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  • Anger as Berlusconi Defends Il Duce

  • Cleopatra's Dye Secret is Revealed

  • Scholars Identify Biblical Tunnel

  • Billionaire in Court Fight over 'Fake' Pharaoh

    Anger as Berlusconi Defends Il Duce (posted 9-12-03)

    Richard Owen, writing in the Times (London) (September 12th, 2003):

    The Jewish community and the Italian Left were yesterday united in fury after Silvio Berlusconi, the Prime Minister, appeared to defend Benito Mussolini on the ground that he had"never killed anyone".

    The remarks appeared in La Voce di Rimini in an article by Nicholas Farrell, a British journalist who lives in Predappio, where Mussolini was born and is buried.

    The article said that Signor Berlusconi had been asked to compare Saddam Hussein with Mussolini. He had responded that"Mussolini never killed anyone. Mussolini used to send people on vacation in internal exile." His office said that the quotation had"not been confirmed".

    Sandro Bondi, spokesman for Signor Berlusconi's party, said historians accepted that Mussolini's regime was not comparable with Nazism or communism.

    Amos Luzzatto, head of the Italian Jewish communities, said Mussolini might not have built extermination camps, but contributed to creating them.

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    Cleopatra's Dye Secret is Revealed (posted 9-12-03)

    David Derbyshire and Roger Highfield, writing in the Daily Telegraph (London) (September 12th, 2003):

    MORE than 500 years after the secret was lost, a British scientist claims to have rediscovered how the Romans created imperial purple - the colour that adorned the togas of emperors and the sails of Cleopatra's ship.

    Imperial purple is one of the oldest dyes known to man. Derived from the murex mollusc, it became the monopoly of Roman emperors after Nero. However, the secret of how to make it is thought to have been lost in the sack of Constantinople in 1453.

    John Edmonds, a retired engineer, says he rediscovered the secret after researching the fermentation of indigo pigments in woad. After his work was published in The Daily Telegraph, he was contacted by an Israeli historian trying to solve another mystery - how ancient Jews used a sky blue dye akin to imperial purple.

    "I reasoned that imperial purple pigment would need to be dissolved by fermentation in the same way as indigo," Mr Edmonds told the British Association science festival yesterday.

    Using a jar of cockles, a close relative of the murex mollusc, he fermented their pigment in a solution of water and wood ash. The purple pigment turned light green. When wool was placed in the dye, it went green but in contact with light, it turned purple.

    "This method was well within the technology of the Iron Age and could easily be kept secret. This I submit was the most likely method used to dye the togas of the Roman emperors and the sails of Cleopatra's ship as she sailed to her doom with Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium," he said.

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    Scholars Identify Biblical Tunnel (posted 9-12-03)

    Fiona Harvey, writing in the Financial Times (London) (September 12th, 2003):

    The Old Testament holds some tantalising secrets for archaeologists. While scholars disagree on the historical veracity of its stories and events, the grains of fact have led many to seek evidence to support Bible stories. Some have even searched for Noah's Ark, the tablets of the Ten Commandments, or King David's lost treasure, with little to show for their pains.

    For one group of scientists, the search has been justified. A tunnel under ancient Jerusalem is confirmed in this week's Nature magazine as being the water channel mentioned in the Bible. The discovery tells ancient historians much about Iron Age technology.

    The structure was built in the reign of King Hezekiah to bring water from the Gihon spring into the city of Jerusalem, in case of a siege by the Assyrians, and is one of the longest ancient water tunnels built without intermediate shafts. The Siloam tunnel was built, carbon dating confirms, around 700BC.

    Based on their findings, the researchers believe that the biblical text describing the tunnel was an accurate record of its construction.

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    Billionaire in Court Fight over 'Fake' Pharaoh (posted 6-17-03)

    Amelia Gentleman, writing in the Guardian (London) (September 11th, 2003):

    As the head of both Christie's and Gucci, and the owner of one of Europe's finest private art collections, Francois Pinault has always prided himself on having an eye for quality.

    But a legal battle over the age and provenance of a black marble statue said to be of an Egyptian king, Sesostris III, has called his judgment into question and threatens the reputations of leading museum curators and historians.

    Mr Pinault, a billionaire who has a reputation as France's most ruthless businessman, launched proceedings in the appeal court yesterday, claiming that the statue is a very expensive dud.

    He and his wife, Maryvonne, bought it for pounds 540,000 through the French auction house Druout in November 1998, apparently in the spirit of last-minute home improvements, before a dinner party they were throwing that night for President Jacques Chirac.

    The 57cm-high figure was on display in their dining room that evening and guests were told that the king's stern features were sculpted sometime between 1878 and 1843 BC.

    In the next few weeks, however, doubts about the statue began to emerge. Mr Pinault received calls from art collectors around the world who said they had been offered the same item, but had rejected it because they were suspicious about its authenticity.

    Mr Pinault's lawyer told the court:"Not only is the statuette not contemporaneous with Sesostris III, it is a fake and a modern one at that."

    When he is not running his business empire - which, as well as Christie's and Gucci, embraces the Printemps department stores, a leading music and books chain, Fnac, the magazine Le Point, one of France's greatest red wines, Chateau Latour, several ski resorts and a first division French football club - Mr Pinault devotes himself to art.

    His chateau outside Paris is filled with works by Mondrian, Miro, Pollack, Modigliano, Warhol, Picasso and Rothko. Three years ago he bought most of a small island on the Seine, the site of a former Renault car plant, and is transforming it at vast expense into a modern art museum to rival the Saatchi collection. It wil house the works he has been collecting since 1990.

    "He is attached to his reputation as a serious collector," one of his associates told Le Parisien yesterday."He couldn't bear the idea that there might be doubts about any of the works acquired by him."

    Mr Pinault's case has been hampered by the fact that one of the key experts on the era was the Egyptologist responsible for authenticating the statue for the 1998 auction, and he maintains it is genuine.

    Two other art historians, affiliated to the Louvre, testified in earlier court hearings that the statue was made after the Pharaoh's death to commemorate him, dating the work around a century later.

    But a young Egyptologist employed by Mr Pinault believes the statue is modern - arguing that it bears traces of having been worked on with modern tools. Luc Watrin believes that 20th century tomb-raiders stole the hunk of marble from a Sesostris III-era temple and carved the work themselves, between 50 and 100 years ago."This statuette is a crude copy of a royal effigy, incorporating numerous stylistic anomalies," he said.

    Yesterday's court appeal seeks to overturn an earlier judgment against Mr Pinault, and aims to have the purchase annulled. The judgment is expected in a month.

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    Ettore Ruspoli - 7/21/2010

    Elena Curti did not marry Enrico Miranda after the war, they were married in January 1996.

    Enrico Miranda was not brought up in the village of Acquapendente in Northern Lazio where they went to live after leaving Spain, but in Ferentino, which is a small village South of Rome.

    Ettore Ruspoli - 7/21/2010

    Elena Curti did not marry Enrico Miranda after the war, they were married in January 1996.

    Enrico Miranda was not brought up in the village of Acquapendente in Northern Lazio where they went to live after leaving Spain, but in Ferentino, which is a small village South of Rome.

    Henry Talbot Baird - 5/24/2009

    The above story is interesting and as an attorney I like considering all possibilities in a case. Those that claim that the life of Joan of Arc is well documented and beyond question need to read a book I just finished called, Rennes le Chateau: The Point of Origin by D.A. Chadwick. It's not only a thriller, but brings up many good questions regarding Joan of Arc.

    The author takes a new look at the origins and trials of Joan of Arc and makes a quite convincing case for her being the legitimate daughter of Charles VI and Isabeau of Bavaria. As a lawyer, I was intrigued by the way that this author reexamined the transcripts of both trials and determined that Isabeau and Pierre Cauchon, the Bishop of Beauvais, were in league to save the obstinate Joan who did not completely understand her true parentage.

    In this story Joan does not burn at the stake, but an imposter named Claude des Armois. While this theory has been presented before, the author addresses each bit of evidence and makes a believable case for Joan escaping the flames. Joan survives and lives with the Lord of Rennes at Hautpoul Castle in Rennes le Chateau, France where she dies peacefully in 1464.

    I have no doubt that the Joan the Maid story was concocted by Charles VII to serve his own purposes. Historians who refuse to reconsider a more objective look at the trial transcripts are missing the obvious, not the least of which is the fact that nearly everyone who claimed to know Joan in childhood managed to live to a ripe old age in 15th century France and, testify at the Rehabilitation Trial telling the EXACT same stories.

    Owen Coghlan - 10/26/2007

    Confirms the historical part of Josephus "Jewish Antiquities", Book 2, CH 10, The war against the Ethiopians. The Ethiopians had advanced as far as Memphis before withdrawing to Salda.

    joselle reofrir orfrecio - 6/30/2007

    I am Joselle R. Orfrecio, a graduating student of the University of the Philippines taking up European Languages - major in German; minor in Tourism.

    I find the German Film, Rosenstrasse, interesting especially as a topic for my thesis. However, I still don't have any idea, how to analyze the film as I haven't seen it yet. But I will try to find ways to watch it definitely.

    It would really give me big help if you could give me suggestions for a topic for my thesis regarding the said movie. Because, in the case of thesis writing in our university, we are not allowed to just describe the outcomes of the film; rather, we need to focus on one particular aspect of analysis (i.e. semiotics, proving and disproving ideas in the literature and the like). So I am currently having a hard time on how to start my thesis.

    I am looking forward for your reply and for your help. :)

    STAN CHLEBEK - 12/12/2006


    HNN - 8/1/2006

    Not only was I lucky enough to have found the lost Syng headstones in time for silversmith Philip Syng's 300th Birthday, I recently had the honor of creating an illustrated bird's-eye-view map of the Burial Ground. Unfortunately, their designer forgot to list Dr. P.S. Physick's grave. The one I had sat on. Beginning the map while site manager at Landmark' Samuel Powel House it was completed while site manager at the Doctor's house on 4th Street. Stop by for a visit,

    Del Conner

    levonne gryder - 7/25/2006

    Mary Rose is full of shit if she cant stand behind our country she needs to go live in the middle east with the terrorists

    Oved Berlowitz - 5/25/2005

    Dear sir,
    I have encountered one of your assays were you state a phrase from Hannah Karminski.
    My name is Oved Berlowitz and she was my Grandmother's sister.
    I'm looking for pepole or materials who were close to her on her lasts days.
    Should you anything to help me I will appericiate it.
    My e-mail address is
    Best regards

    Harreson R Godwin - 3/20/2005

    Would like to hear from anyone who could put me in touch with John Pollock. They can email me at


    John Mark Green - 2/3/2005

    Maybe a petty point, but Bouchardon was not a judge. He was the interrogator who supplied the court with a thick dossier.

    BTW, interesting point about his wife's infidelity. But could his attitude to women have contributed to this, rather than being a result? (I dunno)

    I am writing an essay on Mata Hari, and would appreciate any info on the current Dutch effort to rehabilitate her, particularly in the attempt to get the French Ministry of Justice to reopen the case.


    jOHN HOLDEN FOLEY - 1/10/2005

    hI THERE

    Lee Regan - 11/30/2004

    Has any one started to make links between the realistic Arthur of Italy,mythic Arthur of Celtic legend, and the Arthur of Tennyson and the Pre-Raphaelites. Did this happen through storytelling, oral traditions, and poetry? Are there websites I can visit to put together all the different views so it will make some sense. Thank you for any suggestions.

    levi francisco goldberg - 11/4/2004

    Need help about how to get info of costa rica in the german stasi archives. Thank you
    L F Godberg

    sam anne noble - 10/22/2004

    for years i have been intrigued by the idea of a city such as atlanta. i have always been fascinated by the concept of an entire city being submerged by water and evrything that existed vanished. i find myself asking 'how is it possible that no-one has stumbled across any evidence that this amazing place existed?' there are thousands apon thousands of highly intelligent people in the world, yet there's never been a break through! its a ridiculous concept and one that i cant really get mt head around.
    i feel that it does exist. its a place of glory and riches where healing domes where made out of crystals and the people's intelligence far exceeded that of today's society (which is not surprising since we have not found the city).
    i urge anyone who reads this, to take action and help me to spur archeologists onto a quest. a quest to find the missing link to humanitarianism.

    Pantelis Palios - 10/21/2004

    Could someone email me a picture of Michael Hastings, please. Profile if possible. Thank you.

    Pantelis Palios - 10/21/2004

    Could someone email me a picture of Michael Hastings, please.

    HNN - 9/1/2004

    Financial Times (London, England)

    August 14, 2004 Saturday

    The Women Who Stood up to Hitler
    Veteran film director Margarethe von Trotta has never avoided difficult subjects. Her new film about ordinary Berliners' resistance to the Holocaust is attracting acclaim - and fierce dissent

    Margarethe von Trotta has always made it her business to challenge the troubled conscience of her country. The German film director has chronicled the difficult birth of German communism (Rosa Luxemburg), delved into 1970s terrorism (Marianne and Juliane), examined the scar left on the German soul by the Berlin Wall (The Promise), and explored the dark legacy of the Stasi, the East German secret police (The Other Woman).

    With her latest feature film, von Trotta, now 62, is probing the most painful German wound of all. Rosenstrasse, which marks her return to feature filmmaking after a nine-year absence, depicts a little-known episode in the Holocaust that occurred during the second world war in Berlin. The film chronicles the last days of February 1943, when the Nazis started the Final Roundup to seize and deport the remaining Jews in Germany. During this brutal purge, 1,700 Jews were detained in an administrative building in Berlin on a street called Rosenstrasse. Most were men married to non-Jewish women. The women hurried to Rosenstrasse 2-4 and stood outside the building.

    According to witnesses interviewed in American historian Nathan Stoltzfus's 1996 book, Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany, the women stood day and night in the winter cold, protesting against the detention of their husbands. After a week, the Nazi authorities released the men.

    Astonishingly, the story of this successful protest largely disappeared in Germany after the war. It has only gradually resurfaced - mainly through the Stoltzfus book and now in von Trotta's film, which centres on a young contemporary Jewish- American named Hannah who goes to Berlin, intent on uncovering the mystery of her mother's traumatic wartime experiences. Hannah visits an old woman named Lena, who was one of the protesters on Rosenstrasse and who recounts the story of that week. During those days, as Lena kept her vigil for her husband, she took under her wing a little Jewish girl who was also waiting outside the building. That little girl, as it turns out, was Hannah's mother.

    When Rosenstrasse was first shown in Germany last September, it caused a heated debate in the newspapers and then surprised everyone by becoming von Trotta's most commercially successful film in Germany. Its unexpected success indicates that there is now a willingness among Germans to discuss formerly taboo topics to do with the second world war. In the past few years, German films about the Holocaust such as Aimee and Jaguar and Nowhere in Africa have won critical and box-office acclaim in Germany. But what distinguishes von Trotta's film is that people now seem able to address the particularly provocative question it raises: individual responsibility and the difficult choices that ordinary Germans made during the mass deportations of the Jews.

    michael b. wood - 8/13/2004

    Has there been any word on a reopening date for the Orangerie Museum in Paris? I plan to be there in late October and can't seem to find out?

    Carl Roesler - 7/19/2004

    A worthy response to a unworthy persecution of a professor.

    Carl Roesler - 7/19/2004

    A worthy response to a unworthy persecution of a professor.

    Carl Roesler - 7/19/2004

    A worthy response to a unworthy persecution of a professor.

    Carl Roesler - 7/19/2004

    A worthy response to a unworthy persecution of a professor.

    Carl Roesler - 7/19/2004

    A worthy response to a unworthy persecution of a professor.

    Carl Roesler - 7/19/2004

    A worthy response to a unworthy persecution of a professor.

    Carl Roesler - 7/19/2004

    A worthy response to a unworthy persecution of a professor.

    sakura - 7/19/2004

    this web page is fantastic! Though, you should explain how perry was important in history. What did he do to affect the world like this? What do u think would happen if he didn't do all this? Thats what is missing. I mean if u already have it , put more information in. that's all i have to say.

    Carl Roesler - 7/19/2004

    A worthy response to a unworthy persecution of a professor.

    Carl Roesler - 7/19/2004

    A worthy response to an unworthy persecution of an ethical professor.

    Peter N. Kirstein - 7/19/2004

    For those who are interested in my first scholarly article on my case, I link the following article in PDF.

    For those who wish to observe my recent activities as an advocate of academic freedom and as war resister, I provide my website URL.

    For those who may wish to read a letter I had in the New York Times on the Abu Ghraib tortures:

    Peter N. Kirstein

    al lindner - 7/19/2004

    Konrad Adenauer's selection as the greatest German of all time is truly laughable! Any knowledgeable student of German history will know Adenauer as the ul;timate craven politician who was very adept at claiming credit for the work of others! Then to see a GUARDIAN story in which a German academic credited Adenauer with being the father of the "wirtschaftswunder" is shocking in its historical inaccuracy.
    Ludwig Erhard, no.27 on the list, was the person most responsible for Germanys Economic Miracle, just see F.A. von Hayek's comments on Erhard's bold stroke in ending wage and price controls. Which he did against the advice of his American overseers and his own economic experts.
    I find these 100 Greatest lists to be an interesting exercise, and never fail to be shocked at the lack of due consideration people put into their selections.

    francisco pilo ortiz - 7/19/2004

    Yo nunca me opuse a una placa conmemorativa a la gesta de los soldados britanicos en el asalto a Badajoz en la noche del 6 de abril. En un libro titulado "Un paseo por la alcazaba árabe de Badajoz" exalto el valor de las tropas inglesas en aquel ataque.
    La intención del sr. Meléndez era que se colocara un monolito en Badajoz. Eso me pareció excesivo. Pero, repito, nunca me opuse a que se colocaran placas conmemorativas en los lugares por donde se produjo el asalto ni a que se recuerde de alguna manera el lugar donde hay bastantes bitanicos enterrados en los fosos del baluarte de Santa María.

    Deathless Dodecagon - 7/19/2004

    contemporary mainstream debut of ancient gossip

    Enrique Garc Alvarez - 7/19/2004

    Referente a la duda sobre la autoría de las Pinturas Negras, he de mostrar mi conformidad con el dictamen de D.
    Juan José Junquera respecto a la más que posible paternidad de Francisco Javier Goya.
    Si se analizan informáticamente, se observa en su totalidad la aparición de grafismos con la firma J Goya.
    Esta firma se reconoce en cinco distintas obras que he tenido el placer de estudiar en profundidad en los últimos meses, pero sobremanera en una de ellas realizada sobre un lienzo utilizado por su padre.

    Daniel Weber - 7/19/2004

    I am somewhat surprised to hear that the Inuit were prejudiced against mixed-race people. I live in a region populated mostly by Koyukon Athabaskan people, many of whom have mixed Indian and white ancestry. They seem quite indifferent to it. However, people of Yupik or Inuit descent living in this region sometimes complain of negative attitudes from the Athabaskans. And a Tlinget friend told me she was raised to feel contempt for Aleuts because they collaborated with the Russians. I suppose it is natural for adjacent groups who may compete for resources to feel hostility for one another. But the European-American penetration of the North, unlike the settling of the plains, or the Russian enserfment of Natives, had few territorial or resource ramifications for the Native peoples, and generally whites were not treated as enemies in the North. I suppose that is why I am surprised to learn that the Inuit looked down on one of mixed Inuit-white ancestry.

    P Flum - 7/19/2004

    Given the numbers of historians on the Hot Seat who were punished for having articulated unpopular views, it is heartening to see such an affirmation of academic freedom in the academy. Historians are citizens and their views should never be censured or punished.

    Joe Franklin Taylor - 7/19/2004

    I am new to the discussion group. I have a question regarding the legal status of Messrs Tarpley and Chaitkin's book, George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography.

    Their chapter 21 in that book, "Omaha," implicates George Bush with abusing children, which is, according to former Nebraska Republican senator John DeCamp, is a part of government mind control program (Project Monarch as part of MK-ULTRA).

    Has anyone learned if that book was ever subjected to a suit by George Bush? If not, then the claims the authors make are essential to some research and teaching that I am currently involved with.

    Thanks for any confirmation on this point.

    Joe Taylor

    Robert Stirling - 6/21/2004

    Clans touch swords in battle to crown Arthur as their own


    HIS STORY has inspired everyone from the knights of medieval times to Hollywood film directors, but the true identity of King Arthur has remained stubbornly lost in the mists of time.

    But, as Arthur fever rears its head with a major new film starring Clive Owen and Keira Knightley, out next month, two Scottish clans have emerged as challengers to those in Wales and Cornwall who claim the model of chivalry as their own.

    ‘The Duchy of Cornwall makes a lot of money out of the Arthurian legend with very little evidence’
    -- Hugh McArthur

    While the knights of the round table, the lady in the lake, sword in the stone and the search for the Holy Grail have passed into British national identity, no-one truly knows who Arthur was.

    However, historians at Clan Arthur believe they are the descendants of a chieftain who fits the bill better than anyone else and are now claiming him to be "Oor Arthur".

    But the McArthurs face competition from Clan Campbell, which has traditionally claimed to be descended from Artur Mac Aeden, the son of a Scottish king and a Welsh-speaking Briton from the ancient kingdom of Strathclyde.

    Clan historian Hugh McArthur said it would be a good time to publicise the Scottish Arthur story.

    "The Duchy of Cornwall makes a lot of money out of the Arthurian legend with very little evidence," he said.

    "It can never ever be proven, the genealogical records don’t exist and nobody could prove a link that far back.

    "What I’ve got is circumstantial evidence, but there’s so much of it - links in heraldry, clan badges, tradition that the clan was descended from Arthur’s son.

    "North of the Border there’s an awful lot more evidence than south of the Border. There are a lot of Arthur sites in Scotland that could be put together to make a history trail about King Arthur."

    He has compiled a list of evidence which suggests King Arthur of legend was in fact Artur Mac Aeden, who lived during the sixth century.

    "There are about seven places called Arthur’s Seat in Scotland and I’m up to about 40 Arthur places names in Scotland," Mr McArthur said. "And locals will tell you that Loch Lomond used to be called the Lake."

    Mr McArthur also said that while Dumbarton means Fortress of the Britons, it was also called Castello Arturius, or Arthur’s Castle, in 11th-century records.

    The mountain Ben Arthur is not far away at the head of Loch Long and at Arthurlie in Barrhead stands the ancient carved stone of Arthurlie Cross.

    Mr McArthur also points to Arthur’s Seat in Edinburgh, Arthur’s O’on at Falkirk, Loch Arthur close to Dumfries and Guinevere’s Grave at Meigle in Perthshire as evidence of the existence of a powerful Scottish Arthur.

    And Mr McArthur believes one of the biggest clues is contained in a poem by Welsh poet Taliesin, which describes a sea raid on an island fortress that has been seen as part of the quest for the Holy Grail.

    He said "cryptic clues" in the poem put the fortress, which was held by pagans, near the Corryvreckan whirlpool off the west coast of Scotland.

    "It is this successful but costly raid on the most unassailable fortress in Britain that made Arthur the living legend that he is today. Arthur overcame the challenge, he sailed over the dragon [whirlpool] to Hell’s gate, assailed the mountain, slaughtered the pagans and returned triumphant with the hallowed pagan treasures leaving an ancient religion reeling from a fatal blow."

    However, Clan Arthur’s claim that King Arthur is one of their own faces competition from Clan Campbell, which has a genealogy that starts with the legendary figure.

    Alastair Campbell, who has written three books about the history of his clan, said: "The traditional genealogy of the Campbells does trace us back to King Arthur, but most historians reckon that’s the sennachie’s shorthand for ‘We don’t know who the Campbells are but we know they are of noble birth and come from the British kingdom of Strathclyde and if they are top guys they must be related to the king and King Arthur’.

    "It’s a good story, but you’ve got to start with wondering whether King Arthur actually existed as such. The King of Strathclyde as King Arthur, it’s not something I put my hat on, but I go for the Campbells being Britons of high rank from Strathclyde."

