum The Museum of American History is presenting"The Price of Freedom," a controversial war exhibit that starts with the American Revolution and extends to present-day Iraq. But some historians -- and members of the Smithsonian's advisory board -- worry that the museum is telling only part of the story. NPR's Lynn Neary reports. (NPR)

  • Diane Ravitch on Educational History Ravitch discusses the educational history of immigrant children in the United States. Formerly an Assistant Secretary of Education for the George H.W. Bush administration, Ravitch is Research Professor of Education at NYU and holds the Brown Chair in Education Policy at the Brookings Institution. (NPR)

  • The Cabinet Through History NPR's Noah Adams talks with Rutgers University historian and Slate"History Lesson" columnist David Greenberg about the diminishing power of the presidential cabinet. Six of President Bush's 15 cabinet secretaries have resigned since the president won a second term three weeks ago. (NPR)

  • Howard Zinn on the Election The radical historian talks to Radio Nation's Jon Wiener about what's next after Bush's re-election and sheds no tears for John Kerry. (The Nation)

  • Clinton Legacy Did Clinton start America down the road to political polarization or was he able to tow the middle line more than any other leader in recent history? What about the scandals of his presidency or the economic boom of the '90s? Hear different takes on former US President Clinton and his legacy from a historian, a journalist and a former Clinton administration official. Historian Julian Zelizer, a professor at Boston University, is one of the guests in a discussion of President Clinton's legacy. (WBUR)

  • Divisive Presidential Elections NPR's Alex Chadwick continues his conversation with historian Lewis Gould about how Americans have experienced divisive presidential elections in the past. (NPR)

  • Second Term Presidents Pitfalls of A Second Term: Only 16 US presidents have been elected to a second term, and not all of those have gone well: Witness Ronald Reagan's Iran-Contra debacle and Bill Clinton's Monica Lewinsky scandal. On policy matters, controversial issues that presidents put off during their first term can cause trouble during their second term. Hear NPR's Robert Siegel and historian Robert Dallek. (NPR)

  • A Divided America NPR's Scott Simon talks to Yale University historian David Blight about other times in our nation's history when the country has been so divided over a presidential election. Professor Blight is the author of Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. (NPR)

  • Joseph Ellis In His Excellency: George Washington, Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Joseph J. Ellis examines the myths and realities surrounding our nation's first president, and suggests Washington was motivated as much by enlightened self-interest as idealism. Ellis briefly discusses his Vietnam service lies. (NPR)

  • The Founders and Commerce Craig Yirush, Professor of History at UCLA, joins host Bryan Le Beau to examine the relationship between commerce and republican government. This Talking History program is part of “The Founders and the Constitution” series, a collaborative effort with the Bill of Rights Institute. (Talking History)

  • The Founders and Freedom of Religion Stephen Klugewicz, Executive Director of Collegiate Network, joins host Bryan Le Beau to discuss freedom of religion and its role with Talking History host Bryan Le Beau. This Talking History program is part of “The Founders and the Constitution” series, a collaborative effort with the Bill of Rights Institute. (Talking History)

  • The Founders and Slavery Robert McDonald, professor of history at West Point Military Academy, joins host Bryan Le Beau to discuss discusses the Founding Fathers' stands on slavery. This Talking History program is part of “The Founders and the Constitution” series, a collaborative effort with the Bill of Rights Institute. (Talking History)

  • The Founders and Federalism David Marion joins host Bryan Le Beau to discuss Federalism. This Talking History program is part of “The Founders and the Constitution” series, a collaborative effort with the Bill of Rights Institute. (Talking History)

  • History and September 11th, Part 2 In the second of two programs marking the third anniversary of 9/11, Talking History features an interview with a contributor to History and September 11th, (Temple University Press): Michael Hunt, author of the essay"In the Wake of September 11th." (Talking History)

  • History and September 11th, Part 1 In the first of two programs marking the third anniversary of 9/11, Talking History features interviews with two contributors to History and September 11th, (Temple University Press): editor Joanne Meyerowitz and contributor Melani McAlister, author of the essay"A Cultural History of the War Without End." (Talking History)

  • Language Police Diane Ravitch, the author of Language Police: How Pressure Groups Restrict What Students Learn takes up the hotly contested issue of what history is taught, and how it is taught, in American elementary and secondary schools. Ravitch is Research Professor of Education at NYU and holds the Brown Chair in Education Policy at the Brookings Institution, and served as an Assistant Secretary of Education for the George H.W. Bush administration. (Talking History)

  • Parental Anxiety It is not news: parents worry about their children. But according to Fred Nielsen's guest, Peter Stearns, parental anxiety reached new heights in the 20th century, despite advances in medicine, education and living standards. Stearns is author of Anxious Parents: A History of Modern Childrearing in America. (Talking History)