    Robert McArthur, sennachie of Clan Arthur, said: "The Campbells claim descent from Smervie Mor [the son of Artur mac Aeden], the Campbells claim all sorts of things.

    "My long-running debate with the ‘chief executive’ of Clan Campbell is he says we are part of them. How can we be part of them if they weren’t around until 1,000 years after us?"

    Geoffrey Ashe, who has written several books about King Arthur, said he felt sure the legendary figure’s base was in and around Cornwall.

    "There’s no denying the original Arthur might have been in Scotland, but the evidence of where his roots are seems to me to point very clearly to the south and south-west rather than the north," he said.

    "He was fighting against Saxon invaders coming much more from the south-east than in the north. They hadn’t really got to the north at that time."

    He said he had studied the various candidates found in Scotland but had been unconvinced.

    "There’s more than one ‘northern Arthur’ and mac Aeden is the most popular with people," Mr Ashe said.

    "I find it hard to believe how a Scot could have become a legend for the Welsh. They regarded his father Aeden as something of a traitor. Aeden and his son were not popular with the Welsh."

    Quest for the Historical Truth

    THE legendary King Arthur was a leader of the Britons who fought against Saxons that invaded following the departure of the Romans.

    The Welsh-speaking tribes of Britons lived throughout mainland Britain at the time, but were pushed to the Celtic fringe by the Saxons, Angles and Jutes.

    The Scots, arriving in Scotland from Ireland, ultimately took control of the British kingdom of Strathclyde.

    If Arthur was from Welsh-speaking Strathclyde, his story may have migrated south with tribal poets to Wales and Cornwall as the Britons lost power north of the modern-day Border.

    However, traditionally, he has been associated with Tintagel Castle in Cornwall, said to be his birthplace and the site of his court.

    Under this version of events, Arthur is credited with a great victory over the Saxons at the battle of Mount Badon - thought to be in Dorset - while the magnificent fortress of Camelot was actually a hill fort at South Cadbury in Somerset.

    Glastonbury is reputed to be where the great leader was buried, one day to rise up and defend Britain once again.

    However, the French also have an Arthurian tradition and some claimed he was a king of Celtic Brittany.

    The new film claims he was born on the eastern fringes of the Roman empire in Sarmatia, south of modern-day Russia, as Lucius Artorius Castus, before coming to Britain. The Sarmatians worshipped a sword stuck in a stone.

    Last year, an Italian historian, Mario Moiraghi, announced that Arthur was from Tuscany. He claimed to have found the sword in the stone in a Cistercian Abbey of San Galgano at Montesiepi.

    However, British Arthurians pointed to a gaping hole in his theory: the sword was still in the stone and Arthur was supposed to have removed it.

    Amid all the confusion is the theory that Arthur was not so much a name but a title, and that numerous Arthurs fought bravely across Europe, creating a legend greater than any one man could ever hope to achieve.

    Kenneth T. Tellis - 6/18/2004

    The reason why history has been forgotten in Canada is that the history taught in the English-speaking provinces of Canada was different to that taught in Quebec. Even the History of Canada by Francois Xavier Garneau has been rejected by the separatists, who have re-written history to suit their own viewpoints, rather than the facts.

    These separatists now claim that Quebec was a nation from thes very start. But history clearly points to Quebec being a colony of France, which was ceded to Great Britain by the Anglo-French Treaty of February 10, 1763, after the defeat of Vaudreuil Governor General of New France at Montreal on September 8, 1760, by the British.

    In knocking down the statue of General James Wolf at Quebec City, the Quebecois think they have turned back the clock, and the conquest never took place in 1759. How retarded can one get?

    jonathan baruch swiller - 2/24/2004

    Obviously the "most" ridiculous or egregious acts of censorship are worth pointing out. But those are usually self-correcting due to the attention they draw to themselves.
    What concerns me more are the small things, often self-imposed, that nibble inexorably around the edges of our freedom: the spiked article, the unavailable book, the uninvited speaker. Why does an administration frequently at odds with the Bill of Rights, have to waste effort limiting the conversation when, by creating a climate of wariness, fear will do the job for them.
    As long as supporters of Mr. Bush's agenda remain unchallenged as they make such phrases as "giving aid and comfort to our countries enemies" commonplace, too many people will find silence the more inviting choice.

    HNN Editor - 2/18/2004

    Resolution on Proposed Georgia Social Studies Standards
    Georgia State University Department of History
    February 16, 2004

    The Georgia State University Department of History unanimously approves the four attached responses to the proposed Georgia Social Studies Performance Standards.

    The responses will be posted on the history department web site. In addition, an effort will be made to disseminate the responses as widely as possible, including through all the history departments of the University System of Georgia, the Board of Regents, members of the legislature, professional history associations, the Georgia Council of Social Studies, H-Georgia and other listservs, the Georgia Association of Historians, and representatives of the media.

    Moreover, we encourage fellow historians, teachers, students, and other concerned citizens to review and comment upon the proposed standards posted at the Georgia Department of Education website (http:, and to draw attention to the standards and their ramifications through the Board of Regents, the Georgia Department of Education, and other avenues.

    Proposed Georgia Social Studies Performance Standards

    State School Superintendent Kathy Cox and the architects of the proposed Georgia Performance Standards argue that the new standards mark a clear improvement over the existing curricular objectives. They maintain that the new standards replace a traditionally bloated curriculum that is “a mile wide, but an inch deep,” and constitute “a challenge to the mediocrity and shallow standards that have been accepted for too long.” The new standards, they claim, feature “a continuum of learning” from grades K-12, and will foster “mastery of the essential concepts students need to know” as well as “rigor and depth.”
    These are certainly admirable goals. There is no doubt that the current social studies curriculum contains many weaknesses, in both content and pedagogy. Moreover, it is refreshing to hear state education administrators call for higher expectations of Georgia’s children at all levels. Yet, unfortunately, an examination of the proposed standards suggests continued mediocrity. Rather than being a “world-class curriculum for world-class students,” the new standards are deeply flawed, at a variety of levels.
    The proposed curriculum falls well short of the ostensible goals of the Department of Education. It also falls short of the Georgia State University Department of History’s expectations for students taking lower level college courses, let alone advanced courses. A particular source of concern is that there seems not to have been a deliberate and active review process involving content experts in colleges and universities. As constructed, the standards continue to foster shallowness and to poorly prepare students for college.

    Eighth Grade Georgia Studies Standards

    Subjects Other than History
    Three of the fifteen units, including eight of the forty-six proposed standards, are topically based and not historically driven: Unit 1, “Getting to Know Your Own County”; Unit 6, “State and Local Government”; and Unit Seven, “Teenagers and the Law in Georgia.” Whatever their merits, to place two of these units in the middle of the year disrupts and undermines the chronological organization of the rest of the curriculum. In fact, these units might fit better in the required high school Citizenship curriculum.
    Comparative Weight
    Assuming that each of the standards is to have comparable weight, there is considerable discrepancy between the standards and the actual significance of the subject matter. For instance, while there are four standards associated with Unit 1, “Getting to Know Your Own County,” Units 12 and 13, on “The Depression and New Deal” and “World War II” respectively, contain but a single standard each. Is “the significance of colonial sites . . . to Georgia today” (Standard 8.16) actually of equal importance as western expansion and Native American removal (8.26)?
    Similarly, there exist discrepancies within standards. For instance, while Standard 8.29 addresses the “political, military, economic, and social aspects of the Civil War,” ten of the twelve subsections of the standard are political or military in nature, while only two treat the social and economic dimensions of the war.
    Omission of Significant Content
    Numerous significant content areas have been simply omitted from the new standards. For instance, as difficult as it may be to imagine, there is no mention of the cotton gin in the curriculum. Nor is there any inclusion of such important subjects as the debate over slavery in colonial Georgia, the Yazoo land fraud, Sherman’s Field Order #15, the expansion of the railroads after the Civil War, the crop lien system, the Populists, the emergence of Atlanta as the region’s hub, blues and country music, rural electrification, the 1946 black voter registration drive, the Sibley Commission, suburbanization, and new immigrants. The absence of the subjects points to the importance of review by content specialists at the university level.
    While African Americans and Native Americans are included, their representation leaves much to be desired. As a rule, they are portrayed as undifferentiated groups, without consideration of the divisions and tensions that existed within these communities. They also are often depicted primarily as victims, rather than as active agents in history. There is no mention of the range of Native American survival strategies in the early republic, or of African American survival strategies in the Jim Crow era, only these groups’ vague “contributions . . . to Georgia.”
    Even more egregious is the treatment of women. Outside of a few references to famous women, the proposed curriculum contains no mention of women, gender roles, or gender expectations. Religion is another subject which receives no historical treatment whatsoever.
    Questionable History
    Some of the standards contain errors of fact. For instance, one of the tasks associated with Standard 8.33 asks students to research anti-lynching legislation passed during the period under question, when in fact no such legislation ever was passed. Standard 8.34 places the boll weevil, which arrived in Georgia in the late 1910s, in the “New South” era from 1880-1900 (a time frame, incidentally, which has no particular internal coherence, and which is not defined as the New South period anywhere in the historical literature).
    Inadequate Tasks Associated with Standards
    Many of the tasks associated with the proposed standards fail to adequately support the standard. Thus, neither of the tasks associated with Standard 8.13, on “how geographic features such as climate (not a geographic feature by the way) and topography” influenced Georgia’s early development, mention geographic features. It is unclear how writing an essay on “The Importance of the Little White House to Georgia” supports a standard (8.38) on “the impact of the Great Depression on Georgia.”
    Certain tasks seem to foster memorization or busy work more than deep historical understanding. For instance, in conjunction with Standard 8.30 on “the political impact of Reconstruction policies on Georgia and the other southern states,” students are to “create an ‘ABC’ booklet using people, places, and terms associated with Reconstruction.” Similarly, it is unclear how “[creating] a flip book containing descriptions and illustrations of each important personality of the colonial period” (Standard 8.12) advances either rigor or depth.
    Poor Phraseology
    Many of the standards are poorly phrased or constructed. For example, Standard 8.34 states in its entirety,
    “The student will evaluate the impact of New South policies on Georgia’s politics, culture, and economy from 1880-1900, including:
    a) the transition from agricultural to industry. b) the role of individuals such as Henry Grady, Tom Watson, Booker T. Washington, and W. E. B. DuBois. c) the boll weevil.”
    Do the authors actually mean “policies”--which usually refer to governmental, organizational, or individual courses of action–or do they mean “developments” or some other more appropriate word? What does “the transition from agricultural to industry” mean, anyway? It certainly implies that industry supplanted agriculture, when, in fact, most Georgians continued to live on farms until the 1920s. In addition to the boll weevil, the preponderance of DuBois’s work occurred after the period under consideration. What do subsections a, b, and c have in common–have the authors forgotten the principles of parallel construction? And to which part of the standard do they refer? The net effect is to obfuscate, rather than clarify, let alone help enable students to appreciate history and fruitfully engage with the past.

    High School United States History Standards (11th Grade)

    A Limited Vision
    The initial, defining statement for the high school level U.S. History standards says, “The student will examine the founding ideas and ideals of the United States and then investigate the expansion of the United States from 1876 to the present, noting the challenges and the solutions chosen through the history of America, and how democracy has evolved from 1776 to the present.” This statement suggests a rather traditional triumphal approach, a linear notion of history as progress, that hardly does justice to the complexities and contingencies of the past. The United States expands, solutions are found for the challenges which emerge, and democracy evolves. Words like “accomplishments,” “successes,” and “advances” pepper the document. Yet history is more than a set of problems resolved. It is open ended, explores how and why things happened, involves multiple causes and interpretations, and includes choices, tensions, and conflicts.
    The proposed standards also perpetuate a conventional narrative which equates national history with the nation-state, one which has tended to promote insularity, ideas of American exceptionalism, and an undifferentiated, monolithic United States. As the authors of a seminal work on how Americans relate to the past have written, most Americans do not recognize themselves or their families in this narrative, and for this reason among others rank high school history classes as among the least engaging ways of presenting history.1
    Moreover, such a framework largely ignores a considerable body of historical scholarship since the 1970s which situates United States history within larger contexts. Historians using a comparative approach have reexamined the idea of American uniqueness, while other historians have explored the complex interconnections and relations between American history and that of the rest of the world, at levels beyond that of the nation-state alone.2 To neglect this historiography fosters a provincialism that seems especially out of place in our increasingly interconnected world.
    Except for the introductory unit on “Founding Ideas” of the United States, the curriculum only covers the period from 1876 to the present. Even within this time frame, it is weighted toward contemporary history. Fully half of the eighty standards treat the period from World War II to the present, including two on the twenty-first century. In contrast, the curriculum for the high school Advancement Placement course in U.S. History, also to be completed in one year, covers the sweep of American history from the exploration period to the late twentieth century, with sixteen of the thirty-three A.P. units covering the period prior to 1876. Is one to assume that A.P. students receive only a shallow treatment of U.S. history because of the broad time span they cover? Of course not.
    Under the proposed standards, except for eighth grade Georgia Studies, students would only encounter early American history in the fourth grade, and most of nineteenth century American history in the fifth grade. While the idea that fourth and fifth graders can and should learn more than at present is commendable, much of the content presented in elementary school will be largely forgotten by the time eleventh graders return to U.S. History. Furthermore, the cognitive skills (and thus the standards and associated tasks) of an elementary school student are much different than those of upper level high school students.
    The proposed curriculum would omit the entire colonial era, which situates American history within world and international history from its inception. The social, cultural, and economic dimensions of the American Revolution would disappear, as would Indian-United States relations and Native American survival strategies in the early republic, the transportation revolution and early industrialization, Irish immigration to America, western expansion, growing sectionalism, antebellum reform movements, the emergence of an “American” culture, the U.S.-Mexico War, and the Civil War–arguably the defining moment in United States history.
    In 1847, Daniel Webster declared, “It is an extraordinary era in which we live. It is altogether new. The world has seen nothing like it before.” But high school students would learn nothing about this crucial period in U.S. history except for one implausibly large standard (2.3) on “the changes made in the United States from 1776 to 1876 in terms of the expansion of democracy, the expansion of territories, the diversity of people, and major accomplishments of the first 100 years.” Such a standard virtually guarantees only a shallow understanding.
    Comparative Weight of Standards
    The proposed standards sometimes emphasize relatively peripheral developments to the neglect of more central, significant matters. For example, Unit 8, on World War II, contains three standards on personalities, military strategies, and specific events, and only one on the causes of the war. Conversely, some standards are almost impossibly broad, such as 14.2 in which students “will chart the changing ideals and challenges from 1876 to [the] present day.” In addition, historical subjects of obviously different importance are given equivalent weight in the standards. Are the “origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cuban Missile Crisis” (Standard 10.3) really equivalent to the “origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Vietnam War” (10.4), let alone “the changing political and economic role of the United States in world affairs in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century” (5.1)? Accordingly, the standards often encourage memorization or superficiality, rather than the ability to assess evidence, weigh conflicting interpretations, discern causality, formulate comparisons, or trace change and continuity in a meaningful fashion. Eliminating, combining or transforming some of these dubious standards would also provide more time to address American history prior to 1876.
    Questionable Conceptualization and Periodization
    The framing of historical topics is often problematic in the proposed standards, both within and across units. Unit 3, on “The Industrial Era,” illustrates many of the attendant concerns. Some of the listed causes of the “Industrial Revolution” (itself a debatable term, especially for this time period) are more rationalizations or results than causes. The unit seemingly treats the late nineteenth century (although the terms “Industrial Era” or “Industrial period” are never clearly defined), but the content ranges from “Boss Tweed and the cartoons of Thomas Nast” (1868) to “migration of American-Americans from the south” (World War I and afterward) and the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (1911). Standards and their associated tasks are frequently not well-coordinated--do we really think that “the move for the direct election of Senators” was central to “the rise of Populism and the agrarian movement” (3.6)? The standards and tasks for the unit are often overly general, vague, or poorly phrased; they also reflect little of the historiography over the past thirty years. Here, as elsewhere, the input of content experts at the college or university level would have been helpful.
    In addition to American history prior to 1876, the proposed curriculum slights the history of religion, the arts, and immigration, among other subjects. While women are mentioned more than in Georgia Studies and World History, the treatment of women’s history, and of gender more generally, is inadequate.
    Inadequate Tasks in Support of Standards
    The tasks associated with a given standard are frequently unsatisfactory. This is true even with the treatment of “the founding ideas and ideals of the United States,” which ostensibly drives the entire curriculum. One task for Standard 1.2, on “the ideas and ideals that influenced the Founding Fathers from previous models of government, including John Locke, The Federalist Papers, the Enlightenment, and Ancient Greece and Rome,” suggests students use Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, which, although generally anti-tyrannical, says nothing about Roman government or political thought, was not written in antiquity, and was not a particularly influential text for the “Founding Fathers.” One of the tasks for Standard 1.5 employs the Declaration of Independence as a guide to why “representative democracy was an improvement on the monarchial system,”when actually the Declaration identifies inalienable rights and specific grievances, but does not advance or criticize any system of government per se. More generally, the “ideas and ideals” embedded in the Declaration and the Constitution are treated in a vacuum, divorced from their broader social and political contexts.
    Similar problems with the tasks exist throughout the proposed curriculum. Thus, to help analyze “the causes of World War I and the reasons for the United States’ involvement,” students are to use the lyrics to George M. Cohan’s “Over There,” which, except for a fleeting reference to liberty, contains nothing about the topic. Such sloppy construction of the standards and the tasks does little to advance historical thinking and appreciation; rather it helps perpetuate mediocrity in Georgia’s schools, and poorly prepares students for work at the collegiate level.

    HNN - 2/13/2004

    Untitled Document NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 10, #6; 13 February 2004) by Bruce Craig (editor) <> National Coalition for History (NCH) Website

    1. After Nearly a Decade, House to Fill Historian Position
    2. Presidential Sites Grant Bill to be Introduced
    3. Agreement Reached on Transportation Bill Section 4-(f) Controversy
    4. Bits and Bytes: Call for Participants, "Congress in the Classroom"
    2004; Deadline Extended, Summer Institute on Conducting Archival Research; Websites of Interest
    5. Articles of Interest: "Study Says U.S. Should Replace States's High
    School Standards" (New York Times; 10 February 2004)

    Nearly a decade after Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-GA) abolished the position of "Historian of the House," a job posting has quietly appeared on the employment webpages of several professional history organizations. The position advertized: "Historian, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives." Is this the elusive "Historian of the House" slot, the counterpart to the Historian of the Senate position currently occupied by Richard Baker, that historians have been long awaiting? Well, kinda-sortof.

    For a number of years, Clerk of the House Jeff Trandahl has been quietly rebuilding the capabilities of his office to meet the history-related
    service needs desired by members of the Congress. Recently, Trandahl
    moved what was previously known as the Historical Services Unit from the Clerk's Legislative Resources Center and created what is now a fourteen-person Office of History and Preservation headed by Chief of the Office of History and Preservation Kenneth Kato (see "House Creates Office of History and Preservation" in NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE, Vol.8, #27; 3 July 2002). Today, Kato's operation focuses on meeting the history, archival, curatorial, and historic preservation needs of members of the House. To a great extent Kato's office fills the void created when Gingrich dismantled the historian's office in 1995. Through the reorganization, Trandahl also made the Clerk's historical services function more closely resemble the organizational status of its counterpart in the U.S. Senate. Consequently, today archival and curatorial services, historical publications and preservation are a vital part of the Clerk's operations. All that appeared to be missing in the panoply of expertise was a history specialist.

    Several factors help account for the re-establishment of a House historian position at this particular time. First, in 1999, Congress enacted the House Awareness and Preservation Act (P.L. 106-99), legislation that resulted in the appointment of historian Robert Remini as Distinguished Visiting Scholar of American History in the John W. Kluge Center at the Library of Congress. Remini was charged to undertake an ambitious project to write a history of the House of Representatives. Because of the nature of his charge, some on Capitol Hill believed that Remini was the de facto "House Historian." Remini, however, has repeatedly stated that while he was writing a history of the House, he was not nor did he have an interest in serving as the "historian of the House."

    Second, a few years ago the Clerk assumed new responsibilities to the House Fine Arts Board thus creating an immediate need for curatorial and preservation expertise relating to the House art collection. Then came the Capitol Visitor Center project which created an ongoing need for historical interpretive presentation and collection management expertise within the Clerk's office.

    Third, there is no doubt that in recent years, a growing number of House members have been calling on the Clerk's office to provide technical assistance on matters such as records management, maintenance, preservation, disposition of member's papers and records (once a member leaves office), and to answer history-related questions relating to the House.

    Fourth, and perhaps most important, apparently it was a 28 January 2004 article in the Capitol Hill newspaper ROLL CALL that caught the eye of the House leadership. That article emphasized some of the history-related challenges posed to Kato's present operation. Reportedly, the article helped serve as the catalyst for the Speaker of the House to move forward and create the historian position.

    The need for a House historian has long been a concern for the historical community. But with the evolution of Kato's office, the line of authority and nature of duties undertaken by that office, it is clear that the historian scheduled to be hired will not have the same authority, nor function in the same way that the Historian of the Senate does. Examine the job description; it reads in its entirety:

    "Office of the Clerk - U. S. House of Representatives -- Seeking a historian to serve as the in-house authority on House historical matters.
    Provide historical information to House Leadership, Members, and Officers, conduct public lectures, participate in interviews and panel discussions, respond to press/media inquiries, serve as a member of the Capitol Visitors Center exhibit content team, and lead various initiatives such as establishing and developing oral history and photographic archives programs. Requirements include demonstrated authoritative knowledge of Congressional History and operations, particularly the House of Representatives. Experience participating in interviews, panel discussions and other media events. Temperament to communicate with a variety of personalities in a tactful, pleasant and professional manner. Advanced degree in American History preferred. Salary: $103,969.00. Closing Date:
    March 1, 2004. Fax cover letter and resume to: Mr. Kenneth Kato, Office of History and Preservation, Office of the Clerk, U. S. House of Representatives, B-106 Cannon House Office Building, Washington, D.C.
    20515, fax # (202) 226-5204. EOE."

    Reading the advertisement it becomes evident that the position is neither managerial nor does it have any supervisory authority over other staff in the Office of History and Preservation. It does appear, however, that the individual hired may well serve as the public "voice" of the House history office and to that extent may function in that capacity much like Baker currently does in the Senate. Though the position does not mandate a Ph.D.
    in history, Trandahl states that in the search for a congressional scholar to fill the position, possession of an "advanced degree" will be one of the most important evaluation factors.

    Sources on Capitol Hill report that over the last couple of months the nature of the position was cause for considerable internal discussion. Some in the House leadership apparently envisioned the House historian position to be merely honorific -- something akin to the Poet Laureate position that rests in the Library of Congress. These individuals envisioned that a prominent historian would hold an honorary title for a period of years. After much behind-the-scenes negotiation, that option was discarded in favor of a more vital position.

    It should be noted that the position advertised falls under what is known as "Rule 2" of the House rules for the 108th Congress. Technically speaking that rule states that Speaker Dennis Hastert (R-IL) is to make the appointment. In essence though, that appointment authority has been delegated to the Clerk. The Clerk's office (not the Speaker's) will fund the position.

    Though the position advertised may not be identical in scope, influence, stature, or function with the present Historian of the Senate position, nevertheless, many within the historical community are pleased to see the House finally set to hire a professional historian. At this juncture, it is hoped that a goodly sized pool of highly qualified congressional scholars and historians will apply for the position. For those interested, note the application deadline: 1 March 2004.

    2. PRESIDENTIAL SITES GRANT BILL TO BE INTRODUCED Good news for presidential sites! On 24 February 2004, Congressman Paul Gillmore (R-OH) in cooperation with his Democratic colleague Rep. Mike Ross
    (D-AK) will introduce companion legislation to Senator Mike DeWine's (R-OH) bill (S. 1748) – The Presidential Sites Improvement Act." The legislation seeks to create an innovative partnership with public and private entities by providing $5 million a year to assist sites associated with American presidents.

    According to the American Association for State and Local History (AASLH), one of the major museum organizations advocating for the enactment of the legislation, there are over 130 historic properties that can be classified as "presidential historic sites." About 45 of them are operated and/or funded (partially or in toto) by the federal government. Given the existing state funding crisis and declining tourism dollars caused by unemployment and economic setbacks, in some states (like Ohio) virtually all the non-federal presidential sites have little cash and enormous maintenance needs. Gillmore's bill, like DeWines' seeks to assist by providing matching grants to help address the long-term maintenance, interpretive, and other preservation-related needs of such sites.

    The legislation basically does two things: first, it authorizes to be appropriated up to $5 million annually for five years in federal grants administered by the National Park Service for presidential sites. Most of the money is set aside for properties with operating budgets under $700,000 though the bill also sets aside some funds for emergency assistance. Grants require an equivalent dollar-for-dollar non-federal match. Second, the bill creates a five-member presidential sites commission that would make grant funding recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior.

    Readers may wish to contact their Congressional representative and urge them to become "original co-sponsors" of this bi-partisan supported
    legislative effort. In communications with members offices, let staffers
    know that Congressional representatives who desire to become original co-sponsors should have their staff representative contact Andrew Beck in Rep. Gillmore's office at (202) 225-6405 or Toby Stephens in Rep. Mike Ross
    (D-AR) at (202) 225-3772 to be listed as original cosponsors of the legislation.

    3. AGREEMENT REACHED IN TRANSPORTATION BILL 4-(F) CONTROVERSY Following up on last week's posting on the controversy over the Section
    4(f) provision of the 1966 Department of Transportation Act (see "Congress Puts the Brakes on Controversial Highway Spending Bill" in NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE; Vol. 10, #5; 12 February 2004), on 5 February 2004 preservationists announced that an agreement had been reached that would streamline preservation reviews of transportation projects while continuing to accord the highest legislative protection for historic places.

    Parties to the agreement include the National Trust for Historic Preservation with its partners Preservation Action, the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers, and the American Association of State highway and Transportation Officials. Reportedly, the agreement was facilitated by Senator George V. Voinovich (R-OH) and the Ohio Department of Transportation with the support of senators John Warner (R-VA), James Jeffords (I-VT), and Lincoln Chafee (R-RI).

    Since becoming law in 1966, the Section 4-(f) provision has stopped plans for highways that would have harmed important historic resources. When the transportation bill came up for reauthorization, highway construction advocates sought to weaken the strong preservation-centered language in the measure. According to preservationists, the consensus amendment language agreed to "leaves fully intact the strong standards for protection for historic places that transportation law presently provides."

    Item #1 -- Call for Participants, "Congress in the Classroom"
    2004: "Congress in the Classroom," a national, award-winning education program sponsored by The Dirksen Congressional Center located in Pekin, Illinois, in cooperation with Bradley University, Peoria, Illinois, seeks applications from high school teachers to participate in the 2004 program. The 2004 program theme will be "Election 2004." "Congress in the Classroom" is dedicated to the exchange of ideas and information on teaching about Congress and is designed for secondary school teachers who teach U.S. history, American government civics, political science, social studies, or related subjects. Between 30 and 35 teachers from throughout the country are selected each year to take part in the program. Through a combination of first-hand knowledge and peer-to-peer interaction the conference seeks to present new ideas, materials, and a professionally enriching experience. The workshop will take place 2 - 5 August 2004, on the campus of Bradley University, Peoria, Illinois. "Congress in the Classroom" participants are responsible for (1) a non-refundable $100 registration fee and (2) transportation to and from Peoria, Illinois. Graduate credit for participation is also available. The deadline for applications is 15 March 2004. Enrollment is competitive and limited to thirty-five. For additional information tap into:
    <>;. An online registration form may be found at:

    Item #2 -- Deadline Extended, Summer Institute on Conducting Archival
    Research: Ph.D. students from any discipline working on dissertations involving archival research on Cold War topics are invited to apply to participate in a four-day Summer Institute on Conducting Archival Research to be held 14-17 June 2004 at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. The Summer Institute will focus on training graduate students to get the most out of their time conducting research in archives and will be limited to 25 participants. Applicants must submit the application form, a two-page proposal indicating how they would benefit from participation in the Summer Institute on Conducting Archival Research, a curriculum vitae, and one letter of recommendation from a faculty member in their department. The new deadline is 25 February 2004. Decisions will be announced by 1 March 2004. For additional information including an application form, visit: <>;.

    Item #3 -- Websites of Interest: Three items of interest this month:
    "Artifact Road Show -- Lesson, Learning Page" by the Library of Congress outlines a staff development workshop and offers lessons that help students see historical events in context and as a part of a larger story. Use of primary resources is the focus. Tap
    into: <>;.

    "National Parks Associated with African Americans An Ethnographic Perspective" by the National Park Service links from a map to nearly 60 national park sites & resources that emphasize the role of African Americans in the development of American culture, heritage, and history.
    Tap into:

    "The Online Academy" by the Smithsonian Institution highlights artifacts, scholars, collectors, and preservers of African American history. Tap
    into: <>;.

    One posting this week: in "Study Says U.S. Should Replace States's High School Standards" (New York Times; 10 February 2004), reporter Karen Arenson states that according to several new studies, "A patchwork of state standards is failing to produce high school graduates who are prepared either for college or for work." The solution, they say, is to adopt rigorous national standards that will turn the high school diploma into a 'common national currency.'" For the article, tap into:

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
    at: <>;.

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at and at the "network" prompt, scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    HNN - 1/30/2004

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 10, #4; 30 January 2004) by Bruce Craig (editor) National Coalition for History (NCH) Website Call for Nominations for Censorship Awards: The Thomas Jefferson Center for the Protection of Free Expression invites the submissions of opinions as to the most ridiculous and/or egregious acts of censorship to have occurred in 2003. Awarded each year in mid-April to celebrate Thomas Jefferson's birthday (13 April), the "Jefferson Muzzles" are a dubious distinction awarded to those who have forgotten (or disregarded) Mr.Jefferson's admonition that freedom of speech cannot be limited without being lost. To submit nominations reply to the e-mail address posed below with the name of the individual or organization you feel is most deserving of this "honor" along with a few words explaining why. If your nominee is chosen, your name will be placed with all the other individuals who submitted that nominee and one individual will be randomly selected to receive an official Jefferson Muzzle T-shirt - suitable apparel for such events as softball games and black-tie events. For more information on the Jefferson Muzzles and to see the past recipients, please visit:"> Nominations should be sent to Josh Wheeler at:

    HNN - 1/30/2004

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 10, #4; 30 January 2004) by Bruce Craig (editor) National Coalition for History (NCH) Website

    1. "Preserve America" Grant Program to Include History Component
    2. President Signs Omnibus Funding Bill
    3. Smithsonian Secretary Gets Probation
    4. Smithsonian History Museum Exhibition to Focus on Military History
    5. Bits and Bytes: New Coalition to Address Needs of Small Museums; Call
    By NEH For Applications to Conduct NEH Summer 2005 Seminar or Institute; Gilder Lehrman History Scholars Summer Program; Competition for the Catherine Prelinger Award Announced; Call for Nominations for Censorship Awards
    6. Articles of Interest: "The National Parks' Winter of Discontent"
    (Preservation; January/February 2004)

    1. PRESERVE AMERICA GRANT PROGRAM TO INCLUDE HISTORY COMPONENT On 15 January 2004, Mrs. Laura Bush announced that a portion of the president's proposed budget for FY 2005 will include $10 million in "Preserve America" grants to assist communities in preserving their cultural and natural resources. The grants will seek to assist states, Indian tribes, and communities that can demonstrate sustainable uses of their historic and cultural sites as well as foster economic and educational opportunities related to heritage tourism.

    "Preserve America" is a White House initiative designed in cooperation with the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the U.S. Department of Commerce. Hill insiders report that the proposed $10 million earmark for the initiative will not include any "new monies," rather, the funds will be made available "from existing programs."

    As part of the "Preserve America" initiative announcement, Mrs. Bush discussed two related education efforts that will also be launched to enhance the teaching of history in classrooms. First, in partnership with the History Channel's "Save Our History" program, the administration will support the creation of a history education manual that will provide teachers with lesson plans and ideas on how to get students involved with the preservation of historical sites in their communities. Second, in partnership with The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, the administration will honor outstanding teachers of American history with a new "'Preserve America' History Teacher of the Year" award. State winners will receive $1,000 and a core archive of history materials for their school. The national winner will be selected from the group of state finalists. For more details on the Teacher of the Year program, please
    visit: .

    During the announcement, Mrs. Bush also announced eight communities that have been honored with the "Preserve America" designation for their commitment to protecting the historic heritage of their hometowns.
    Designations include: Augusta Georgia. Castroville Texas, Delaware Ohio, Dorchester County Maryland, Key West Florida, Putnam County New York, Steamboat Springs Colorado, and Versailles Kentucky.

    For additional information on the Preserve America initiative, tap into:

    2. PRESIDENT SIGNS OMNIBUS SPENDING BILL On 23 January 2004, almost four months after the beginning of the new fiscal year, President George W. Bush signed legislation (P.L. 108-199), an omnibus appropriations measure (H.R. 2673) thereby bringing to a close the
    FY-2004 appropriations cycle. The measure provides a total of $820 billion in fiscal 2004, including $328.1 billion in discretionary spending (these numbers do not reflect an across-the-board cut of 0.59% for everything but defense spending and military construction). The House of Representatives passed the measure back on 8 December 2003 by a vote of 242-176, and the Senate passed the measure last Friday by a vote of 65-28.

    The omnibus package combines seven FY 2004 spending bills:
    Commerce-Justice-State (HR 2799), the District of Columbia (HR 2765), foreign operations (HR 2800), Labor, Health and Human Services and Education (HR 2660), Transportation-Treasury (HR 2989), VA-HUD (HR 2861), and the agriculture bill, which served as the vehicle for the omnibus bill.

    Of particular interest to historians and archivists is funding for the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). NARA will realize a budget of $316.3 million - an increase of $47.5 million over the FY 2003 appropriation. The total includes an additional $22 million for the Electronic Records Archives (ERA) program for a total of $35.9 million. In addition, the final total includes $13 million for repairs and renovations to NARA facilities, and for the first time, full-funding to its authorized level - $10million for the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). Archivist of the United States John Carlin expressed particular pleasure in seeing the ERA funds restored. Said Carlin, "The ERA is absolutely essential if we are to build an electronic archives to preserve and make available to future generations the records being created now that documents our rights as citizens, the actions of Government officials, and our national experience."

    Other provisions in the approved NARA budget include $5 million for the LBJ Library in Austin, Texas; $2.25 million to complete the land acquisition for the regional archives center in Anchorage, Alaska; a one-year extension for the Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Inter-agency Working Group; and an authorization that clears the way for eventually moving the Nixon presidential records to the now private Nixon library in Yorba Linda, California, once NARA starts operating the facility as part of its system of presidential libraries.

    The omnibus bill also set the Department of Education "Teaching American History" grant level at a record $120 million. The package also includes
    $262.596 million in funding for the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS).

    3. SMITHSONIAN SECRETARY GETS PROBATION Following up on last week's posting ("Smithsonian Secretary to Plead "Guilty" in NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE, Vol. 10, #3; 22 January 2004), on 23 January 2004, rather than sentence Smithsonian Secretary Lawrence Small to a jail term of six months and a $15,000 fine (the maximum sentence for a Class B misdemeanor violation of the federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act), a federal judge in Raleigh, North Carolina, sentenced the secretary to two years' probation and 100 hours of community service for his role in the illegal purchase and possession of Amazonian tribal art objects made with the feathers of protected species.

    As part of the plea bargain, the judge ordered Small to submit letters of apology and explanation in five of the nation's most prestigious newspapers and publications, including the National Geographic magazine. The plea agreement did not include a requirement that the apology appear in Smithsonian magazine - the publication that reaches the largest number of Smithsonian supporters and donors - or that the apology be posted on the Smithsonian website. Though he accepted the plea, Chief Judge Terrence W.
    Boyle reportedly was "uneasy" with several points in the agreement.

    According to government prosecutors, Small was "not an individual that did not have his disposal" and that he could have ensured that he was not violating the law. In addition to the nearly 200 violations associated with the one large collection that Small purchased in 1998 from an anthropologist, government prosecutors noted that Small had separately and personally illegally imported 13 items, suggesting that the secretary had, on his own, illegally imported items prior to the largest acquisition in 1988. In his decision, the judge found that Small was not an uninformed buyer, and that at the time of purchase he had a legal obligation to make sure that the purchase was proper. Though Small stated that he had consulted with a lawyer about the acquisition of the collection, there apparently "was no discussion with the lawyer about the legality."

    Small has consistently maintained that he had no knowledge that the collection he purchased contained protected species.

    4. SMITHSONIAN HISTORY MUSEUM EXHIBITION TO FOCUS ON MILITARY HISTORY On 22 January 2004, officials of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History (NMAH) announced plans to open a $19 million permanent exhibit called "The Price of Freedom" by Veterans Day 2004 (11 November). The 18,200-square-foot exhibit will explore the topic of the nation's military history, beginning with the French and Indian War in the 1750s and culminating with the conflict in Afghanistan and the Iraq war.

    The exhibition will use some 700 military-related artifacts (including a military jeep and a helicopter) that will help tell the story of how Americans fought to establish the nation's independence, determined the nation's borders, shaped its values, and defined its role in world affairs.
    Interactive stations, video presentations, and first-person accounts will be integrated into the interpretive narrative that, according to museum officials, will go beyond a mere survey of battles but instead will "examine wars as both social and military events." To that end, the exhibition will analyze the relationship between wars and American political leadership, social values, technological innovation, and personal sacrifice. According to NMAH director Brent Glass, the exhibition's goal is to "give visitors a comprehensive and memorable overview of America's military experience and the central role it has played in our national life."

    The exhibit will serve as the anchor for a newly renovated Military History Hall and is the first phase of a three-pronged renovation of the museum. The exhibit will be funded largely from an $80 million gift to the museum by businessman Kenneth Behring.

    Item #1 - New Coalition to Address Needs of Small Museums: On 30 October 2003, the American Association of Museums (AAM) brought together representatives of eighteen museum service organizations and funding agencies to discuss the needs of small museums. In attendance were representatives of National Coalition for History member organization, the American Association for State and Local History (AASLH). Representatives identified a variety of needs including the creation of an on-line clearinghouse to help small museums find products, services, funding, and professional education. Representatives also suggested the need to advocate better on behalf of the needs of small museums to foundations and governmental funding agencies. To support these types of activities the coalition plans to apply for funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services.

    Item #2 - Call By NEH For Applications to Conduct Summer 2005 Seminar or
    Institute: Each summer the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) supports faculty development through residential seminars and institutes. These projects are designed to provide teachers from across the nation with the opportunity for intensive study of important texts and topics in the humanities and are intended to foster excellent teaching by encouraging collegial discussion of humanities topics within close-knit scholarly communities. They also promote active scholarship in the humanities in ways suited to teachers at all levels from grade school through college. The NEH now encourages institutions to draft a proposal to direct a seminar or institute, or to contact a colleague whom you think might be interested in developing a project.

    In summer 2004, the NEH will support 31 projects for school teachers and 20 for college and university faculty; lists of these projects appear on the NEH website at: (school
    teachers) and (college and university teachers). Those who wish to apply to offer a seminar or institute in 2005 should contact NEH program staff to discuss the application. Program staff can answer questions, discuss current program emphases, provide samples of successful applications, and comment on an informal draft. Staff can help anticipate questions that are likely to arise in the review process. The application guidelines and program staff contact information can be found on the NEH website
    at: . Please note that these new guidelines offer the opportunity to conduct seminars and institutes that may be as short as two or three weeks. The deadline for submission is 1 March 2004. If you have questions or suggestions, do not hesitate to call on the staff at the NEH Division of Education Programs. For general questions, call Joyce Ferguson at 202-606-8463 or Jean Hughes at 202-606-8471.

    Item #3 - Gilder Lehrman History Scholars Summer Program: The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History invites college sophomores and juniors with a serious interest in American history to apply for one of fifteen history scholarships. The awards will support that their participation in a six-week residential research program in New York City, 20 June to 31 July 2004. Fifty finalists from whom the fifteen scholarship recipients will be selected, will be invited to an all-expense-paid week-long program in New York from 5 June to 12 June 2004. Participants in the six-week program will conduct primary source research to prepare historical materials for publication and will participate in weekly meetings with eminent historians to discuss historical issues and gain an insight into history as a profession. For application details, visit: .

    Item #4 - Competition for the Catherine Prelinger Award Announced: The Coordinating Council for Women in History is now accepting applications for the seventh annual Catherine Prelinger Scholarship Award. The $20,000 award is intended to enhance the work of a contemporary scholar whose academic path has not followed the traditional path of uninterrupted study, moving from completed secondary, to undergraduate then graduate degrees, followed by a tenure-track faculty position. Although the recipient's degrees do not have to be in history, their work should clearly be historical in nature. The award is intended to recognize or to enhance the ability of the recipient to contribute significantly to women in history, whether in the profession in the present or in the study of women in the past. Deadline for applications is 2 April 2004. For additional information on the scholarship including forms, contact Professor Marguerite Renner at (818) 240-1000 ext. 5461 or e-mail her at:

    Item #5 - Call for Nominations for Censorship Awards: The Thomas Jefferson Center for the Protection of Free Expression invites the submissions of opinions as to the most ridiculous and/or egregious acts of censorship to have occurred in 2003. Awarded each year in mid-April to celebrate Thomas Jefferson's birthday (13 April), the "Jefferson Muzzles" are a dubious distinction awarded to those who have forgotten (or disregarded) Mr.
    Jefferson's admonition that freedom of speech cannot be limited without being lost. To submit nominations reply to the e-mail address posed below with the name of the individual or organization you feel is most deserving of this "honor" along with a few words explaining why. If your nominee is chosen, your name will be placed with all the other individuals who submitted that nominee and one individual will be randomly selected to receive an official Jefferson Muzzle T-shirt - suitable apparel for such events as softball games and black-tie events. For more information on the Jefferson Muzzles and to see the past recipients, please
    visit: . Nominations should be sent to Josh Wheeler at: .

    One article this week: In "The National Parks' Winter of Discontent"
    (Preservation; January/February 2004) John G. Mitchell, a former senior editor at National Geographic magazine writes critically about the current policies and practices of the Bush administration that have contributed to a decline in staff morale and aggravated other underlying problems in the nation's parks and historic areas administered by the National Park Service. In his "President's Note" column, National Trust for Historic Preservation President Richard Moe pens a disclaimer to Mitchell's article stating, "I don't agree with all his conclusions, and have somewhat a different take on the general subject." Despite Moe's "take" and spirited defense of NPS Director Fran Mainella, Mitchell documents for the historic preservation community some of the factors that led the Coalition of Concerned National Park Service Retirees (a group of nearly 200 high-ranking NPS retirees) to take their concerns about the current management of the NPS directly to the White House. The White House declined to meet with the representatives of the retirees. For an excerpt of the article, tap
    into: .

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H_Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
    at: .

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e_mail message to according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H_NCH firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e_mail message to: according to the following model: SIGNOFF H_NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at and at the "network" prompt, scroll down and select H_NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    Giavanna Jaskula - 1/25/2004

    There is no evidence about Marguerite de Valois really being Joan of Arc, however there is tons of evidence about the real Joan. In the French Archives there are letters that she dictated and signed. There are also documents of her trial of condemnation and execution. How can you try to go back and change history? Without this girl, France would not be the same. Give her credit for her courage, unbelievable faith and compassion rather than calling her a myth. This young woman was incredible, she is a hero and a role model for all.

    Luke - 1/24/2004

    According to this archived article from the Jerusalem Post, Bezalel Narkiss was given permission to access the "bowels of the Vatican vault" and says the speculation about the Temple Menorah being hidden there is bunk.

    I don't know anything about Mr. Narkiss apart from that set out in the article.

    Editor - 1/22/2004

    Peter Popham, writing in the Independant (London) (Jan. 17,2004)

    ISRAEL'S TWO chief rabbis met the Pope yesterday on their first visit to the Vatican, but they failed to ask him the one question that devout Jews around the world want answering: what about the Menorah?

    The huge golden seven-branched candlestick which stood in the temple of Solomon in Jerusalem before it was sacked by the Romans in the year 70 is a symbol both of Judaism and the state of Israel.

    A relief depicting Roman legionaries bearing the Menorah away in triumph as part of the spoils of the campaign is carved on the Arch of Titus, which still stands near the Colosseum in the centre of Rome.

    And a rumour has persisted down the centuries that the Menorah, the prototype of which was supposedly created by Moses to God's instructions, found its way into the Vatican's store rooms.

    One version has it that the relic is kept in a vault four storeys beneath the west wing of the Vatican.

    In January 1996, claiming that new research by the University of Florence had revealed that the Menorah might still be among the Vatican's treasures, Israel's Minister of Religious Affairs, Shimon Shetreet, asked the Pope to give it back.

    "I don't say it's there for sure," he remarked, "but I asked the Pope to help in the search as a goodwill gesture, in recognition of the improved relations between Catholics and Jews."

    Before leaving Israel, the chief rabbis who met the Pope yesterday, Yona Metzger and Shlomo Amar, said they would ask for permission to search for the Menorah and other historical artefacts in the Vatican's store rooms.

    Whether the solemnity of the occasion took away their resolve or a papal aide had had a quiet word in their ear has yet to be clarified, but after the audience Mr Metzger said they had not mentioned the sacred, solid gold candelabra. "We left it to his discretion to find an object that would be important to us," he said.

    They were shown manuscripts written by the 12th-century Jewish scholar Moses Maimonides, and asked whether the Vatican would be prepared to lend them to Israel.

    "We don't know if the Menorah exists," Mr Metzger went on, "but if it does, and they decide to give it to us, there will be no greater joy for us."

    Some devout Jews believe that the long-awaited return of the Menorah to Israel will augur the building of the Third Temple and the coming of the Messiah. As the land where the first two temples stood is occupied by the al-Aqsa mosque and the Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem's two holiest Islamic monuments, it is a question of political as well as religious importance.

    The 18th-century British historian Edward Gibbon, however, believed that the Menorah went to the bottom of the Mediterranean in a shipwreck, after being pillaged from Rome by a "haughty Vandal".

    Yesterday the Vatican could not be reached for clarification.

    Editor - 1/22/2004

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 10, #3; 22 January 2004) by Bruce Craig (editor) National Coalition for History (NCH) Website

    1. Congress Returns to Work!
    2. Smithsonian Secretary to Plead "Guilty"
    3. Clark Issues Secrecy and Openness Statement
    4. Update: Oral History Exemption From IRB Review
    5. Bits and Bytes: FRUS Volume on Arab-Israeli War Issued; ALA Seeks
    Award Nominations;
    The Dirksen Congressional Center Congressional Research Awards; Position Announcement -- Deputy Executive Director NHPRC
    6. Articles of Interest: "At 110, Still Asking 'Why Should It Be Easy'?"
    (New York Times, 21
    January 2004)

    As the remaining candidates in the Democratic presidential nomination contest bandage their wounds from the Iowa caucuses and march to New England to battle it out again in Tuesday's New Hampshire primary, members of Congress returned to Washington this week with another battle on their minds -- one to pass those bills that have yet to be acted on that impact the FY
    2004 appropriation cycle. Republican and Democratic combatants will also need to start focusing on the proposals outlined in the president's State of the Union address as well as the president's FY 2005 budget, which is expected to be released in early February.