  • Who Owns History We are exposed to history in documentaries, museum exhibits, numerous best-selling books and radio shows -- to name but a few instances. History is a popular, but contested, territory in terms of content, standards and meaning. This week Talking History takes a look at these issues with Fred Nielsen and historian Eric Foner, author of Who Owns History? Rethinking the Past in a Changing World. (Talking History)

  • Jim Crow One of segregation’s exquisite cruelties was its insistence on the silence of its victims. Masses of individuals lived the span of their lives without an ability to express their deep rejection of the pain inflicted upon them. At the same time the passion of these masses fueled the labor of civil rights institutions and leaders as they campaigned for equal rights. Historian Raymond Gavins explains how the “voices” of the once silenced are now being gathered and assessed. (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars)

  • History of Housework Innovations like the washing machine may have made housework easier -- but by raising standards of cleanliness, they also created more work. NPR's Susan Stamberg discusses the history of housework with historian Susan Strasser. (NPR)

  • The Middle East and the West: The US Role Grows As World War II ended, the United States became the great outside power in the Middle East, with three main concerns: Persian Gulf oil; support and protection of the new nation of Israel; and containment of the Soviet Union. The goals proved difficult to manage, especially through the rise of Arab nationalism, two major Arab-Israeli wars and an Arab oil embargo. NPR's Mike Shuster continues his six-part series on the turbulent history of Western involvement in the Middle East with the story of America's rising role in the region. (NPR)

  • The Crusades When President Bush first declared the war on terrorism soon after the 9/11 attacks, he made the mistake of using the word" crusade" to describe it. That was much condemned in the Arab world, where the Crusades are often cited as emblematic of Western designs on the Middle East. NPR's Mike Shuster begins a special six-part series on the long and turbulent history of Western involvement in the Middle East with a look at the Christian Crusades. (NPR)

  • Church Sundays Historically, Sunday was reserved for prayer and reflection, and most commerce or non-religious activity was off-limits. But these days almost anything goes. NPR's Susan Stamberg talks with the Alexis McCrossen, author of Holy Day, Holiday: The American Sunday. (NPR)

  • Hollywood and History Everyone knows that Sam Houston said"Remember the Alamo" to rally his troops after hearing the news from San Antonio. After all, we saw it at the movies. How much has Hollywood shaped our collective memory? Join NPR's Neal Conan to explore the intertwining of US history and film. Guest: Peter Rollins. (NPR)

  • Suburban Sprawl Adam Rome, author of The Bulldozer in the Countryside: Suburban Sprawl and the Rise of American Environmentalism. (Talking History)

  • Globalization The fate of globalization with Harold James, professor of history at the University of Princeton and author of The End of Globalization: Lessons from the Great Depression. (Talking History)

  • Progressivism Michael McGerr has written a book on what many historians believe is the greatest reform movement in American history -- the Progressive Movement. President Theodore Roosevelt referred to the time as a period of"fierce discontent with evil." (Talking History)

  • Electric Chair Capital punishment is one of the most hotly-debated topics in America, and often at the heart of those debates is the electric chair, which is seen by many as an overly cruel and unusual form of punishment. Richard Moran provides a history of the electric chair. (Talking History)

  • Tobacco From the time of its discovery in America, tobacco has been exported to the world, bringing it both pleasure and pain. Iain Gately provides a history of what he calls the"exotic plant that seduced civilization." (Talking History)

  • Eric Sevareid The press has a long tradition of thoughtful commentators and analysts, reaching back to Henry Adams and Benjamin Franklin. But the tradition hasn't exactly thrived in television, especially in recent years as attention spans have shrunk and the shouting has increased. But this wasn't always the case. During the 1960s and 1970s -- a time of considerable shouting in society -- Eric Sevareid offered elegant nightly commentaries on CBS Evening News that were among the most admired in journalism. His longtime colleague Walter Cronkite reflects on Sevareid's work, and a time when television took time to think. (NPR)

  • Faulty Intelligence Slate contributor Matt Wall looks back at some events in American history in which the United States took action based on faulty intelligence. (NPR)

  • Kevin Phillips An interview with Kevin Phillips about his 2004 book American Dynasty: Aristocracy, Fortune, and the Politics of Deceit in the House of Bush. (NPR)

  • Frederick Douglass William L. Andrews examines Douglass’s autobiography as a source of information on the man and the institution. (Talking History)\

  • Mutiny on the Bounty Caroline Alexander discusses her latest book, The Bounty: The True Story of the Mutiny on the Bounty. (Talking History)

  • LBJ Commentary by Thomas Schwartz, author of Lyndon. B. Johnson and Europe in the Shadow of Vietnam. (Talking History)

  • Children of Presidents Commentary by Doug Wead, author of a book that explains why the children of presidents go wrong. (Talking History)

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