    George Bush's third State of the Union address reflected the White House's top priority -- get the president re-elected. Bush, for example, spoke on education-related issues for only a few moments in his 45- minute speech and even then the focus of his comments was on the "No Child Left Behind Act" initiative accomplishments. Unlike his previous addresses there were few new ambitious goals outlined.. Instead, his speech focused on his administration's past legislative
    successes. Hill insiders expect that in coming months the White House
    will probably push hard
    for only a limited number of proposals outlined in the speech and relegate to the back-burner other parts of his stated agenda. As one seasoned Hill-watcher put it, "the importance of an election year session is to score political points, not to pass legislation."

    So where does that put history and archives? Republicans are once again expected to push for early action on the FY-2005 budget. But first, the Senate must act on the massive $820 billion (yes that's billion) omnibus appropriations bill that wraps together seven appropriation bills that Congress failed to dispense with prior to adjournment last year. Of special concern to the historical and archival communities is the still-in-limbo budget for the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) including the record increase to $10 million
    ("full-funding") for
    National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC).

    Republicans have threatened to enact a year-round Continuing Resolution
    (CR) that would keep
    spending for the remaining federal agencies frozen at last year's levels should Senate Democrats continue to "block" passage of the massive spending bill. Should a year-round CR be the route Congress decides to adopt it would be disastrous for NARA and the other federal agencies whose
    FY-2004 appropriation levels have yet to be decided. This is not too likely as at stake is not just the NARA budget increases but over $10 billion in Congressional earmarks that benefit literally hundreds of members of Congress. Naturally, incumbent members who are up for re-election will want to bring home federal dollars and programs to benefit constituents.
    Though at this writing
    the Senate has blocked immediate passage of the spending bill, Hill insiders believe the initial blocking action was largely designed to deprive the president a legislative victory just prior to the State of the Union address. Insiders expect the controversial measure indeed will pass prior to the end of the month. Keep your fingers crossed!

    Lawrence Small, the embattled secretary of the Smithsonian and reportedly an avid art collector, is expected to plead guilty this Friday in a Federal Court in Raleigh, North Carolina, to one-count of a Class-B misdemeanor violation of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. After literally years of investigation, federal officials finally have officially determined that Small's personal collection that he purchased in 1998 included feathers from several protected species.
    While few details
    were made public about the investigation or the bargaining leading to the plea, the U.S. Attorney decided not to recommend any fine or incarceration. When the matter first came to the attention of federal authorities in November 2000, Small maintained (as he has consistently since then in other statements) that if he violated the law it was unintentional.

    The Board of Regents, the body that hired Small and also has the authority to fire him, concluded that since the secretary "cooperated fully with the investigation," since he "voluntarily surrendered his entire feather-work collection to the government," and since his actions do not involve "criminal intent," the Board does not expect the case to affect Smalls status as head of the Smithsonian. A statement issued by the Executive Committee of the Smithsonian Board of Regents declares, "This matter has not impaired, is not now impairing, and will not hereafter impair the secretary's ability to continue serving the Smithsonian Institution in the excellent manner he which he has performed over the past four years."

    3. CLARK ISSUES SECRECY AND OPENNESS STATEMENT Following up on last week's posting outlining Senator Joe Lieberman's plan for government openness should he be elected (see "Lieberman on Government Secrecy" in NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE; Vol. 10 #2; 16 January 2004), on 16 January 2004, Democratic presidential contender General Wesley Clark announced his intention "to reverse Mr. Bush's secrecy policies" and "to create the most open and honest government in American history."

    Clark cited the now-familiar litany of Bush Administration excesses and declared that "on day one of my Administration, I'll sign an Executive Order reversing George Bush's FOIA rollbacks, and restoring the public's right to know....We're [the Democrats] the party of accessibility and accountability," he said while the Republicans are "the party of secrecy and special interests. This is just another way to draw the line between us."

    Thanks to the Federation of American Scientists, the text of the candidate's remarks may be found at: .

    4. UPDATE: ORAL HISTORY EXEMPTION FROM IRB REVIEW As readers may recall, on 26 August 2003, the Office for Human Research Protection (OHRP) concurred in a policy statement developed jointly by the American Historical Association (AHA) and the Oral History Association (OHA) regarding the application of federal regulations governing research on human subjects to oral history. Since then many campus-based oral history projects have been able to proceed with their interviews without submitting protocols for review by an Institutional Review Board. (The policy statement can be found at:
    . There have,
    however, been
    several memos in circulation in which IRB representatives have raised questions about the standing of the policy statement or suggested hypothetical cases in which oral history projects might still be subject to review.

    Subsequent to a conference call between representatives of history organizations and OHRP officials, on 7 January 2004, the OHRP confirmed its concurrence with the existing policy statement. On 8 January Dr. Michael Carome, the Associate Director for Regulatory Affairs, issued the following statement: "To summarize from OHRP's perspective, OHRP yesterday reaffirmed its concurrence with your policy statement that oral history interviewing activities, in general, are not designed to contribute to generalizable knowledge and therefore do not involve research as defined by Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regulations at 45 CFR
    46.102(d) and do not need to be reviewed by an institutional review board (IRB). OHRP has tried consistently to confirm this concurrence whenever it receives inquiries about this matter from representatives of IRBs or other institutional officials."

    Confusion arose around the concepts of "research" and "generalizable knowledge." In a statement issued by Linda Shopes (representing the AHA) and Donald Ritchie (representing the
    "While oral history clearly involves historical research and interviews can lend themselves to generalizations, oral historians' standard operating procedures do not fit the type of research defined by federal regulations: "a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge." Individually- tailored interviews with the narrator's informed consent do not meet this definition of "research,"
    nor do they contribute to "generalizable knowledge," even if conducted with people identified with a common group, theme or event, and whether or not the interviewer or other researchers might draw some historical generalizations from the multiple interviews. The interviews must be designed specifically to produce generalizable knowledge in the scientific sense (as detailed in paragraph two of the August 26th policy statement)." In summary, only those interview projects that meet the above federal definition should be submitted for IRB review. Those that do not are not subject to review.

    In order to avoid future confusion Shopes and Ritchie urge IRBs and historians to consult with each other when developing campus-wide policies.

    Item #1 -- FRUS Volume on Arab-Israeli War Issued:
    The Department of State has published the latest volume in its official Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) documentary series on U.S. foreign policy, focusing on the 1967 Arab- Israeli War. The volume documents U.S. policy immediately before, during, and after the June
    1967 Arab-Israeli war and includes newly declassified documentation on the USS Liberty incident," referring to the 1967 attack on a U.S. naval vessel by Israeli forces in which 34 American lives were lost. Among numerous noteworthy items, the new FRUS volume includes excerpts from the President's Daily Brief relating to the 1967 war.
    The full text of Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968, Volume XIX, "Arab-Israeli Crisis and War, 1967" may be accessed at:

    Item #2 -- ALA Seeks Award Nominations: The American Library Association
    (ALA) seeks
    nominations to be considered for the James Madison Award that will be presented 16 March
    2004 at the Freedom Forum National Freedom of Information Day program. The James Madison Award is presented on Freedom of Information Day to recognize those individuals or groups that have championed access to government information and the public's right to know. FOIA Day is an annual event on or near March 16, the birthday of James Madison, regarded as the Father of the Constitution as well as the foremost advocate for openness in government. Nominations may be made in letter, email, or fax to the American Library Association, Washington Office no later than 2 February 2004. Submissions should include a statement (a paragraph or two) about nominee's contribution to public access to government information and why you think it merits the award, and, preferably, a seconding letter. Please include a brief biography and contact information for the nominee. Send nominations to: JAMES MADISON AWARD, American Library Association, Washington Office, 1301 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Suite 403, Washington, D.C. 20004-1701 or by e-mail to: . For further information or questions, please contact Patrice McDermott at 800-941-8478;

    Item #3 -- The Dirksen Congressional Center Congressional Research
    Awards: The Dirksen
    Congressional Center invites applications for grants totaling $35,000 in
    2004 that will fund
    research on congressional leadership and the U.S. Congress. The competition is open to individuals with a serious interest in studying Congress. Political scientists, historians, biographers, scholars of public administration or American studies, and journalists are among those eligible. The Center encourages graduate students to apply and awards a significant portion of the funds for dissertation research. Undergraduate or pre-Ph.D. study, research teams of two or more individuals, and organizations are not eligible. There is no standard application form.
    Applicants are responsible for showing the relationship between their work and the awards program guidelines. Applications are accepted at any time. All application materials must be postmarked on or before 1 February 2004. Awards will be announced in March 2004. Complete information about eligibility and application procedures may be found at the Center's website at:

    Item #4 -- Position Announcement -- Deputy Executive Director NHPRC: In adherence to a long tradition in this publication, the NCH does not normally post job announcements. Nevertheless, occasionally a position is of such importance that every avenue of recruitment is deemed necessary. This is one such instance. Please note that the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) invites applications for the position of Deputy Executive Director of the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). The NHPRC promotes the preservation and publication of American historical records by public and private institutions through its grants and educational programs. The Deputy Director is responsible for managing the day-to-day operations of the NHPRC. Candidates for the position must possess knowledge of American history, professional research practices, and current trends in historical research and archival usage; archival, records management, electronic records management, and documentary editing principles and methods; and Federal grant programs which support archival activity or historical research/education efforts. The position is advertized at the federal GS 13/14 level (salary range $70,519 to $108,335 per year). For a copy of Public Notice Announcement #N 04- 71B, visit the NARA website at:
    or call 1-800-827-4898.
    Complete applications must be postmarked by 3 February 2004.

    One article this week, Julie Salamon's "At 110, Still Asking 'Why Should It Be Easy'?" (New York Times, 21 January 2004) examines the Jewish Museum, an institution not afraid to challenge and even anger visitors. Tap into:.

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page at:

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to:
    according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at and at the "network" prompt, scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    Editor - 1/22/2004

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 10, #3; 22 January 2004) by Bruce Craig (editor) National Coalition for History (NCH) Website

    1. Congress Returns to Work!
    2. Smithsonian Secretary to Plead "Guilty"
    3. Clark Issues Secrecy and Openness Statement
    4. Update: Oral History Exemption From IRB Review
    5. Bits and Bytes: FRUS Volume on Arab-Israeli War Issued; ALA Seeks
    Award Nominations;
    The Dirksen Congressional Center Congressional Research Awards; Position Announcement -- Deputy Executive Director NHPRC
    6. Articles of Interest: "At 110, Still Asking 'Why Should It Be Easy'?"
    (New York Times, 21
    January 2004)

    As the remaining candidates in the Democratic presidential nomination contest bandage their wounds from the Iowa caucuses and march to New England to battle it out again in Tuesday's New Hampshire primary, members of Congress returned to Washington this week with another battle on their minds -- one to pass those bills that have yet to be acted on that impact the FY
    2004 appropriation cycle. Republican and Democratic combatants will also need to start focusing on the proposals outlined in the president's State of the Union address as well as the president's FY 2005 budget, which is expected to be released in early February.

    George Bush's third State of the Union address reflected the White House's top priority -- get the president re-elected. Bush, for example, spoke on education-related issues for only a few moments in his 45- minute speech and even then the focus of his comments was on the "No Child Left Behind Act" initiative accomplishments. Unlike his previous addresses there were few new ambitious goals outlined.. Instead, his speech focused on his administration's past legislative
    successes. Hill insiders expect that in coming months the White House
    will probably push hard
    for only a limited number of proposals outlined in the speech and relegate to the back-burner other parts of his stated agenda. As one seasoned Hill-watcher put it, "the importance of an election year session is to score political points, not to pass legislation."

    So where does that put history and archives? Republicans are once again expected to push for early action on the FY-2005 budget. But first, the Senate must act on the massive $820 billion (yes that's billion) omnibus appropriations bill that wraps together seven appropriation bills that Congress failed to dispense with prior to adjournment last year. Of special concern to the historical and archival communities is the still-in-limbo budget for the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) including the record increase to $10 million
    ("full-funding") for
    National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC).

    Republicans have threatened to enact a year-round Continuing Resolution
    (CR) that would keep
    spending for the remaining federal agencies frozen at last year's levels should Senate Democrats continue to "block" passage of the massive spending bill. Should a year-round CR be the route Congress decides to adopt it would be disastrous for NARA and the other federal agencies whose
    FY-2004 appropriation levels have yet to be decided. This is not too likely as at stake is not just the NARA budget increases but over $10 billion in Congressional earmarks that benefit literally hundreds of members of Congress. Naturally, incumbent members who are up for re-election will want to bring home federal dollars and programs to benefit constituents.
    Though at this writing
    the Senate has blocked immediate passage of the spending bill, Hill insiders believe the initial blocking action was largely designed to deprive the president a legislative victory just prior to the State of the Union address. Insiders expect the controversial measure indeed will pass prior to the end of the month. Keep your fingers crossed!

    Lawrence Small, the embattled secretary of the Smithsonian and reportedly an avid art collector, is expected to plead guilty this Friday in a Federal Court in Raleigh, North Carolina, to one-count of a Class-B misdemeanor violation of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. After literally years of investigation, federal officials finally have officially determined that Small's personal collection that he purchased in 1998 included feathers from several protected species.
    While few details
    were made public about the investigation or the bargaining leading to the plea, the U.S. Attorney decided not to recommend any fine or incarceration. When the matter first came to the attention of federal authorities in November 2000, Small maintained (as he has consistently since then in other statements) that if he violated the law it was unintentional.

    The Board of Regents, the body that hired Small and also has the authority to fire him, concluded that since the secretary "cooperated fully with the investigation," since he "voluntarily surrendered his entire feather-work collection to the government," and since his actions do not involve "criminal intent," the Board does not expect the case to affect Smalls status as head of the Smithsonian. A statement issued by the Executive Committee of the Smithsonian Board of Regents declares, "This matter has not impaired, is not now impairing, and will not hereafter impair the secretary's ability to continue serving the Smithsonian Institution in the excellent manner he which he has performed over the past four years."

    3. CLARK ISSUES SECRECY AND OPENNESS STATEMENT Following up on last week's posting outlining Senator Joe Lieberman's plan for government openness should he be elected (see "Lieberman on Government Secrecy" in NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE; Vol. 10 #2; 16 January 2004), on 16 January 2004, Democratic presidential contender General Wesley Clark announced his intention "to reverse Mr. Bush's secrecy policies" and "to create the most open and honest government in American history."

    Clark cited the now-familiar litany of Bush Administration excesses and declared that "on day one of my Administration, I'll sign an Executive Order reversing George Bush's FOIA rollbacks, and restoring the public's right to know....We're [the Democrats] the party of accessibility and accountability," he said while the Republicans are "the party of secrecy and special interests. This is just another way to draw the line between us."

    Thanks to the Federation of American Scientists, the text of the candidate's remarks may be found at: .

    4. UPDATE: ORAL HISTORY EXEMPTION FROM IRB REVIEW As readers may recall, on 26 August 2003, the Office for Human Research Protection (OHRP) concurred in a policy statement developed jointly by the American Historical Association (AHA) and the Oral History Association (OHA) regarding the application of federal regulations governing research on human subjects to oral history. Since then many campus-based oral history projects have been able to proceed with their interviews without submitting protocols for review by an Institutional Review Board. (The policy statement can be found at:
    . There have,
    however, been
    several memos in circulation in which IRB representatives have raised questions about the standing of the policy statement or suggested hypothetical cases in which oral history projects might still be subject to review.

    Subsequent to a conference call between representatives of history organizations and OHRP officials, on 7 January 2004, the OHRP confirmed its concurrence with the existing policy statement. On 8 January Dr. Michael Carome, the Associate Director for Regulatory Affairs, issued the following statement: "To summarize from OHRP's perspective, OHRP yesterday reaffirmed its concurrence with your policy statement that oral history interviewing activities, in general, are not designed to contribute to generalizable knowledge and therefore do not involve research as defined by Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regulations at 45 CFR
    46.102(d) and do not need to be reviewed by an institutional review board (IRB). OHRP has tried consistently to confirm this concurrence whenever it receives inquiries about this matter from representatives of IRBs or other institutional officials."

    Confusion arose around the concepts of "research" and "generalizable knowledge." In a statement issued by Linda Shopes (representing the AHA) and Donald Ritchie (representing the
    "While oral history clearly involves historical research and interviews can lend themselves to generalizations, oral historians' standard operating procedures do not fit the type of research defined by federal regulations: "a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge." Individually- tailored interviews with the narrator's informed consent do not meet this definition of "research,"
    nor do they contribute to "generalizable knowledge," even if conducted with people identified with a common group, theme or event, and whether or not the interviewer or other researchers might draw some historical generalizations from the multiple interviews. The interviews must be designed specifically to produce generalizable knowledge in the scientific sense (as detailed in paragraph two of the August 26th policy statement)." In summary, only those interview projects that meet the above federal definition should be submitted for IRB review. Those that do not are not subject to review.

    In order to avoid future confusion Shopes and Ritchie urge IRBs and historians to consult with each other when developing campus-wide policies.

    Item #1 -- FRUS Volume on Arab-Israeli War Issued:
    The Department of State has published the latest volume in its official Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) documentary series on U.S. foreign policy, focusing on the 1967 Arab- Israeli War. The volume documents U.S. policy immediately before, during, and after the June
    1967 Arab-Israeli war and includes newly declassified documentation on the USS Liberty incident," referring to the 1967 attack on a U.S. naval vessel by Israeli forces in which 34 American lives were lost. Among numerous noteworthy items, the new FRUS volume includes excerpts from the President's Daily Brief relating to the 1967 war.
    The full text of Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968, Volume XIX, "Arab-Israeli Crisis and War, 1967" may be accessed at:

    Item #2 -- ALA Seeks Award Nominations: The American Library Association
    (ALA) seeks
    nominations to be considered for the James Madison Award that will be presented 16 March
    2004 at the Freedom Forum National Freedom of Information Day program. The James Madison Award is presented on Freedom of Information Day to recognize those individuals or groups that have championed access to government information and the public's right to know. FOIA Day is an annual event on or near March 16, the birthday of James Madison, regarded as the Father of the Constitution as well as the foremost advocate for openness in government. Nominations may be made in letter, email, or fax to the American Library Association, Washington Office no later than 2 February 2004. Submissions should include a statement (a paragraph or two) about nominee's contribution to public access to government information and why you think it merits the award, and, preferably, a seconding letter. Please include a brief biography and contact information for the nominee. Send nominations to: JAMES MADISON AWARD, American Library Association, Washington Office, 1301 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Suite 403, Washington, D.C. 20004-1701 or by e-mail to: . For further information or questions, please contact Patrice McDermott at 800-941-8478;

    Item #3 -- The Dirksen Congressional Center Congressional Research
    Awards: The Dirksen
    Congressional Center invites applications for grants totaling $35,000 in
    2004 that will fund
    research on congressional leadership and the U.S. Congress. The competition is open to individuals with a serious interest in studying Congress. Political scientists, historians, biographers, scholars of public administration or American studies, and journalists are among those eligible. The Center encourages graduate students to apply and awards a significant portion of the funds for dissertation research. Undergraduate or pre-Ph.D. study, research teams of two or more individuals, and organizations are not eligible. There is no standard application form.
    Applicants are responsible for showing the relationship between their work and the awards program guidelines. Applications are accepted at any time. All application materials must be postmarked on or before 1 February 2004. Awards will be announced in March 2004. Complete information about eligibility and application procedures may be found at the Center's website at:

    Item #4 -- Position Announcement -- Deputy Executive Director NHPRC: In adherence to a long tradition in this publication, the NCH does not normally post job announcements. Nevertheless, occasionally a position is of such importance that every avenue of recruitment is deemed necessary. This is one such instance. Please note that the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) invites applications for the position of Deputy Executive Director of the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). The NHPRC promotes the preservation and publication of American historical records by public and private institutions through its grants and educational programs. The Deputy Director is responsible for managing the day-to-day operations of the NHPRC. Candidates for the position must possess knowledge of American history, professional research practices, and current trends in historical research and archival usage; archival, records management, electronic records management, and documentary editing principles and methods; and Federal grant programs which support archival activity or historical research/education efforts. The position is advertized at the federal GS 13/14 level (salary range $70,519 to $108,335 per year). For a copy of Public Notice Announcement #N 04- 71B, visit the NARA website at:
    or call 1-800-827-4898.
    Complete applications must be postmarked by 3 February 2004.

    One article this week, Julie Salamon's "At 110, Still Asking 'Why Should It Be Easy'?" (New York Times, 21 January 2004) examines the Jewish Museum, an institution not afraid to challenge and even anger visitors. Tap into:.

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page at:

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to:
    according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at and at the "network" prompt, scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    Editor - 1/20/2004

    South China Morning Post
    January 20, 2004
    SECTION: News; Pg. 1
    HEADLINE: Ministry lifts lid on thousands of files Anyone can apply to view declassified documents from early days of party rule
    Ray Cheung

    The Foreign Ministry is opening to the public thousands of declassified files from the early years of the People's Republic of China, including manuscripts of late premier Zhou Enlai.

    The move, the first by a Chinese ministry, has been made possible by the equivalent of Britain's 30-year rule on disclosure of government files. It was applauded yesterday by a mainland scholar as another move towards transparency by the central government.

    The documents include directives and speeches drafted by Zhou, who served as foreign minister from 1949 to 1958, and diplomatic despatches on the establishment of official ties between China and its early partners such as the former Soviet Union.

    Others show how China fought to establish its seats in the two important international institutions at the time: the Geneva Conference, a grouping of major powers such as the United States and Britain to discuss the issue of Korea, and the Bandung Conference handling issues of colonialism and national independence in East Asia.

    Xinhua said the release of the files was in accordance with the Archives Law and followed the recent promulgation of a regulation by the Foreign Ministry. Under the law, documents that are over 30 years old and are no longer subject to classification or restricted access can be made available to the public.

    "Archives should serve the state interests and the public," Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing was quoted as saying.

    The declassification is seen as another move by Mr Li to boost transparency. The veteran diplomat has taken several steps to boost openness, including appearing in an internet chat room to answer questions about the mainland's position on foreign affairs.

    To view the documents, interested parties are required to apply 20 working days in advance, and show a letter of introduction from their employers or research unit. Foreigners can apply through their embassies.

    A Foreign Ministry employee said the archive had been open since last Friday and the office had already received six applications.

    The documents are in digital form and viewers are only allowed to take handwritten notes. File reproduction will be permitted on a case by case basis.

    The ministry employee said the files did not include any related to Western Europe or the United States. She declined to say if the files covered military history such as the 1950-1953 Korean war.

    Despite the limitations, Zhang Baijia, an historian at the Communist Party Central Committee's History Research Centre in Beijing, said the move was a "major step forward ... people now have the right to information".

    He said the declassification should allow historians to engage in more accurate research, instead of relying on educated guesses.

    He expects the Foreign Ministry to release more files in the future.

    Rick Perlstein - 1/17/2004

    Are the numbers in this document in line with what people would have expected? Lower? Higher? Do they shed any light on the CIA budget?

    Rick Perlstein

    Editor - 1/16/2004

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 10, #2; 16 January 2004) by Bruce Craig (editor) <> National Coalition for History (NCH) Website

    1. Report: 118th Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association 2. Management Reorganization at the Smithsonian Announced 3. Update: Archival Profession Census 4. Lieberman on Government Secrecy 5. Bits and Bytes: NARA Proposal for Revision of Access Regulations; National History Day Announces Summer Institute; World Monuments Fund Watch List; Stolen Sword Recovered by FBI 6. Articles of Interest: "Humanities Endowment Returns to 'Flagging'
    Nontraditional Projects" Chronicle of Higher Education (16 January 2004)

    1. REPORT: 118th ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION On 8-11 January 2004, 5,345 historians braved frigid temperatures to attend the 118th annual meeting of the American Historical Association held in Washington D.C. Among the programmatic highlights, Senator Robert C. Byrd
    (D-WV) received an enthusiastic reception when presented the first "Theodore Roosevelt-Woodrow Wilson Award for Civil Service" in recognition of the senator's "lifelong and passionate commitment to the discipline of history." Following Byrd's introspective comments about his own encounter with history, a panel headed by Harvard University's Charles Maier addressed the subject, "Thought on War in a Democratic Age."

    On Saturday evening, an estimated 600 persons turned out for the AHA General Meeting to learn of this year's prize winners and to hear AHA President James McPherson's deliver his presidential address, "No Peace Without Victory, 1861-65." McPherson's talk focused on diplomatic efforts to end the American Civil War and was built around the central theme that for at least two centuries, Americans have found it far easier to start a war than to end it. McPherson opened his talk by stating, "They forgot this lesson in Vietnam and then forgot it again in Iraq."

    For three days, historians and others from a smattering of other disciplines in attendance had a wide selection of panels to choose to choose from. While the meeting's general theme was "War and Peace" topics ranged from the broadest to the most specialized and arcane. At lunch on Friday, the National Coalition for History sponsored a brown-bag forum entitled, "The Bush Administration and Federal History Programs: What's In Store for the Future" where Eugene Hickok, Undersecretary of Education, Cherie Harder, Senior Counselor for National Endowment for the Humanities Chairman Bruce Cole, and Max Evans, Director of the National Historical Publications and Records Commission addressed a capacity audience. While none of the speakers revealed specific budget numbers soon to be announced in the president's FY-2005 budget, all the speakers led the audience to believe that when formally announced, the Bush administration budget proposals for history and archives will please the professions.

    On Saturday morning, at the breakfast meeting of the AHA Committee on Women Historians, Columbia University's Alice Kessler-Harris delivered a thoughtful and highly personal address, "Coalitions of the Imagination"
    that focused on the progress and remaining challenges for women historians.

    In addition to session panels, the AHA also sponsored several workshops. "The Education of Historians for the Twenty-First Century"
    workshop covered the findings of the AHA's Committee on Graduate Education's three-year study of the training of history PhDs. The report, available from the University of Illinois Press (at: is a must read for history department chairs. Of particular interest to public historians, the results of the AHA Task Force on Public History
    ( was the subject of a spirited discussion on the future of public history within the AHA.

    At the annual AHA business meeting (a normally rather predictable and dry affair), prior to the traditional handing over of the gavel to incoming AHA president Jonathan Spence of Yale, Princeton's James McPherson presided over a testy membership debate over a resolution that pitted some Yale graduate students against history department professors on the contentious issue of the university's handling of labor relations in an ongoing unionization effort on behalf of some Yale graduate students. The membership also considered a resolution sponsored by Historians Against the War that condemned efforts to restrict free speech in the name of national security. Both resolutions passed (the latter unanimously).

    2. MANAGEMENT REORGANIZATION AT THE SMITHSONIAN ANNOUNCED Smithsonian Secretary Lawrence Small has announced several changes in his senior management team. According to Small, the changes, effective immediately, "should improve coordination, cooperation and communication throughout the Institution." He added that the change also enables him to focus more time on "acquiring the resources we need to continue to serve the public in an exemplary fashion."

    Sheila Burke, formerly Under-Secretary for American Museums and National Programs assumes a newly created position -- Deputy Secretary and Chief Operating Officer. In her new role, Burke will continue most of her responsibilities she had as Under-Secretary but will add new duties in oversight of the Office of the Chief Financial Officer, the Office of Facilities Engineering and Operations, and the Office of the Chief Information Officer (information technology).

    Small also announced that Ned Rifkin, Director of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, will become the Under Secretary for Art, a newly created position, while continuing to serve as head of the Hirshhorn. Rifkin, who joined the Smithsonian in 2002, had recently taken on responsibility for the Freer and Sackler Galleries, Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum in New York, and the National Museum of African Art. The National Portrait Gallery, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, and Renwick Gallery will be added to his portfolio. This organizational structure seeks to bring together all the Smithsonian's vast national and international art collections as well as their research, public programming, and outreach under one manager. Also, Under Secretary for Science Dave Evans, head of the science museums, research centers, and the National Zoological Park, will have new responsibility for the National Air and Space Museum.

    Thanks to a $247,932 grant funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), the Society of American Archivists (SAA) is pleased to announce that a comprehensive survey of the archival profession will be mailed to U.S. archivists in the Spring of 2004. The goal of A*CENSUS (Archival Census and Education Needs Survey in the U.S.) is to define the universe of archivists currently in the workforce, determine the knowledge and skills they need to do their jobs now and in the future, and provide graduate and continuing education programs with data to support recruitment and training of new archivists. The project seeks the active participation from all archival associations in the U.S., as well as many organizations serving in closely allied fields whose members bear significant responsibility for historical records, including librarians, local historians, records managers, and museum curators.

    Back in November 2003, a working group charged with developing and conducting the census began its deliberations about the scope and nature of this collaborative effort. A broad range of archival interests were represented within the working group, including graduate archival education programs, continuing education programs, and the following national and regional organizations: Academy of Certified Archivists, Association of Moving Image Archivists, Conference of Inter-Mountain Archivists, Council of State Historical Records Coordinators, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Mid-Atlantic Regional Archives Conference, Midwest Archives Conference, National Archives and Records Administration/Modern Archives Institute, National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators, New England Archivists, Northwest Archivists, Inc., Rare Books and Manuscripts Section of the Association of College and Research Libraries, Society of American Archivists (SAA), Society of American Archivists Diversity Committee, Society of California Archivists, and Society of Southwest Archivists.

    The master census mailing list consists primarily of membership lists gathered from U.S. archival associations. However, individuals who work with archival material but are not a member of a local, state, or regional archival organization, are encouraged to contact the census project manager
    at:, with your name, institutional affiliation, mailing address, email address. Please indicate how you heard about the census. Anyone who does not receive the census survey by 1 April 2004, please contact the census project manager at the above address.

    Preliminary reports of the census findings are expected to be available when the SAA assembles for its annual meeting in Boston in August. A more comprehensive final report will be developed later in the year, and the data gathered will be shared broadly with participating organizations and interested individuals in the Spring 2005.

    For more information, contact or refer to

    Now that the election season has kicked into full swing and candidates are trying to woo voters, we can expect them to begin to speak out on various issues of interest to the history and archives community. For example, last week, Democratic presidential candidate Sen. Joseph Lieberman issued a detailed critique of Bush administration secrecy policy and proposed a plan outlining specifically how he would tear down what he called the "Bush wall of secrecy."

    Under President Bush, "the federal government--which is supposed to be 'of, by, and for the people'--is doing more and more of its own business in the shadows," said Lieberman in a 9 January statement. The Bush administration secrecy is "eroding the public's confidence in their leadership and making it harder for independent watchdogs to hold our government accountable," he said. Lieberman also outlined what he would do differently as president, beginning with a reversal of many of the secrecy positions advanced by the Bush administration.

    According to Lieberman's statement, he would annul the October 2001 Ashcroft memorandum of Freedom of Information Act policy and would "commit to no more secret task forces," a pointed reference to Vice-President Cheney's controversial closed-door Energy Task Force. Of particular interest to historians and archivists, Lieberman would "reverse the Bush executive order on presidential records," which imposed extraordinary restrictions on public access to the records of past administrations. And where the Bush administration had moved to purge government web sites, he would "ensure that key government information that has been posted on the Internet will remain available to the public." Furthermore, Lieberman would mandate that all agency heads establish and implement an openness plan and then requiring agency officials to disseminate the most information possible, consistent with national security. The plans will be audited and scored in annual Open Government Report Cards.

    Steven Aftergood of the Federation of American Scientists states that while nearly all of the Democratic candidates have made generalized criticisms of the Bush administration's policies relating to government secrecy, to date "no candidate except Lieberman has issued such a detailed policy agenda on how they would do differently. Somebody clearly put some thought into is not a knee-jerk declaration but reflects some thought about the nature of the problem and the way to address it."

    Aftergood praised the candidate's proposal to grade agencies on openness -- "it is simple yet insightful." Aftergood also noted that unless he reversed his current position, the perceived Democratic front-runner, Howard Dean, is not in an optimum position on the issue of government secrecy -- "The decision to close his gubernatorial records, for example, would have to be reversed."

    A copy of the 9 January Lieberman statement on secrecy almost may be viewed
    at: <>.

    Item #1 -- NARA Proposal for Revision of Access Regulations: The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has published a proposed revision to its access regulations in the Federal Register. NARA proposes to revise its regulations on access to federal records and donated historical materials containing restricted information. The proposal entirely rewrites and reorganizes this portion of NARA's regulations to incorporate several changes, and also to clarify it using plain language.
    The regulation has been updated to bring the language on access restrictions in better conformance with the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). In addition, NARA proposes to remove an existing policy that allows access to restricted information for purposes of biomedical statistical research. This proposed rule would affect the public and federal agencies.
    Comments must be received on or before 5 March 2004. The online text of the proposed rule may be accessed at:>.

    Item #2 -- National History Day Announces Summer Institute: National History Day has announced its 2004 summer institute, "Politics and the
    Press: The Influence of the Media on History." The institute is targeted to teachers of U.S. or World history/social studies, librarians, and media specialists for grades 6-12, and will be held 25-30 July 2004 at the University of Maryland at College Park. The purpose of the institute is to improve the teaching of history by exposing participants to recent scholarship about the influence of the media, familiarizing them with the primary sources available for studying and teaching, and modeling different ways of encouraging active learning. The institute will feature sessions led by prominent historians who will discuss the latest research and scholarship on topics that deal with politics and the press. Visits to the White House, the State Department, the Newseum, and other sites to enhance how politics and the press relate to each other in a variety of settings. Applications must be postmarked no later than 15 March 2004. For a brochure, application and more information on the institute visit:
    <> and click on "Educator Summer Institute."

    Item #3 -- World Monuments Fund Watch List: The World Monument's Watch, a global program launched in 1995 that calls attention to imperiled cultural heritage sites around the world, has issued its list of the 100 Most Endangered Sites. The nominations are submitted to the WMF every two years by governments, cultural preservation organizations, and individuals. Six sites in the United States are listed including the historic Lower Manhattan in New York City. For the list tap into:

    Item #4 -- Stolen Sword Recovered by FBI: The FBI returned to the U.S.
    Naval Academy a sword made by Tiffany & Company some seventy years ago and stolen from the academy in 1931. The sword reportedly was awarded to Captain John Lorimer by the state of New York in 1862 for his command of the first ironclad ship in the American navy, the USS Monitor. The sword was discovered by the FBI during an investigation of fraudulent antiques dealers on the PBS television program "Antiques Roadshow." While the investigation continues, it appears that the individuals who took it to the Roadshow to have it appraised were not knowledgeable that it was stolen merchandise.

    One selection this week: In "Humanities Endowment Returns to 'Flagging'
    Nontraditional Projects" Chronicle of Higher Education (16 January 2004) reporter Anne Marie Borrego traces the history and practice of "flagging"
    that allows NEH officials to identify certain proposals for extra review.
    Tap into: <>.

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
    at: <>.

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at and at the "network" prompt, scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    Editor - 1/16/2004

    from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy Volume 2004, Issue No. 5 January 16, 2004

    Historical intelligence budget appropriation figures for the Defense Intelligence Agency and the National Security Agency for Fiscal Year 1972 have turned up in publicly accessible archives even though they are considered "classified" by the U.S. government.

    The FY 1972 appropriations and the FY 1973 requests for DIA and NSA were detailed in the papers of Rep. George Mahon, a former member of the House Appropriations Committee.

    They were located by Villanova University scholar Prof. David Barrett, who is preparing a book on congressional oversight of intelligence in the early cold war.

    The U.S. Constitution singles out budget expenditures as the one category of executive branch information that must be published from time to time (Article I, section 9). Yet in seeming defiance of this obligation, the Central Intelligence Agency refuses to disclose even fifty year old budget information, the subject of a pending FOIA lawsuit. The CIA claims that to do so would damage the national security of the United States and jeopardize intelligence methods.

    Even some CIA officials privately concede that this claim is ridiculous, and it is hard to find a responsible person outside of CIA who will defend it.

    Prof. Barrett generously provided a copy of the Mahon documents containing the historical DIA and NSA budget figures, which are posted here:

    Kelly DeVries - 1/15/2004

    As the author of a biography on Joan of Arc I can attest that the claims of Horbenko are as erroneous as they are unoriginal. For several centuries the notion of Joan being an illegitmate sister of Charles VII has been suggested and proven false. We have more evidence to the life and death of Joan of Arc than most medieval figures, including many kings and queens, and none of this evidence suggests that she was anything other than what she said she was: a peasant girl from Domremy who claimed that she had a mission from God, was believed, and led the armies of the dauphin to victory against English forces along the Loire River, and then to his crowning as King Charles VII. The discovery of such a skeleton is interesting and bears investigation, by archaeologists, forensic scientists, and armor scholars. Such an investigation will prove, as all others have before, that Joan of Arc was real!

    Kelly DeVries
    Author of Joan of Arc: A Military Leader

    Clyde W. Howard - 1/13/2004

    Pretty thin "evidence", it seems to me. It is certainly curious that, if "Joan of Arc" had actually been Marguerite de Valois, nobody till now has said so that i ever heard.

    For once, I'm in sympathy with the French - I generally (perhaps based on my encounters during Operation Freloc back in 1966/67) feel that the most appropriate thing to have done once the Germans surrendered in 1945 would have been to require them to take over the administration of France. Been suitable punishemnt for the old Nazis, and the French would have deserved it. But this time, I have to say I think they are being put upon...but perhaps as a Ukrainian, the good doctor has reason to dislike the French, too. After all, if the French had actually attempted to aid the Poles by attacking Germany in the fall of 1939 (as they were obligated by treaty to), Hitler would have probably fallen, and the Ukrainians wouldn't have suffered a German invasion of their own. ah well, the "what ifs" of history.

    Mark O'Neill - 1/10/2004

    I believe that both Patton and Montgomery were gone from Italy to prepare for the Normandy invasion (the day after Rome fell, if memory serves to Mark Clark).

    Mark O.

    Bette Nelson - 1/7/2004

    As the orphan (who is now an old lady) of a US Lt Col who was killed in Italy in June '44, this gesture seems a bit late in coming. My mother might have appreicated some of that $150 million when she was scratching out a living for us after his death. It was a war that needed to be fought, but, like all wars, it came at a terrible cost to those who survived.

    Editor - 1/7/2004

    >NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 10, #1; 7 January 2004) AMENDED by Bruce
    >Craig (editor) National Coalition for
    >History (NCH) Website
    NOTE TO READERS: Please note that the Department of Education telephone number for those seeking additional information on the "Teaching American History" program (item #1) has been corrected.

    >Note to Readers
    >1. Department of Education Announces 2004 "Teaching American History"
    >Grant Competition
    >2. Date Set for Humanities Advocacy Day
    >3. Bits and Bytes: NEH Call for Jefferson Lecture Nominations;
    >NEH Seminars and Institutes for Secondary School Teachers/College and
    >University Teachers; Civil War Teacher Institute; NARA Regulatory
    >Agenda; NARA Request for Public Comment; NCH Forum at AHA Annual Meeting
    >4. Articles of Interest: "Design Selected for a Memorial at Ground
    >Zero" New York Times (7 January 2004)
    >The Department of Education (ED) has announced the availability of
    >grant applications for the 2004 "Teaching American History" (TAH) grant program.
    >The deadline for filing a "Notice of Intent to Apply" is 5 February and
    >the deadline for the actual transmittal of applications is 2 March 2004.
    >Awards are expected to be announced in early June 2004.
    >The TAH grants support projects that are designed to raise student
    >achievement by improving teachers' knowledge, understanding, and
    >appreciation of "traditional" American history. Grant awards seek to
    >assist local educational agencies (known as LEAs), that work in
    >partnership with entities (i.e. institutions of higher learning,
    >non-profit history or humanities organizations, libraries, and museums)
    >that have extensive content expertise, to develop, document, evaluate,
    >and disseminate innovative, cohesive models of professional
    >development. By helping teachers to develop a deeper understanding and
    >appreciation of traditional American history as a separate subject
    >matter within the core curriculum, these programs seek to improve
    >instruction and raise student achievement.
    >At this point it is unclear exactly how much money will be available
    >for the grant program because Congress has yet to enact a final
    >appropriation for the department's FY 2004 budget. The ED estimates
    >that $100 million will be available for new awards. Some Hill insiders
    >report that the amount available may be as high as $120 million. The
    >actual level of funding depends on final congressional action.
    >The estimated range of awards for a three-year project period is
    >$350,000-1,000,000 for LEAs with enrollments of less than 300,000
    >students; $500,000-$2 million for LEAs with enrollments above 300,000
    >students. The estimated average size of awards for all three years is
    >$750,000 with the total estimated number of awards being one hundred to
    >one hundred thirty-five grants.
    >The 2004 application criteria are very similar to those used in the
    >2003 competition. The only major change concerns the priority for
    >applicants that propose experimental or quasi-experimental evaluation
    >designs. For the 2004 competition, this priority is an invitation
    >priority only; it is not a competitive priority that carries any bonus
    >evaluation points. Additional pertinent information including special
    >programmatic priorities is available in the Federal Register notice (tap into: at:
    >You may also direct questions to the TAH staff at (202) 260-8766 or via
    >e-mail at: .
    >2. DATE SET FOR HUMANITIES ADVOCACY DAY Humanities Advocacy Day, an
    >annual event organized by the National Humanities Alliance (NHA), a
    >non-profit coalition founded in 1981 to advance national humanities
    >policy, will take place 15-16 March 2004, in Washington D.C.
    >Humanities Advocacy Day brings together historians, political
    >scientists, archivists, and other humanities scholars to promote
    >federal support for research, education, and public programs in the
    >humanities. The focus in 2004, as in other years, is to enhance
    >funding for the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). The
    >National Coalition for History along with dozens of other organizations is a national sponsor of this event.
    >On 15 March participants will be briefed on a variety of legislative
    >and policy issues and receive advocacy training. On 16 March, scholars
    >will make congressional office visits in small groups. There is no fee
    >for individual participation and hotel accommodations are available at
    >a discounted group rate from the Jury's Washington Hotel (cut off date
    >13 February 2004).
    >On-line registration and program materials are available at:
    >>. For questions or additional
    >information, call (202) 296-4994 x150.
    >Item #1 -- NEH Call for Jefferson Lecture Nominations The National
    >Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) invites nominations for candidates
    >to deliver the 2005 Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities.
    >Nominees for the lectureship should be persons who have made
    >significant scholarly contributions to the humanities and who have the
    >ability to communicate the knowledge and wisdom of the humanities in a
    >broadly appealing way. Please note that self-nominations are not
    >permitted. The Lecturer is expected to give an original and substantive
    >address to an invited audience in Washington D.C. that is of interest
    >to both scholars and the lay public. The individual selected is chosen
    >each year by the Chairman of the NEH with advice from the National
    >Council on the Humanities, a board of twenty-six citizens nominated by
    >the President of the United States and confirmed by the U. S. Senate.
    >The award ­ the highest honor the federal government bestows for
    >distinguished intellectual achievement in the humanities ­ carries a
    >$10,000 stipend. The deadline for suggestions for nominations is 16
    >January 2004. Please submit nominations electronically by accessing
    >the NEH website at: or by
    >addressing an e-mail message to the NEH at: .
    >Item #2 -- NEH Seminars and Institutes for Secondary School
    >Teachers/College and University Teachers: The National Endowment for
    >the Humanities (NEH) supports a variety of study opportunities in the
    >humanities for secondary school teachers as well as college and
    >university teachers. Some 31 summer seminars and institutes for
    >secondary school teachers are national in scope and open to those who teach K-12 students.
    >The seminars and institutes are designed to strengthen the quality of
    >humanities instruction available to American students, and are led by
    >some of the nation's outstanding scholars. Seminars take place at
    >major colleges and universities and archival facilities across the
    >country and abroad. Participants receive from the NEH a stipend based
    >on the length of the seminar or institute. Stipends are $2,800 for
    >four weeks, $3,250 for five weeks, and $3,700 for six weeks and are
    >intended to help cover travel costs and living expenses, as well as books and miscellaneous expenses.
    >The application deadline is 1 March 2004. Requests for information and
    >completed applications should NOT be directed to the NEH; they should
    >be addressed to the individual projects as found in the listings. For a
    >complete list of both seminars and institutes, go to the NEH Website
    >() or phone (202/606-8463),
    >or e-mail (
    >This year there will be 20 seminars and institutes for college and
    >university teachers. Topics include the Just War tradition, opera,
    >Aramaic studies, the Seven Deadly Sins, Islamic history and culture,
    >popular cartography, and major figures such as Aristotle, Calvin,
    >Shakespeare, and Dickens. Participants receive from the NEH a stipend
    >based on the length of the seminar or institute. Stipends are $2,800
    >for four weeks, $3,250 for five weeks, and $3,700 for six weeks and are
    >intended to help cover travel costs and living expenses, as well as
    >books and miscellaneous expenses. Requests for information and
    >completed applications should not be directed to the NEH; they should
    >be addressed to the individual projects as found in the listings. The
    >application deadline is March 1. For a complete list of both seminars
    >and institutes, go to the NEH Web site
    >or phone (202/606-8463), or e-mail: .
    >Item #3 ­ Civil War Teacher Institute: The Civil War Preservation
    >Trust and the Civil War Center of Virginia Tech will hold its third
    >Annual Civil War Teacher Institute 30 July-1 August 2003. This year's
    >program includes lectures by James I. Robertson and William C. Davis;
    >demonstrations by living history interpreters; and a field trip to
    >Appomattox Court House. There is no registration fee and meals are
    >included; attendees are responsible for their own lodging. For more
    >information or to register, visit, call 888-606-1400,
    >or email Jennifer Rosenberry at: .
    >Item #4 ­ NARA Regulatory Agenda: On 22 December 2003, the National
    >Archives and Records Administration (NARA) published its semi-annual
    >regulatory agenda in the Federal Register on page 73729. The online
    >version appears at:
    >Item # 5 ­ NARA Request for Public Comment: The National Archives and
    >Records Administration (NARA) Office of Presidential Libraries has
    >issued a request for public comment on the proposed disposal of a
    >superseded version of Clinton Administration electronic mail records
    >(see Federal Register; 30 December 2003 (Volume 68, Number 249;
    >Notices; pages
    >75286-75287) According to the notice, NARA has identified an
    >incomplete version of Presidential records on electronic media, housed
    >at the National Archives at College Park, Maryland facility, that is
    >appropriate for disposal under the provisions of 44 U.S.C. 2203(f)(3).
    >NARA asserts that the records have insufficient administrative,
    >historical, informational, or evidentiary value to warrant their
    >continued preservation, in light of the fact that NARA is maintaining a
    >comprehensive set of the same records on a different set of electronic
    >media. NARA will review timely public comments received on this notice
    >before making a final determination on the disposal of the records.
    >Comments must be received by 13 February 2004. For the notice tap into:
    >Item #5 -- NCH Forum at AHA: This week, during the annual meeting of
    >the American Historical Association (AHA) in Washington D.C., the
    >National Coalition for History will sponsor a brown-bag lunch forum
    >entitled, "The Bush Administration And Federal History Programs: What's
    >In Store for the Future" on Friday 9 January from 12:15 to 1:45 p.m.
    >(see p. 100 in the AHA program). During this session, NCH director
    >Bruce Craig and representatives from the National Endowment for the
    >Humanities (NEH), National Historical Publications and Records
    >Commission (NHPRC), and Department of Education (ED) will discuss the
    >status of several federal history programs as well as current
    >legislative and policy initiatives impacting history and archives on
    >Capitol Hill. Please mark your calendars and plan to attend. All are welcome!
    >One selection this week: "Design Selected for a Memorial at Ground Zero"
    >New York Times (7 January 2004). The Times's Glenn Collins reports on
    >the proposed memorial design at the World Trade Center. The memorial
    >design "will focus the discussion of the historical meaning of the sacred site."
    >For the article tap into:
    >The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this
    >FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH
    >Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and
    >others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete
    >backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently
    >updated web page at: .
    >To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to
    > according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE
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    >You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at
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    >prompt, scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    Editor - 1/7/2004

    The Times (London)
    January 7, 2004, Wednesday
    SECTION: Overseas news; 13
    HEADLINE: Road threatens site of duke's finest hour
    BYLINE: David Sharrock in Arapiles
    THE discovery of bones of soldiers killed nearly two centuries ago is fuelling a campaign to prevent construction of a road across one of Europe's best preserved battlefields.

    The aftermath of the 1812 Battle of Salamanca -where the Duke of Wellington's crushing victory in Spain against the Napoleonic forces of Marshal Marmont first earned recognition of his military greatness -left a vast field of combat scattered with thousands of dead and dying British, French, Portuguese and Spanish troops.

    Now the emergence of remains through the loamy soil has been seized upon by campaigners opposing a proposed bypass around Arapiles, a village of 120 people.

    The discovery was made by villagers over Christmas and confirmed yesterday by Miguel Angel Martin Mas, a local historian. "I was told that some bones had appeared by the side of a dirt track and when I started digging here in the wet earth the bank crumbled," he said at the site. "I immediately saw a skull and the bones of a hand and foot.

    "I rang and wrote to the authorities, but nothing has been done because everyone is still on holiday. I can't do anything else to preserve the site and if I touch the remains I could be prosecuted."

    A bypass is proposed that would intersect the battlefield, where Wellington scored his first and decisive victory over the French in the Peninsular War in 1812. The road's construction is opposed by many who want the location to be kept in its near-perfect state of preservation.

    Ian Fletcher, a leading authority on the Peninsular War and a regular visitor to Arapiles, said: "I could have wept when I first heard about the road. It's akin to driving a road through Hastings or Waterloo.

    "If you dropped the Iron Duke in here tomorrow, he'd know exactly where he was.

    The site is a gem and the road will destroy it. The likelihood is that the work will turn up more burial pits." He said that the damage that the road would cause was ridiculous compared to the convenience it would provide for drivers.

    So far there is no clue to the identity of the bones -most of the dead were buried naked -which were found together with slabs of slate, suggesting that a much larger mass grave or burial pit lies beneath.

    About 5,000 soldiers were killed at Arapiles, most of them French.

    A wealth of documentary evidence from the time records the bloody aftermath of the battle. Sergeant Richard Davey, of the Royal Artillery Drivers, wrote home to his wife and children: "Such a sight I never saw for the ground was strew'd with Heads, Arms, Legs,Horses."

    Corpses were plundered not only by the notorious Portuguese camp followers but also by the wives of British soldiers. In some cases, wounded officers were finished off by these ghoulish pilferers.

    T. H. Browne, the historian, said of the British soldiers' wives: "All ideas of conduct or decency had disappeared -plunder and profligacy seemed their sole object...They covered in number the ground of the field of battle when the action was over and were seen stripping and plundering friend and foe alike."

    After the armies had left Salamanca, local inhabitants did their best to bury the dead in common pits, but with variable results.

    A British officer who visited the scene weeks later said: "A vast number of pigs .

    . . roamed about the field and shared the loathsome feast with the vultures."

    Editor - 1/6/2004

    Ottawa Citizen
    January 6, 2004 Tuesday Final Edition
    SECTION: News; Pg. A6
    HEADLINE: Scottish hero gets a burial: William Wallace will be laid to rest -- in an empty casket
    SOURCE: The Ottawa Citizen
    BYLINE: Joanne Laucius
    William Wallace, the 14th century Scottish hero popularized in the film Braveheart, will get a final burial, thanks to a history buff who calls himself the "biker historian."

    This August, on the 700th anniversary of Wallace's gruesome execution in London, David R. Ross, a writer whose books have included the Scottish bestseller On the Trail of William Wallace, plans to embark on a 700-kilometre walk from Robroyston, near Glasgow, to London.

    Even though there are no remains of Wallace, a casket has been commissioned. There is to be a funeral service at the historic St. Bartholemew's, located next to where Wallace was put to death in Smithfield, then outside London.

    The actors Mel Gibson, who starred as Wallace in Braveheart, as well as the Scottish actor and nationalist Sean Connery, will be invited.

    The casket, filled with messages, will be returned for burial to St. Kentigern's church in Lanark, Scotland, where Wallace married Marion Braidfute. She was killed by the English, an event that sparked Wallace's fight against them.

    Mr. Ross says it's time for Scots to get some closure on their national hero, whose name has become synonymous with Scottish nationalism.

    "I can't imagine any other nation on the planet not getting closure on their national hero," he said. "He lives in the hearts and minds of the people of Scotland."

    The trip will take the same 19 days it took Wallace to be brought to London on horseback.

    Editor - 1/6/2004

    Ottawa Citizen
    January 6, 2004 Tuesday Final Edition
    SECTION: News; Pg. A5
    HEADLINE: 'Suitable' honour for Allied saviours: Rome finally plans to erect a proper memorial to recognize U.S., British and Canadian troops who liberated Italy from the Nazis.
    SOURCE: The Times, London
    BYLINE: With files from Bruce Garvey
    Sixty years after the Second World War liberation of Rome, the Americans, British and Canadians who drove Nazi forces out of Italy are finally getting a "suitable" downtown monument in the ancient city.

    After years of indifference, Rome city council has agreed to provide $150 million for the new monument to be unveiled and dedicated in June to mark the 60th anniversary of U.S. Gen. George Patton and British Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery's triumphant entry into the city.

    After landing in Sicily, the 1st Canadian Division and the 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade fought with Field Marshall Montgomery's 8th Army in the long bloody campaign north up the "boot" of Italy to the capital. A total of 5,900 Canadians lost their lives while fighting the retreating Germans and in a series of costly landmark battles such as the assault on the heavily-defended mountain stronghold at Montecassino.

    Yesterday, the Royal Canadian Legion said it was "pleased" by the decision to finally honour "those who liberated that city and indeed the nation of Italy in 1944.

    "Canada's role with the British 8th Army and its assistance to the U.S. 5th Army was vital in the success that was achieved," said spokesman Bob Butt at the Legion's Dominion Command in Ottawa. "We are pleased that the lives of the 5,900 Canadians who died during the campaigns before and after the liberation of Rome will be marked by the people who gained the most from their sacrifice, the citizens of Italy themselves."

    In the past, Italian resistance to a major monument to the Allied war effort has often been tied to a national tendency to emphasize the role of Italian partisans in driving the Germans out of the country.

    But the announcement by Walter Veltroni, the mayor of Rome, confirmed the view of veterans of the Italian campaign that existing memorials to the Allied war effort were "woefully inadequate."

    The only current recognition of the liberation of Rome is a modest plaque hidden away on a traffic island in the Piazza Venezia.

    Harry Shindler, 82, spokesman of the Star Association, which represents British servicemen who fought in Italy, said that, after the election of Mr. Veltroni -- a former minister of culture -- as mayor two years ago, he had begun finally to receive a sympathetic hearing to his arguments for a new memorial.

    The new monument will stand prominently in a small public garden in front of the Basilica of San Marco on the same Piazza Venezia, facing the huge white marble Victor Emmanuel monument, which houses Italy's Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and is a focus for Italian patriotism. Italy's President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi -- a Second World War veteran -- and Prince Charles will be invited to attend the unveiling.

    Giuseppe Mannino, chairman of the city council, said he plans to convene a meeting next week to decide on the design. Mr. Shindler hoped it would record not only the sacrifices of British, U.S., Canadian and other Commonwealth troops who took part in the landings at Anzio, the battle of Montecassino, and the entry into Rome, but also the role of the partisans and the suffering of Rome's Jews, thousands of whom were rounded up by the Gestapo and killed or deported.

    Rome fell to the Allied assault on May 31, 1944 -- just before the historic D-Day landings in Normandy.

    The memorial also gained crucial backing from Italian senators and deputies. In a letter to Mr. Veltroni, a group of senators said that the role of Allied men and women "who made sacrifices for our country" had been played down by "those who prefer to cancel out the horrors of an inconvenient past."

    Last year Gianni Oliva, an Italian historian, published The Alibi of the Resistance, which argued the role of anti-Fascist partisans had been inflated to provide postwar Italy with a founding myth and to suggest that Italy had emerged on the victors' side after the Mussolini's fall.

    Editor - 1/6/2004

    The Straits Times (Singapore)
    January 3, 2004 Saturday
    SECTION: Prime News
    HEADLINE: I'm not history: German historian
    FRANKFURT - A renowned German art historian said he was still very much alive yesterday, after one of the country's most prestigious newspapers was tricked into announcing his death by the fraudulent placing of an advertisement in its births, marriages and deaths section.

    'I'm feeling pretty good considering the circumstances,' said Professor Dethard von Winterfeld.

    The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung had printed a death notice on Wednesday, purportedly in the name of his wife and relatives.

    The paper published an apology yesterday in the obituaries section, saying the earlier notice 'fortunately does not correspond to reality and is the work of a tasteless trickster'.

    Prof Von Winterfeld, 65, has been the director of the Institute for Art History at the University of Mainz, western Germany, since 1984. From 1988 to 1992 he was also president of the German federation of art historians.

    A spokesman for the newspaper said it was only the third case in 40 years of a death being wrongly announced in its pages.

    Editor - 1/6/2004

    The Advertiser
    January 3, 2004 Saturday
    SECTION: NEWS; Pg. 16
    HEADLINE: Has the Endeavour finally been found
    BYLINE: By MICHAEL McKENNA in Los Angeles
    IT has been lost for two centuries but US researchers appear ready to take the final plunge in their search for Captain James Cook's Endeavour.

    Five years ago, Australia's most prized maritime relic had been traced to Newport Harbour, Rhode Island, where it was believed to have been scuttled in 12m of murky water during the War of Independence.

    Poor diving conditions, confusion between wrecks, looting and a lack of money has hampered the already painstakingly slow process of matching the sunken ship to the Endeavour.

    The Rhode Island Marine Archaeology Project this month will release a report that is expected to recommend a more "aggressive" excavation of the mud-covered wreck.

    Project director Kathy Abbass said recent dives and new findings in British records lent "further confirmation" the wreck was the ship that between 1768 and 1771 carried Captain Cook around the world.

    The length of the wreck, at about 45m long, is close to the Endeavour and artefacts recovered from the site - which include ceramics, glass and leather - also match the period when it sank.

    "But there is still a lot of work to be done," Dr Abbass said.

    "There is not enough evidence to say this is the Endeavour but also not enough to say it isn't," she said.

    Dr Abbass's caution is based on a "need to get it right".

    But it has also meant there are few willing to finance her efforts despite the possible historical importance.

    The project operates on about $26,500 in annual funding from US interests and the goodwill of volunteers who lend their time, expertise and equipment to explore the numerous wrecks dotted around Rhode Island.

    ENDEAVOUR is not the only show in town, with a multitude of "interest" wrecks in Newport Harbour, and the project team is looking at many of them.

    The lack of focus has been a source of conflict with the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney.

    Editor - 1/6/2004

    The Gazette (Montreal, Quebec)
    January 2, 2004 Friday Final Edition
    SECTION: News; Pg. A13
    HEADLINE: Joan of Arc under siege: Historian challenges French heroine's role
    SOURCE: CanWest News Service
    The French have suffered a lot of bad press in the English-speaking world over the past year, most of it based on their decision to stand by as the Americans, British and Australians led the overthrow of Saddam Hussein.

    But at least they could always recall a mere peasant girl we have come to know as Joan of Arc once sent a mighty English army packing.

    Now, however, even the identity of the woman French nationalists consider the embodiment of the French fighting spirit is under question.

    Basing his arguments on a mix of new circumstantial evidence and conjecture, Serhiy Horbenko, an internationally recognized orthopedic surgeon from Ukraine, says the story of Joan emerging from poverty, answering God's call to save France, then being burned at the stake, is a cover for intrigue and double-cross at the highest levels of the French court.

    While it is well documented Joan was a real person, Horbenko says it was not she who broke the English siege at Orleans in 1429, or led the French to many other victories.

    Rather it was the Dauphin Charles's illegitimate sister, who went on to live into her 50s, he contends. He adds the woman the English burned as Joan may have been another female already destined for execution as a witch.

    What has the French kicking themselves is they personally invited Horbenko to France because they considered him the best in his field. They wanted him to reconstruct the face of Charles VII's son and successor, Louis XI, from his skull.

    Horbenko had received international acclaim for having reconstructed the likenesses of a Ukrainian monarch and a 5,000-year-old Germanic tribal leader, working from their bones.

    But trouble began soon after Horbenko opened Louis XI's tomb in the Basilica of Notre Dame in Clery, near Orleans.

    He asked for permission to open other tombs in the basilica, which contains the remains of many members of the Valois dynasty to which Charles VII and Louis XI belonged.

    One female skeleton shocked him. He deduced the woman had worn heavy armour and developed the muscles of a warrior.

    Further deliberation led him to conclude the skeleton was that of Marguerite de Valois, the illegitimate daughter of Charles VI and half-sister of Charles VII.

    Her military expertise, Horbenko says, would also have enabled her to lead the French armies against the English, and make way for her brother's accession to the throne.

    Her battlefield success, however, might also have been her downfall. Horbenko believes nobles backing Charles VII feared Marguerite might try to press her own claim to the throne.

    She was quietly removed from the scene and effectively held prisoner for the rest of her life, Horbenko suggests. The nobles then concocted the "miracle" of Joan's deliverance of France to galvanize the French and demoralize the English, he adds. Joan was canonized as a saint in 1920.

    The French, however, have reacted badly to Horbenko.

    Denise Reynaud, deputy mayor of Clery, is reported to have branded him "a very difficult man to work with owing to his Slavic temperament."

    The French Culture Ministry dismisses his work as "speculation."

    Editor - 1/6/2004

    The Herald (Glasgow)
    December 31, 2003
    SECTION: Pg. 7
    HEADLINE: Romans wiped out Scots tribes;Recovery took centuries
    BYLINE: Stephen Stewart
    THE Monty Python team famously once asked what the Romans had ever done for civilisation - and then reeled off a list of the empire's great achievements.

    But along with roads, viniculture, aquaducts, and education, new research has unearthed evidence that the legions may have caused such widespread devastation in Scotland that some areas took centuries to recover.

    Archaeologists investigating one of the largest campaign camps in Britain have suggested that the military might of Rome may have drastically reduced the numbers of the indigenous people, leaving large swaths of the country empty for hundreds of years.

    Excavations at Kintore in Aberdeenshire have revealed that the occupation lasting between the first and third centuries AD was followed by a hiatus of site activity for more than 300 to 400 years.

    The findings also hint that the legions may have brought vast stores of treasure from Europe in an attempt to bribe unruly local tribes.

    Murray Cook, senior project officer for AOC Archaeology, who led the investigation, said: "One of the most interesting things is the fact that this settlement had a serious impact on the population.

    "There may have been a folk memory of the invading army making people reluctant to stay in that area. It could have been thought taboo to stay in that area because of its association with an invading army.

    "It also may be that the population was decimated. We have to remember this was a conquering army.

    "We know the site had a negative impact because there is no evidence of it being occupied for about 400 years. We don't have evidence of burnt houses or anything like that but there is no gap before (the Roman occupation) and then a run of activity for 600 years after the big gap left by the Romans."

    A number of intriguing artifacts and buildings were also discovered in the recent dig, including a beaker decorated with crushed bone and a sequence of 30 roundhouses from 1500BC to AD100 where the entrances move in anti-clockwise directions over time.

    One of the most fascinating finds was a Roman casket, the first of its kind to be found in Britain. Archaeologists think it may have carried a vast bribe to pay off local tribal leaders.

    Work at the site is taking place ahead of the construction of a new primary school and has been commissioned by Aberdeenshire Council. The current work covers around three hectares.

    In 2002, analysis of Roman army latrines and remains of keyhole-shaped ovens at the site revealed that the Roman legions went to war on pizza.

    The Kintore camp would have been home to several thousand men and was on the line of the Roman advance into north-east Scotland.

    It is thought the Kintore troops may have been a staging post for troops heading for Mons Graupius in AD84 where they won a bloody victory over Caledonian tribesmen.

    Caledonian resistance

    In AD 83, the Caledonian tribes faced invasion and according to Tacitus, the Roman historian, "turned to armed resistance on a large scale", attacking Roman forts and their legions.

    Agricola, the Roman governor, advanced into the Caledonians' stronghold in the north-east in the summer of AD 84, resulting in the battle of Mons Graupius.

    Around 10,000 Caledonians were slaughtered and the next day Tacitus wrote " an awful silence reigned on every hand; the hills were deserted, houses smoking in the distance, and our scouts did not meet a soul''.

    Ptolemy, in his Geography, said the Caledonians (Caledonii) were one of several tribes beyond the Forth-Clyde line.

    Tacitus recorded the name of just one Caledonian tribe, the Boresti, and said that: "The red hair and large limbs of the inhabitants of Caledonia point clearly to a German origin."

    Jonathan Good - 1/5/2004

    If King Mike went to Ampleforth, odds are that he's a Roman Catholic, and therefore not barred from the throne anyway (by the Act of Settlement) without converting.

    curepipe - 1/2/2004

    I love the idea that all secret service personel and the US Air force were all on a convention on the 9/11, nobody did a thing. The "Cockpit" pilots organization queried about the transponders but were told to shut up. There never was a serious attempt to find the real culprits, the Bush government benefited from the mess, the stock market recovered?, and people have been imprisoned without charges and trials ever since (ashcroft policy). Very strange and frightening. If that's not foul play, what then. Keep on dreaming, I guess JFK committed suicide and the files are only locked up because somebody can't find the keys.
    Honesty in investigation and not a coverup is required, seems the power of media and government sections is pretty powerful to be able to sell so much crap, remember the words of Abe Licoln, you can fool some of the people etc. Just because the government says it's Ladin, does prove a thing. Any normal court case would demand real proof.
    9/11 was nasty and one day people shall find out the true people behind the scenes. I like what the KGB said, they could not have done this with their best people, logistical masterplanning and Mubarak as a pilot said that you really got be a damm good pilot with plenty of experience. I guess all these people are just nuts and I must agree, I prefer to be nuts than believe the official hoax version. Sanity to you America, remember your constitution:

    Amendment VI [Criminal Prosecutions - Jury Trial, Right to Confront and to Counsel (1791)]

    A beautiful document respected and loved by all free loving men . How about reading it more often.

    kindest regards

    Sima Qian - 12/31/2003

    Zhang Zuolin was assassinated in 1928, not 1936. I wonder if the Times or the Emperor got this wrong? If it was the Emperor, perhaps he can be excused since he is probably still shaken up after seeing his illustrious great-grandfather Meiji kneeling down in front of Tom Cruise.

    Al Magary - 12/31/2003

    This appears to be another revolutionary revision of history by Michael K. Jones. As part of his theory that Edward IV was illegitimate, Richard III was no usurper but rightful heir of the House of York (blah blah). BTW, as part of his theory, Jones relocates the battle of Bosworth to Atherstone, 8 miles away. See his article at the Richard III Society website: Then say, not Bosworth, but Bosh.

    Jeremy - 12/30/2003

    In addition to agreeing with Elizabeth, I must for the sake of accuracy push in to correct myself once more: that should be EARL of Warwick, not Duke. Not my day, it seems.

    Elizabeth Pugliese - 12/30/2003

    That story of Edward IV has been around literally for centuries. The Lancastrians started it in order to discredit his claim to the title of Duke of York. The provenance of this document would have to be thoroughly established before it can be taken as a legitimate fact given the old rumors. Additionally, Edward's claim to the throne was through conquest, making the facts of his birth irrelevant. Furthermore, as others have noted, the current line descends not from the Yorkist Plantagents, but from the Lancastrian ones.

    Jeremy - 12/30/2003

    A correction to my last: the Duke of Clarence's son, imprisoned and executed by Henry VII, was Duke of Warwick, not Clarence. A minor point, though, as the main issue is unaffected: no subsequent English monarch relied for their claim on descent from Edward IV. Indeed, as A.J. Pollard has pointed out, Henry VII deliberately avoided restoring the legitimacy of Edward IV's line (voided by Richard III's Parliament), lest he give his own wife, Elizabeth of York, and her nephew Warwick a better claim than he himself had.

    Jeremy - 12/30/2003

    Alan, above, is quite correct: even if this theory is true, it does not affect the subsequent succession. Henry VII was not descended from Edward IV -- his claim was Lancastrian, not Yorkist, and traced independently to John of Gaunt and Edward III. This would mean that Elizabeth of York, whom Henry VII married to unite York and Lancaster, was not in the legitimate line -- but her role in the succession was purely symbolic. In any event, as Alan pointed out, the succession has long been ruled by Parliament, not by blood relationships. Clarence's descendents were eliminated by Richard III, and by Henry VII, who in fact kept the then-Duke of Clarence in the Tower until finally executing him after an escape attempt.

    Alan - 12/30/2003

    It's a charming theory but (speaking as one of Her Majesty's unwilling antipodean subjects) Elizabeth II owes her position to a string of legislative acts back to the Act of Settlement 1701 and beyond. In any case, even if Edward IV was illegitimate that would mean the legitimate line was re-established (and Gloucester's descendants were excluded) when parliament recognised Richard III's claim in the Statute of Titulus Regius. Henry VII passed a similar act as soon as he had seized the throne.

    editor - 12/30/2003

    The Times (London)
    December 27, 2003, Saturday
    SECTION: Overseas news; 23
    HEADLINE: Akihito's candid history lesson meant to reassure neighbours
    BYLINE: Richard Lloyd Parry in Tokyo
    IT WAS, the speaker observed, "a truly difficult time", an era of assassinations and attempted coups, with a constant state of war between Japan and China. The common people struggled with poverty in the cold.

    From anyone else, this assessment of the early years of the reign of Emperor Hirohito would have caused no surprise. But these were the words of his son, Akihito.

    Emperor Akihito, who is constrained from making openly political statements, has made a remarkably frank reckoning of Japan's violent expansionism of the 1930s. He was speaking at an annual press conference the day before his 70th birthday on December 23, shortly before the dispatch yesterday of Japan's Self-Defence Forces (SDF) to Iraq, the country's biggest overseas military operation since the Second World War.

    The Emperor made no explicit reference to Iraq, nor any formal apology for his country's past conduct, but his words were clearly intended to quell concerns among neighbours about the potential for a revival of Japanese militarism.

    Ikuo Hata, a professor at Nihon University and a commentator on imperial matters, said: "Since the deployment of the SDF to Iraq is such a current issue, he knows that anything he says about it could be used for political purposes. He has cleverly avoided the Iraq issue by focusing only on Japan-China relations."

    The Emperor's birthday press conference is one of the few occasions when he speaks directly to the Japanese people. Questions are submitted in advance and answers are scrutinised for clues to the monarch's thinking.

    Two years ago he caused a stir by referring to the Imperial Family's Korean ancestry, a fact acknowledged by historians but still taboo. This year, after 15 years on the Chrysanthemum Throne, he chose to focus on that period in the reign of his father, posthumously known as Emperor Showa.

    "The first 15 years of the Showa era were truly a difficult time," he said.

    "During that time Japan was in an almost constant state of conflict with China . .

    . In the background to this situation were the sufferings of the people under a stringent economic situation and farming villages struggling due to severe cold weather damage.

    "The number of persons losing their lives in the war then started to increase . .

    . I believe that, fully understanding such past history, we must endeavour to strive for peace for the entire world and security for all people."

    The Emperor has touched before on the evils of the pre-Second World War period, but never in such detail. In his remarks on Monday he referred to the assassination of Zhang Zuolin, a Chinese warlord blown up by the Japanese Imperial Army in 1936, and to the Tsinan, Manchuria and Shanghai Incidents, when Japanese troops used pretexts to advance their occupation of Manchuria. He also referred to the attempted coups in 1932 and 1936 aimed at supplanting Japan's civilian Government with a military dictatorship.

    A senior courtier told The Times yesterday that the Emperor intended his remarks to serve as a "history lesson".

    Since his accession in 1989, Emperor Akihito has quietly removed much of the secrecy and formality surrounding the Imperial Family. His modern attitude to family life, especially to the role of women, was evident on Monday in his warm references to his wife, Empress Michiko.

    The marriage had brought him profound happiness, he said, in remarks that from his predecessors would have seemed unthinkably intimate.

    "I am grateful that in all situations the Empress has wholeheartedly supported me in my position and official duties and is an affectionate companion for me who calms my spirit."

    A year ago he underwent surgery for prostate cancer: on his instructions, the public were told all about it. Last March The Times disclosed the most revolutionary reform of all: preparations to change the law so that women could ascend the throne.

    editor - 12/30/2003

    MICHAEL Hastings, 62, a widower from Jerilderie, in southern NSW, has just been told he and his ancestors are, in all probability, the true inheritors of the English throne.

    "Just call me Mike," says Mr Hastings, "everyone else does."

    I am talking to the last great Plantagenet -- the man who, it is claimed, should by rights be King Michael I of England and living in Buckingham Palace.

    Instead, he is in a T-shirt and shorts, sitting in a bungalow with a glass of beer in hand after a hard day's work.

    This is no joke but historical fact, based on startling research by leading historians.

    Dr Michael Jones, an acclaimed historical biographer, believes he has proved a vital fact that should bring shudders to the Queen and her family: their right to rule is based on a lie that has been perpetuated for more than 500 years. It comes down to the fact that King Edward IV, who reigned from 1461 to 1483, was not of royal blood -- he was the illegitimate son of a French archer.

    This single fact invalidates the claim to sovereignty of the most famous of English monarchs, from Elizabeth I to Charles II to Victoria and the Georges.

    For if Edward IV was illegitimate -- and Dr Jones believes he has found the proof -- the heirs of his younger brother, George, Duke of Clarence, are the rightful inheritors of the English throne.

    Dr Jones said: "The consequences are staggering. It's exhilarating and terrifying in equal measure."

    But "King" Mike is not quite as Australian as his rich accent suggests. Born in England and educated at posh Ampleforth School, he is the 14th Earl of Loudon, a direct descendant of George, Duke of Clarence, and possessor of a string of lesser titles. Grand though his lineage is, he says that in Australia it is bad enough being a Pom, let alone a titled one, and in his early days as a jackaroo he kept his background secret.

    The crucial evidence comes from a document Dr Jones recently discovered in the library of Rouen Cathedral in France.

    It proves, he says, that at the time of Edward IV's conception, his parents were 200km apart.

    Edward's "father", Richard, Duke of York, was leading a skirmishing party against the French at Pontoise, near Paris. Edward's mother, Lady Cicely Neville -- based at Rouen -- was apparently deeply engrossed in the company of a local archer.

    Mr Hastings didn't realise his claim to the throne until Dr Jones and the TV crew contacted him.

    "Strewth!" was his reaction.

    Will he be returning to Britain, to his birthright and all those palaces, money and servants?

    "No," he says slowly, "I don't think so. I love Australia."

    Oscar Chamberlain - 12/22/2003

    I hop you are right. But this administration seems to choose secrecy for the sake of secrecy sometimes. They might strike down an obscure request simply to signal that they will do so.

    On a technical note, can you give an example of a technical source or method that would be in use for over 30 years and yet still be a secret?

    BilL Henslee - 12/19/2003

    Since the classification review system is designed to protect technical sources and methods as well as human sources, I tend to side with the DCI on this.

    It seems inconceivable that he would have any interest other than the protection of the interests of the U.S. in ruling to keep such an old document about lunar projects by the Soviets secret.

    But I suppose there will always be some that second-guess the integrity of the CIA.

    Alvaro Meléndez - 12/19/2003

    Mi nombre es Alvaro Melendez, no Alonso Menendez, y apoyo la recuperación de la Historia. Hoy britanicos y españoles somos aliados. Debemos permanbecer unidos. Saludos a Isambard y feliz navidad

    editor - 12/19/2003

    from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy Volume 2003, Issue No. 110 December 19, 2003


    Aerial imagery of selected government buildings that is made publicly available by the U.S. Geological Survey is being electronically distorted at the request of the U.S. Secret Service. The USGS imagery is widely used by MapQuest and other online services.

    Images of the White House and the Congress, but not the Supreme Court, have been modified to obscure details that could previously be discerned.

    The story was reported in "Secret Service airbrushes aerial photos" by Kevin Poulsen,, December 17:

    Before and after photos of the modified images were presented by John Young of here:

    editor - 12/18/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #48; 18 December 2003) by Bruce Craig (editor) National Coalition for History (NCH) Website

    ANOTHER FIRST IN GOVERNMENT SECRECY -- CIA HEAD INTERVENES AND VETOES RELEASE OF 1968 PRESIDENTIAL BRIEF Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) George J. Tenet has personally intervened on behalf of his agency to prevent the partial declassification of a 1968 issue of the President's Daily Brief (PDF). For the first time, his action overrules an interagency panel's decision that had ordered release of the document.

    DCI Tenet invoked the authority that was granted him by a March 2003 Bush Executive Order (EO) which permits the DCI to block the declassification decisions of the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP). The case in point involves historian Peter Pesavento who had requested declassification of the PDB dated 26 November 1968. The brief reportedly discusses the status and implications of the Soviet manned lunar program, a subject of Pesavento's current research interest. When his request was denied, he appealed to the ISCAP, an executive branch body composed of representatives of five member agencies that considers declassification appeals.

    After studying the materials in question, a majority of the members of ISCAP rejected the CIA's objections, sided with Pesavento, and voted in favor of "partial declassification" of the requested PDB. But after ISCAP issued its decision, DCI Tenet exercised new secrecy powers granted him by President Bush's EO and stepped in to block disclosure by vetoing the ISCAP decision. In accordance with appeal procedures established by the EO, an ISCAP insiders report that an agency representative appealed the DCI's veto to the White House as only the president can reverse the decision of the DCI.

    No response to the appeal request has been received from the White House, nor is one expected before the end of the year. Knowledgeable sources expect that most likely a decision will be rendered by the White House after the holidays. However, because there is no deadline for the president to act on such appeals, a decision may taken longer than some optimistically expect.

    editor - 12/18/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #48; 18 December 2003) by Bruce Craig (editor) National Coalition for History (NCH) Website

    NOTE TO READERS: This will be the last issue of the NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE for 2003. Publication will resume the first week of January 2004. The NCH board wishes all our readers a peaceful and joyous holiday season.


    1. Smithsonian Opens Air and Space Museum Annex
    2. Report: State Department Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic
    3. Another First in Government Secrecy -- CIA Head Intervenes and Vetoes
    Release of 1968 Presidential Brief
    4. Bits and Bytes: NARA Announces the Results of Ten Most Important
    Historical Documents; NHPRC Fellowship in Historical Documentary Editing; Final Reminder -- Meeting Date for NCH Policy Board Set
    5. Articles of Interest: "Keeping Secrets" (22 December 2003 edition of
    U.S. News & World Report)

    1. SMITHSONIAN OPENS AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM ANNEX On 15 December 2003, the new National Air and Space Museum's annex at Washington Dulles International Airport opened to the public. Some 82 warplanes, spy-planes, gliders, helicopters, an Air France Concorde, the Space Shuttle Enterprise, as well as the Enola Gay (the World War II plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima) are among the flying machines on display in a 10-story high, 294,000-square-foot aviation exhibit hanger. The $310-million Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center is the largest air and space exhibition complex in the world.

    Among the over 7,000 opening day visitors were a group of about fifty protestors, including a half-dozen elderly, grief-stricken atomic bomb survivors from Japan. The protestors expressed dismay that information on the effects of the bomb dropped by the Enola Gay on 6 August 1945 is not included in the exhibit that explains the significance of the super-fortress. Two protestors were arrested after tossing a bottle of red paint (meant to symbolize blood) at the Enola Gay (the bottle dented the plane and then crashed to the floor).

    As readers may recall (see "Historians to Protest Enola Gay Exhibit" NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE, Vol. 9, #42, 30 October 2003), recently, museum officials decided to dismiss appeals by historians and others who took the Smithsonian to task for failing to present the contextual significance of the aircraft in relation to its primary significance. Museum director John R. Dailey, a retired Marine Corps general, stated that the Enola Gay labeling is consistent with explanatory labels for other exhibits: "we're going to present the aircraft primarily in terms of its technical capabilities and leave the interpretation as to how it was used to the visitor."

    Although the airplanes are among the biggest and most popular displays, the museum also holds over 1,000 smaller bits of aviation history including Amelia Earhart's flight suit, Charles Lindbergh's personal effects, and a smattering of his flight instruments. In toto, approximately 80 percent of the collection remains in storage. Eventually, many more objects will be displayed when the main 245,000 square foot aviation hall is completed.

    2. REPORT: STATE DEPARTMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON HISTORICAL DIPLOMATIC DOCUMENTATION On 8 December 2003, the Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation of the U.S. State Department met in public open session for about an hour. After approving the Minutes of the September 2003 meeting
    () outgoing chair of the committee, Robert Schulzinger, called for nominations for the election of a new chair for 2004; William Roger Louis was the sole candidate nominated and was duly elected.

    Executive Secretary Marc Susser reported that the next Foreign Relations of the United Stated (FRUS) volume -- one that focuses on the United States, the Middle East, and the 1967 Arab-Israeli War -- would be released in January 2004 in conjunction with a History Office (HO) State Department sponsored conference scheduled for 12-13 January 2004 (for details tap
    into: Susser reported that he spoke on the recently released FRUS volume on Guatemala at a meeting in that country that was attended by 600 people. He also updated the committee on the progress being made on a 30-minute educational video on the history of diplomacy.

    Deputy Historian David Herschler reported that a joint State/CIA training session had recently taken place and that transcripts and other outreach materials (transcripts, videos of presentations, etc...) relating to the Guatemala conference would soon be made available to the public. FRUS General Editor Edward Keefer gave a brief status report on the FRUS series. He stated that the division was now fully staffed and that some twenty-five historians were diligently working on the series. Some 57 volumes are currently planned, 21 manuscripts are completed, others are in the process of declassification, and 15 have yet to be begun. Though documented in the Minutes of the September 2003 meeting (see above for web link address), no mention was made in public session of the committee's concern that, in spite of the existence of time frame agreements reflected in the joint State/CIA Memorandum of Understanding, the CIA has not been able to meet the mutually agreed to 180-day FRUS review schedule and that consequently 11 FRUS volumes (in September at least) are now overdue.

    Brian Dowling of the Office of Information Programs and Services (OIPS) reported that he anticipated that the declassification goal of completing the mandated review of 1976-81 materials by 2006 can be met. He explained that the task is voluminous: For textual records there are 6,600 boxes (some 16.5 million pages) to be reviewed; there also are some 4 million electronic documents, not to mention the so-called P-reels (electronic records that must be converted into paper format for declassification). Dowling also mentioned ongoing discussions that would permit participants in the department's Outstanding Scholar Program to
    assist in declassification efforts in some limited capacity. Margaret
    Peppe of the OIPS announced that the long awaited transfer of 1973-74 State electronic records to NARA should take place in early 2004. In a response to a question by the committee she stated that 1975 materials were to be reviewed next year. Following brief discussion by the Committee the meeting continued in closed session.

    At the behest of the National Coalition for History and with the concurrence of members of the advisory committee, the HO has now posted a status report of the FRUS series. It may be viewed at:

    3. ANOTHER FIRST IN GOVERNMENT SECRECY -- CIA HEAD INTERVENES AND VETOES RELEASE OF 1968 PRESIDENTIAL BRIEF Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) George J. Tenet has personally intervened on behalf of his agency to prevent the partial declassification of a 1968 issue of the President's Daily Brief (PDF). For the first time, his action overrules an interagency panel's decision that had ordered release of the document.

    DCI Tenet invoked the authority that was granted him by a March 2003 Bush Executive Order (EO) which permits the DCI to block the declassification decisions of the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP). The case in point involves historian Peter Pesavento who had requested declassification of the PDB dated 26 November 1968. The brief reportedly discusses the status and implications of the Soviet manned lunar program, a subject of Pesavento's current research interest. When his request was denied, he appealed to the ISCAP, an executive branch body composed of representatives of five member agencies that considers declassification appeals.

    After studying the materials in question, a majority of the members of ISCAP rejected the CIA's objections, sided with Pesavento, and voted in favor of "partial declassification" of the requested PDB. But after ISCAP issued its decision, DCI Tenet exercised new secrecy powers granted him by President Bush's EO and stepped in to block disclosure by vetoing the ISCAP decision. In accordance with appeal procedures established by the EO, an ISCAP insiders report that an agency representative appealed the DCI's veto to the White House as only the president can reverse the decision of the DCI.

    No response to the appeal request has been received from the White House, nor is one expected before the end of the year. Knowledgeable sources expect that most likely a decision will be rendered by the White House after the holidays. However, because there is no deadline for the president to act on such appeals, a decision may taken longer than some optimistically expect.

    Item #1 -- NARA Announces the Results of Ten Most Important Historical
    Documents: There were no surprises earlier this week when NARA announced the results of "The People's Vote: 100 Documents That Shaped America"
    contest. Americans had been asked to identify and vote for 10 of 100 milestone documents of American history. The Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States, and the Bill of Rights each got almost double the total votes (over 26,000 votes each) than did the other documents comprising the "top ten list" -- the Louisiana Purchase Treaty, Emancipation Proclamation, 19th Amendment 13th Amendment, Gettysburg Address, Civil Rights Act, and Social Security Act. The contest was sponsored by NARA, National History Day, and magazine U.S. News & World Report. For the voting results, tap into:

    Item #2 -- NHPRC Fellowship in Historical Documentary Editing: The National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) is offering two fellowships in historical documentary editing for the 2004-2005 academic year. The fellowships are designed to give participants hands-on experience in historical documentary editing including documentary collection, document selection, transcription, annotation, proofreading,
    and indexing. Applications are now being accepted from individuals who
    hold a Ph.D. in U. S. history or have completed all requirements for the degree except the dissertation. Applications must be post marked application no later than 1 March 2004. The host institutions for the academic year 2004-05 are The Margaret Sanger Papers, edited by Dr. Esther Katz, located at New York University, and The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, edited by Dr. Barbara Oberg, located at Princeton University. The fellowship will begin in the late summer or early fall of 2004. The fellow's stipend is $40,000, with a benefit payment of $10,000. The application and related forms are available on the NHPRC website

    Item #3: Final Reminder -- Meeting Date for NCH Policy Board Set: The date for the annual Policy Board meeting of the National Coalition for History (see p. 42 of the AHA program) has been set for Friday, 9 January 2004 during the 118th annual meeting of the American Historical Association
    (AHA) in Washington D.C. An information packet for board members and NCH institutional representatives has been distributed electronically this week.

    Also, please note that from 12:15 to 1:45 p.m. on Friday, the NCH will sponsor a brown-bag lunch forum entitled, "The Bush Administration And Federal History Programs: What's In Store for the Future" (see p. 100 in the AHA program). During this session, NCH director Bruce Craig and representatives from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC), and Department of Education (ED) will discuss the status of several federal history programs as well as current legislative and policy initiatives impacting history and archives on Capitol Hill. Please mark your calendars and plan to attend. All are welcome!

    One selection this week: In "Keeping Secrets" (22 December 2003 edition of U.S. News & World Report) Christopher H. Schmitt and Edward Pound report on the results of the magazine's five-month investigation into the Bush administration's extensive efforts to impose sweeping secrecy requirements on the operations of the executive branch and thereby reverse decade-long trends of greater openness in government. For the on-line version, tap
    into: .

    Of related interest, the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) program "NOW with Bill Moyers" also included a segment on the public's right to know based on the U.S. News & World Report study in Moyer's most recent program that aired Friday, 12 December 2003; tap into: .

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
    at: .

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at and at the "network" prompt, scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    G. L. Lamborn - 12/18/2003

    Is it possible for American citizens to request reviews of Stasi documents for genealogical purposes? I have several family members, formerly residents of the State of Brandenburg, who survived World War II but cannot be accounted for in the postwar period. (They seem to have simply disappeared.) Likewise, I have two friends who may/may have been targets of East German intelligence while studying in Berlin in the late 70's. If it is possible to do a computer search, I would gladly do the tracing work myself. If not, please advise who to contact in the Bundesregierung to do the search. Best wishes, G.L.L.

    editor - 12/17/2003

    The Times (London)
    December 13, 2003, Saturday
    SECTION: Overseas news; 23
    HEADLINE: Medicis to rise from the grave as science seeks their secrets
    BYLINE: Richard Owen in Rome
    IN AN attempt to unravel the secrets of one of the most powerful dynasties Europe has known, scientists in Florence are to exhume 50 corpses of members of the Medici family and analyse their DNA and "hereditary traits".

    The aim of the project, for which modern descendants of the Medici have given their approval, is to reconstruct "the way of life and death" of the remarkable family that ruled Florence and Tuscany from 1434 to 1737.

    The longevity of the dynasty and the fact that so many corpses are available for examination offers a unique opportunity for research.

    The first corpses to be exhumed will come from the monumental tombs of the Medici Chapels at the church of San Lorenzo, in Florence, next year, allowing scientists to reconstruct the dynasty's genetic and biological make- up, including the diseases from which its members suffered. The investigating team includes paleopathologists, radiologists, geneticists, chemists and historians.

    Cristina Giannini, organiser of a recent exhibition on the Florentine Renaissance entitled Secret Rooms, Vanished Rooms, said that the idea of unlocking "the last secrets of the Medici" had been given impetus by the recent discovery in a storeroom of macabre relics, including teeth, hair and a blood-stained shirt, taken from the tombs of Lorenzo the Magnificent and his brother Giuliano at the end of the 19th century and mislaid during the disastrous floods of 1966.

    Signora Giannini said that the remains were found in their original containers in the cellars of the Palazzo Medici Riccardi, in Florence, once Lorenzo's residence.

    The shirt belonged to Giuliano de Medici, who was murdered in 1478 by members of the rival Pazzi family while he and his brother - joint rulers of Florence - attended Mass in Florence Cathedral. Giuliano bled to death, leaving Lorenzo, noted both for his iron will and his enlightened patronage of the arts, as sole ruler.

    Scientists said that they also hoped to examine the remains of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, the celebrated military commander and son of Giovanni de Medici and Caterina Sforza, who died of his wounds at the battle of Pavia in 1526.

    "Who knows what Lorenzo the Magnificent would have thought of this unexpected resurrection?" asked the newspaper Il Messaggero, noting that Lorenzo had written a poem on the "fleeting beauty of youth" and had died at the age of 43, while still in his prime.

    It added, however, that there would be "meticulous preparatory research" before the lids were lifted from the tombs, designed by Michelan-gelo, in which Lorenzo and Giuliano lie.

    A purpose-built laboratory is to be set up in underground rooms below the Medici Chapels, and samples taken from the corpses will be sent for analysis to the University of Pisa.

    Scientists said it was unlikely that they would isolate the "power gene" that had maintained the Medici family ascendancy for three centuries. They would, however, be able to analyse the dynasty's DNA and its ailments, including gout, from which both Cosimo de Medici (1389-1464) and "Piero the Gouty" (1416-1469) suffered along with Lorenzo the Magnificent.

    Originally a family of Tuscan peasants from the Mugello Valley, north of Florence, the Medici family became the wealthiest traders in the Renaissance city state, taking for their coat of arms the "palle", a Byzantine coin which was the symbol of money-changing.

    The first head of the dynasty was Cosimo, who established a constitutional dictatorship with the help of Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.

    editor - 12/17/2003

    The Daily Yomiuri (Tokyo)
    December 13, 2003 Saturday
    SECTION: Pg. 2
    HEADLINE: U.S. families told of POW deaths after A-bombing
    SOURCE: Yomiuri
    The U.S. government notified the families of at least three U.S. prisoners of war of their deaths in the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima to their families soon after the end of World War II, although it did not officially admit they died in the bombing until 1983, The Yomiuri Shimbun learned.

    The fact was confirmed by an investigation conducted by Shigeaki Mori, 66, a historian, as well as searches of sealed documents of the U.S. National Archives & Record Administration.

    According to the discovery, the death of these POWs was announced to their families between 1946 and 1949. It indicates the U.S. government disclosed secret information to bereaved families at a time when reporting related to the atomic bombing was censored.

    The U.S. soldiers included crew members of the "Lonesome Lady" and "Taloa," the bombers that were hit and went down near Hiroshima at the end of July 1945.

    Mori, himself a survivor of the bombing, has studied the history of the bombing and also surveyed U.S. POWs.

    In 1996, he got a notice of the death of 2nd Lt. James Ryan, 20, after obtaining related information from surviving POWs. The notice was dated Aug. 28, 1947, and read that the city of Hiroshima was destroyed in an atomic bombing and the second lieutenant died. It was signed by the adjutant general of the army from the now defunct U.S. War Department.

    The Yomiuri Shimbun asked the U.S. National Archives and Record Administration about the matter and learned that the facility had death notices of two others.

    One of them, addressed to the wife of a 23-year-old sergeant and dated Feb. 5, 1946, read that her husband had been injured in the head and face in the atomic bombing and died at a hospital.

    The other one, addressed to the father of a 26-year-old first lieutenant and dated May 27, 1949, read that POWs including his son had died in the atomic bombing and their remains had been buried by the Japanese.

    The U.S. General Headquarters had acknowledged the names, ranks and serial numbers of U.S. POWs who were killed or injured within two months after the bombing.

    GHQ also interviewed Japanese military police officers about how and where these soldiers were hit by the bombing and it further returned ashes of several such soldiers, which had been buried in Hiroshima, to their homeland at the end of 1945.

    The U.S. government meanwhile censored news reporting in Japan at that time and strictly regulated reporting on the atomic bombing.

    In 1977, an assistant at Hiroshima University discovered at the Japanese Foreign Affairs Ministry's Diplomatic Record Office a list of U.S. POWs who died, and learned that 20 of them died in the bombing of Hiroshima.

    Based on the record, Barton Bernstein, a professor of American history at Stanford University, made an inquiry to the U.S. government. The U.S. government, however, had not officially admitted the existence of U.S. soldiers who died in the bombing until 1983, when it notified the professor that at least 10 had died.

    "Considerate U.S. government employees notified bereaved families of the fact in a detached way," Mori said. "I want to believe their hearts were shielded from politics."

    Editor - 12/12/2003

    FROM: "Ancmed" yahoo group (a list devoted to ancient & medieval military history and the wargames hobby).

    China Accused of Attempting to Claim Korean History as Its Own

    A group of South Korean historians have accused the Chinese government of attempting to claim part of Korea's ancient history as its own.

    In a recent project on ancient Northeast Asian history, Chinese historians claimed the ancient Koguryo kingdom (B.C.37 to 668 A.D.) which stretched from the Korean peninsula to the northeastern part of China, should be considered part of Chinese history, the group said in a statement Tuesday.

    "Chinese historians say the people of Koguryo were Chinese, even though they were a separate people," read the statement from the tentatively-named Action Committee against Chinese Distortion of Koguryo History.

    The Korean historians asserted the claims by Chinese historians are only based on China's interests.

    They insisted the Chinese government, not individual historians, was leading the move to claim the ancient kingdom as Chinese.

    In a separate effort to correct historical distortions, a group of South Koreans launched a campaign to correct Web sites that do not mention Korean history before 668 A.D. Many Web sites previously claim Korea was born that year when the Unified Silla Dynasty was created, excluding the history of Kojoson from B.C. 2333 and the three kingdoms of Koguryo, Paekche (B.C. 18-660 A.D.) and Silla (B.C. 57-935 A.D.).

    Other sites say Korea originated in B.C. 4000 and the nation was "culturally unified" in 668.

    In Tuesday's statement, the South Korean historians urged the government to ask China to issue corrections. They also suggested South Korea cooperate with North Korea to have renowned Koguryo relics, such as painted tombs, listed as world heritage sites so Koguryo's identity as a Korean dynasty is recognised internationally.

    Editor - 12/12/2003

    DENMARK: OLD LITERARY THEFTS SOLVED A literary mystery has been solved with the arrests of four people suspected of dealing in rare books that were stolen from the Royal Library in Copenhagen more than 30 years ago, officials said. The books, worth up to $50 million, were stolen in the 1960's and 70's and dated to the 16th century. Included were first editions by Immanuel Kant, Thomas More and John Milton. The breakthrough came after the widow of a library employee, now deceased, and three others tried to sell a 1517 tome — the only existing copy and registered as belonging to the Royal Library — at Christie's in London. Officials said the deceased librarian stole 3,200 books in all, of which about 1,800 have now been recovered. About 100 books had already been sold, for nearly $1.7 million, including a first edition of More's "Utopia." (Reuters)

    editor - 12/11/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #47; 11 December 2003) by Bruce Craig (editor) ; Shannon Parsley
    National Coalition for History (NCH)
    1. Congressional Wrap-Up -- 1st Session of the 108th Congress
    2. Passing of Jerry Russell -- Battlefield Preservationist
    3. Report: Advisory Committee on the Records of Congress
    4. Report: Meeting of the NHPRC
    5. Legislative Update, Bills Introduced: Revolutionary War and War of
    1812 Battlefield Protection Act; World Trade Center Site Historic Study Act; National Archives and Records Administration Efficiency Act of 2003; El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail Act of 2003; Abraham Lincoln National Heritage Area Act 6. Bits and Bytes: Second Reminder -- Meeting Date for NCH Policy Board Set; Nixon Tapes Release; Battlefield Grant Deadline Extended 7. Articles of Interest: "Teacher Sues Over Limits on History Curriculum"
    (Associated Press; 4 December 2003)

    1. CONGRESSIONAL WRAP-UP -- 1st SESSION OF THE 108th CONGRESS The first session of the 108th Congress is now history. Apart from the appropriation bills that funded several history/archive programs at record high levels, in the realm of authorizing legislation the session was rather lackluster.

    Several bills were introduced this year that reflect growing concern among members of Congress about the state of history education in the United States -- Senator Lamar Alexander's (R-TN) "American History and Civics Education Act of 2003" (S. 504) and Senator Judd Gregg' (R-NH) "Higher Education for Freedom Act" (S. 1515) are but two. However, given the current partisan tensions existing within the Senate and House, final action on these bills has yet to materialize. Other heritage related bills were merely relegated to the proverbial "dustbin" of committees (i.e.
    Senator DeWine's presidential sites grants program bill - S. 1748). The administration also advanced several bills designed to gut historic preservation laws -- the effort to amend the 4-f historic preservation provision in the "Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century" (S. 1072) for example. Nevertheless, nine history/archive-related bills of some importance become public law this session.

    Of particular interest to the archival and museum community is the Museum and Library Services Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-81) and the Smithsonian Facilities Authorization Act (P.L. 108-72). The Museum and Library Services Act extends the authorization of appropriations for library and history museum grant programs and also provides greater access to library services through the development of electronic networks. The Smithsonian Facilities Authorization Act will provide for additional space and resources for nationally significant collections held in trust by the Smithsonian Institution.

    The National Park Service also benefited from legislation enacted this session. The McLoughlin House National Historic Site Act (P.L. 108-63) authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to acquire the McLoughlin House National Historic Site in Oregon City and incorporate it into the National Park System. In addition, the Secretary of the Interior has been directed by Congress to conduct a special resource study to evaluate the resources and significance of Coltsville in Connecticut (homebase for the famed gun
    manufacturer) for potential inclusion in the National Park System (P.L.

    Memorial sites in Washington, D.C. were given special attention this session. Congress enacted legislation (P.L. 108-126) providing for the construction of a visitor's center for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. That law also amended the Commemorative Works Act by establishing new guidelines for future memorials slotted for construction on the National Mall in Washington D.C. A new law (P.L. 108-59) also authorized the continued work of the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission in its plans for the rededication of the Lincoln Memorial.

    Two pieces of legislation regarding African-American history were enacted. Planning for the construction of a memorial to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in Washington, D.C. can now move forward (P.L. 108-125). Perhaps the most significant history-related accomplishment of this Congress, however, is enactment of legislation (H.R. 3491) to establish within the Smithsonian Institution the National Museum of African American History and Culture. This legislation is the culmination of a 15-year effort by the principal sponsor of the bill -- civil rights leader, Rep. John Lewis (D-GA).

    Since 1988 Lewis has introduced legislation creating the museum, but for one reason or another his bills failed in the House or Senate -- politics makes for strange bedfellows. Because public opinion polls suggested low popularity of Republicans within the African-American community, the Republican leadership took direct action to boost support within this community. Consequently, under orders from their leaders and the White House, rank and file Republican congressmen enthusiastically embraced various funding and legislative proposals designed to benefit the African-American community, including Lewis' long-ignored bill. Republicans have reason to be proud for enacting this legislation that repeatedly failed for partisan reasons when the Democrats controlled Congress.

    2. PASSING OF JERRY RUSSELL -- BATTLEFIELD PRESERVATIONIST This last week the heritage preservation movement lost one of its giants:
    Jerry Russell who died 5 December following lung surgery. Russell was an outspoken advocate of battlefield preservation for nearly four decades and one of the founding fathers of the Civil War battlefield preservation movement. Through several political action committees and as the national chairman of the Civil War Roundtable Associates, he fought the good fight on behalf of battlefield preservation long before it was popular to do so.

    In recognition of Russell's contributions to the battlefield preservation movement, he was honored with the Civil War Preservation Trust's Edwin C.
    Bearss Lifetime Achievement Award in April 2002. Though the Civil War Roundtable Associates was not a member of the National Coalition for History (NCH), Jerry kept in close contact with the NCH and could be counted on to generate grassroots support within the Civil War community for history based initiatives. He will be sorely missed.

    Jerry is survived by his wife, Alice Anne Cason Russell, his children, and grandchildren. A memorial service was held on 9 December in Little Rock.
    Memorial contributions may be sent to the Jerry Russell Fund, Civil War Preservation Trust, 11 Public Square, Suite 200, Hagerstown, MD 21740; or to the Central Arkansas Library System Endowment, Jerry Russell Fund, 100 Rock Street, Little Rock, Arkansas 72201.

    On 8 December 2003 the Advisory Committee on the Records of Congress met in the newly renovated Jefferson Room of the main National Archives building in Washington D.C. Emily Reynolds, Secretary of the Senate presided.
    Archivist of the United State John Carlin reported on the progress being made in the realm of electronic records and announced that two design proposals were currently being advertised for the NARA Electronic Records Archives (ERA) initiative. Discussion between the committee members focused on problems in uniformity of formats and the lack of standards, especially in congressional offices.

    NARA's Adrienne Thomas gave a presentation on the security enhancements for the various vaults that contain the legislative archives. Karen Paul reported on the activities of the Congressional Papers Roundtable draft Evaluation Guidelines for Members of Congress and Congressional Papers Repositories, and on the progress being made of the creation of an organization of these repositories. She reported that a proto-type web site is being developed and that draft bylaws for the new organization are being crafted.

    Richard Hunt, Acting Director Center for Legislative Archives, presented a summary of the annual division report on legislative records. During his report Hunt discussed the effort to involve the private sector manuscript community in encouraging the donation of official records of the House and Senate that may have been alienated from official custody. He also discussed a second initiative to encourage the loan of significant national documentary treasures for display in the Capitol Visitor's Center. The Committee agreed to provide comments on these proposals to the Archivist by the end of January.

    Following the end of the meeting the members toured the new archives rotunda to view the Charters of Freedom.

    At its 18-19 November 2003 meeting, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) recommended grants totaling $3,463,840 for
    39 projects and passed a number of resolutions impacting future grant distribution.

    The commission recommended 8 grants for Founding-Era documentary editing projects totaling $1,425,056; 3 Founding-Era subvention grants totaling $30,000; 1 non-Founding-Era subvention grant totaling $10,000; 10 State Board administrative support grants totaling $147,285; 8 State Board planning, implementation, and re-grant proposals and collaborative projects totaling up to $957,157; 4 grants for electronic records and technologies projects totaling up to $653,373; and 5 grants for education projects totaling $248,719. The commission also recommended the release of previously approved grant funds for the final year of a three-year electronic records and technologies project, providing an additional $2,250 for a re-grant project approved at its November 2002 meeting, and the release of $46,864 for an earlier directed grant. (For a complete listing of the grants by state and program category, tap into:

    Archivist of the United States and NHPRC Chair John Carlin welcomed new commission member J. Kevin Graffagnino, representing the American Association for State and Local History, and former commission member Deanna Marcum, who is again representing the Librarian of Congress.

    At the meeting the NHPRC adopted the following strategies for its Fiscal Year 2004 budget: First, adhere strictly to the 50-50 split between publications and records projects for the grant funds available; second, at the November meeting, fund all four recommended fellowship proposals; fund the Founding Fathers, state board, and electronic records projects at the amounts recommended by the staff. Third, at the May 2004 meeting, after all the project proposals for the entire year have undergone peer and staff review, make the final funding decisions, which might include multiple-year grants to Non-Founding-Era editing projects nearing completion and supplemental grants to Founding-Era editing projects. Finally, in response to the recent conference at the Newberry Library on the future of editions in the electronic age, allow the Association for Documentary Editing to apply by March 1 for a grant to be considered at the May 2004 meeting.

    The commission also passed the resolutions thanking the Minnesota Historical Society for its Electronic Records Agenda Project report. The commission also resolved to extend condolences to Robert Valencia, Chairman of the Yaqui Tribal Council expressing sympathy for the death of Christine Ramirez of the Pascua Yaqui Tribe. Ramirez had been a leader in the establishment of the First Archivists Circle and had played an important role in other efforts to protect tribal records and culture. The commission also passed a resolution thanking Roger Bruns, NHPRC's Deputy Executive Director, for his 36 ½ years of federal service including NARA and the NHPRC.

    5. LEGISLATIVE UPDATE: BILLS INTRODUCED Prior to the adjournment of Congress, the following bills were introduced:
    "Revolutionary War and War of 1812 Battlefield Protection Act":
    Introduced by Representative Rush Holt (D-NJ), with 23 co-sponsors, this legislation (H.R. 3498) seeks to amend the American Battlefield Protection Act of 1996 in order to add significant sites of the Revolutionary War and War of 1812 as potential grantees for federal assistance. The measure was referred to the House Committee on Resources for consideration.

    "World Trade Center Site Historic Study Act":
    In order to establish a national memorial for those who died in the attacks of 11 September Rep. Christopher Shay (R-CT) introduced legislation (H.R.
    3471) that directs the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a study of the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York to evaluate the historical and cultural significance of the site and to assess the feasibility of establishing the area surrounding the footprints of the World Trade Center as part of the National Park System. To be completed within six months after enactment, this study would result in a report discussing the findings of the study and the recommendations of the Secretary to be given to the appropriate congressional committees. The bill was referred to the House Committee on Resources, Subcommittee on National Parks, Recreation and Public Lands for action.

    "National Archives and Records Administration Efficiency Act of 2003":
    On 7 November, Representative Adam Putnam (R-FL) introduced legislation (H.R. 3478) seeking to improve the efficiency of NARA operations. The legislation provides for the extension of records retention periods, and grants the Archivist of the United States greater latitude in authorizing the use of cooperative agreements with local governments and educational institutions to carry out NARA programs, for the collection of fees for public use of NARA services and facilities. The bill was referred to the House Committee on Government Reform for action. On 20 November the bill was reported out by the Committee and advanced to the floor for action.

    "El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail Act of 2003":
    On November 21, Representative Ciro Rodriguez (D-TX) introduced legislation (H.R. 3626) to amend the National Trails System Act to designate El Camino Real de los Tejas as a National Historic Trail. El Camino Real de los Tejas comprises nearly 2,580 miles of a series of historic routes running from the Rio Grande near Eagle Pass and Laredo, Texas to Natchitoches, Louisiana and includes the Old San Antonio Road. The bill was referred to the House Resources Committee for consideration.

    "Abraham Lincoln National Heritage Area Act":
    Rep. Ray LaHood's (R-IL) legislation (H.R. 3553) seeks to establish the Abraham Lincoln National Heritage Area in central Illinois. A coordinated effort among a variety of historical sites within the heritage area would promote public "awareness of and appreciation for the cultural, historical, and natural resources of the Heritage Area" and develop recreational and educational opportunities for residents as well as visitors. The bill was referred to the House Resources Committee for action.

    Item #1 -- Second Reminder -- Meeting Date for NCH Policy Board Set: The date for the annual Policy Board meeting of the National Coalition for History (see p. 42 of the AHA program) has been set for Friday, 9 January
    2004 during the 118th annual meeting of the American Historical Association
    (AHA) in Washington D.C. An information packet for board members and NCH institutional representatives is in preparation and will be mailed out in early December.

    Also, please note that from 12:15 to 1:45 p.m. on Friday, the NCH will sponsor a brown-bag lunch forum entitled, "The Bush Administration And Federal History Programs: What's In Store for the Future" (see p. 100 in the AHA program). During this session, NCH director Bruce Craig and representatives from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC), and Department of Education (ED) will discuss the status of several federal history programs as well as current legislative and policy initiatives impacting history and archives on Capitol Hill. Please mark your calendars and plan to attend. All are welcome!

    Item #2 -- Nixon Tapes Release: The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has opened 240 additional hours of White House tape recordings from the Nixon presidency. This is the tenth opening since 1980. Included are 3,000 conversations recorded at the White House from July 1972 through October 1972. Topics include the 1972 presidential campaign, Vietnam War and Paris peace talks, and US/USSR relations. There also are discussions on several domestic issues including the Clean Water bill and Watergate. As of 10 December 2003, NARA has opened 2,019 hours of tapes from the Nixon presidency. Researchers can now make copies of taped conversations that are being released on disk. For additional information on how to make copies or for more on the contents of the release, contact the Nixon project office at (301) 837-3290.

    Item #3 -- Battlefield Grant Deadline Extended: Due to problems with the mail delivery of the American Battlefield Protection Program (ABPP) 2004 Project Grant applications, the ABPP has extended the application deadline. Applications must now be received by the ABPP by 4:00 pm on 30 January 2004. It is recommend sending applications by express service to ensure timely delivery. Applications mailed through the US Postal Service must have a postmark of 23 January 2004. Federal, tribal, state, and local governments and non-profit organizations may apply for projects that lead to the protection of battlefields, and their associated sites, located on American soil. For additional information about the project grant application process and to download the grant guidelines and application tap into: . Questions should be directed to the ABPP grants manager at (202) 354-2037.

    One selection this week: On 4 December 2003 the Associated Press filed a
    story, "Teacher Sues Over Limits on History Curriculum" that discusses the law suit brought by a seventh-grade teacher in Maine to overturn a local school board prohibition from teaching about non-Christian civilizations in a social studies class. For the article, tap into:

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
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    James Hewey - 12/10/2003

    One of my ancestors Captain William Blackadder was tried for the murder of Lord Darnley. William was a member of the household guards. I've always believed he was a scape goat. for Bothwell, however he was alied to that family through bloodlines, I believe, and loyalties changed frequently. He certainly paid for his loyalty, if that be a fact. He was hanged ,drawn and quartered for that deed. I'm of the opinionthat often the guilty run free. Why Captain Blackadder and a few others that were executed could mastermind such a crime leaves something to be desired and why indeed , wasn't the murder carried out on Lord Darnley's trip back form Glascow when opportunity presented itself in many avenues on dark late night trails. That is my inguiry. Thank-you James Hewey

    editor - 12/10/2003

    The Times (London)
    December 6, 2003, Saturday
    SECTION: Overseas news; 20
    HEADLINE: My memories of Il Duce, by his secret daughter
    BYLINE: Richard Owen in Rome
    'THOSE DAMNED ENGLISH' ELENA CURTI, a sprightly and elegant 81-year-old, sits in her living room in a hilltown near Lake Bolsena, north of Rome, and reminisces about growing up during the Fascist dictatorship of Benito Mussolini.

    Like other women of her age, she is surrounded by pictures of her family. But the signed photograph on her desk is of Mussolini: she is Il Duce's "secret daughter".

    Standard biographies of Mussolini record that when he retreated to Salo on Lake Garda at the end of 1943 as the Allies and anti-Fascist partisans intensified the pressure, he enjoyed the unexpected companionship of the 21-year-old Elena Curti, to whom he gave a job as a secretary in one of the Nazi puppet state's ministries.

    They also record that Elena's mother, Angela, a vivacious and attractive socialite, had been one of Mussolini's mistresses. Signora Curti, who has lived in Spain for the past 40 years, has now published a vivid and detailed memoir, frankly subtitled Fragments of Memory of Il Duce's Secret Daughter.

    The issue of her true parentage was first brought into the open, she reveals, when Clara Petacci, Mussolini's last mistress -who died with him at the hands of Italian partisans in April 1945 -"threw a jealous fit" over Il Duce's interest in her at Salo, fearing that she was a rival.

    Someone -presumably Il Duce himself -"revealed to Petacci that I was Mussolini's daughter, to shut her up", she says. "Then, when Mussolini was shot and I was imprisoned along with others in his entourage, my mother told the tribunal that I was Il Duce's daughter and so spared me a 20-year sentence for collaboration."

    Elena was with Mussolini when partisans intercepted him as he fled towards the Swiss-Italian border. The title of her book, The Three-Pronged Nail, refers to the sabotage device the partisans used to puncture the convoy's tyres.

    Signora Curti's decision to go public comes as the ghost of Mussolini has returned to haunt Italian politics. Gianfranco Fini, the head of Alleanza Nazionale, the reformed successor to Mussolini's Blackshirts, set off a storm within the Right last month by denouncing Fascism as "absolute evil" during a visit to Israel.

    Alessandra Mussolini, 40, Il Duce's granddaughter, is spearheading a revolt by diehard party members, and there is growing talk of schism.

    Signora Curti is reluctant to be drawn into the row, observing only that while Signor Fini and the post-Fascists are "entitled to evolve", she dislikes "the harmful and inelegant way he has gone about it".

    But she fiercely defends Mussolini, arguing -in a revisionist view gaining ground in Italy 60 years on -that the "positive aspects" of Fascism were conveniently suppressed in the postwar years under left-wing influence.

    According to Signora Curti, Mussolini -then on the verge of power, and a married man with three children -fell for her mother when she asked him to intercede for her husband, Bruno, a member of the early Fascist vigilante squads who had been jailed in connection with the murder of a left-wing teacher.

    Mussolini did as asked, but by the time her husband was out of jail, Angela and Mussolini were lovers, and she was pregnant. Elena was born in Milan in October 1922, days before Mussolini's celebrated March on Rome which brought him to power.

    When Elena's parents split up in 1929, her mother resumed her relationship with Mussolini: now not just Prime Minister but Il Duce ("the leader").

    When she was 19 her mother took her to see Mussolini with the idea that "he might help to get me into the film world". It was at this point that her mother began to hint strongly that Il Duce was her real father.

    Although Angela Curti was supplanted in Il Duce's affections by Clara Petacci, he regularly received his secret daughter at his office in the Palazzo Venezia in Rome, usually for tea. He gave her books for her studies, often with banknotes slipped inside. She came closest to him, however, at Salo, when she ran dangerous errands for him on a bicycle.

    He was captured at the end, she says, because the German officers escorting his escape convoy betrayed him to the partisans in return for their own safe passage: "He was always betrayed -by the Italian bureaucracy, by King Victor Emmanuel III.

    It was the king who dragged Italy into war."

    After resuming her studies in postwar Rome, Elena married Colonel Enrico Miranda, a decorated Second World War pilot, and they moved to Spain, where she studied fine art at Barcelona (she is a painter). They recently returned to live in the town in northern Lazio where Colonel Miranda, now 91, was brought up. Antonio Spinosa, an historian and a biographer of Mussolini, says that he has absolutely no doubt that Signora Curti was Il Duce's daughter.

    "I met Mussolini at close quarters as a young man, and she has the same eyes," he said. "In any case, it was an open secret in high Fascist circles." The Mussolini family has declined to comment.


    Elena says that Il Duce one day gave his bodyguards the slip and took her mother for a spin in his new speedboat off the coast at Castel Porziano near Rome. "'Just think!' Mussolini said to my mother, 'I was supposed to be meeting the Egyptian minister at five and it's six already!'

    "'I think you should be more prudent,' my mother said. 'People say you even kept Sir Anthony Eden waiting.' Il Duce snapped back: 'I'm sick of those damned English who think the world is at their feet: they are egotistical, insincere, haughty people. I may have been tactless, but one day history will say the Italian Government knew how to keep Albion at the door.' 'Fine,' my mother said. 'But don't forget what happened to Napoleon'."

    Earl Jagger - 12/8/2003

    I am a radio control model boat modeler. I would like to scratch build the Iron Monitor into a radio control ship. Are there plans available to give me some idea as to the dementions of the ship??
    Any help you may give me would be appreciated.


    Ear Jagger

    DRJ - 12/8/2003

    A letter defending revisionism?! How interesting and refreshingly honest. Either the signatories to that letter have no knowledge of language or they are the most brutally truthful folks I've encountered in quite some time. Revisionism is the practice of changing history to make it say what one wants it to say regardless of the facts. I suppose they intended to support revising history to reflect what truly happened as more facts become known. This is relatively typical of what happens when Bush haters attack him. Bush was rejecting the former...they accuse him of rejecting the latter. I expect this from Al Franken but am I naive in expecting better from a group of university professors?

    Cram - 12/7/2003

    The very idea of putting Reagan on the dime is astounding. How did he change the office of the Presidency? How was his administration responsible for dramatically shifting the power of the executive branch? What were the long term ramifications of Reagan's policies?

    FDR transformed the makeup of the national government within the United States, and helped to transform the entire planet around the United States.

    But since Reagan was a conservative, and conservatives are in charge of the government now, this is actually being debated?!? Incredible.

    Matt Schumann - 12/5/2003

    "It's that kind of spatting that makes a powerhouse among coin
    collectors doubt the wisdom of sticking to presidential portraits as the subject for coins."

    As a collector, myself, I have to agree with this statement. There was a time when American coins all had Liberty on them, or eagles, "Indian heads" and other abstractions. These are not unlike the posing figure on the Swiss coin, and the hammer, sickle and globe on Soviet coinage. Even the Euro has a standard design.

    If we are to stick with presidents, then I would think that James Madison, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson and LBJ deserve to appear on our currency, as well - if not more former presidents! Regardless of the latter three, it would be a travesty for American history if the U.S. were to honor the author of Star Wars on its coinage before the author of the Constitution.

    editor - 12/4/2003

    The Times (London)
    December 3, 2003, Wednesday
    SECTION: Features; 20
    HEADLINE: The only hope now is to divide Iraq into three
    BYLINE: Simon Jenkins
    Those who try to do the undoable must also think the unthinkable. American strategists in Iraq are contemplating what they have always denied, the search for a "strong man with a moustache" to stop the present rot. If the result is not democracy, so be it. If the result is the dismemberment of Iraq, so be it. Iraq has become a mess. There is only one priority, to "get out with dignity".

    This strategy is now being rammed down the throat of the Pentagon proconsul in Baghdad, Paul Bremer, by George Bush's new "realist" Deputy National Security Adviser, Bob Blackwill. He answers to Condoleezza Rice, not Donald Rumsfeld, and is the new boss of Iraq. The Pentagon, Mr Rumsfeld and Paul Wolfowitz, architects of the old "idealist" strategy, are in retreat. The Iraqi Governing Council, which Mr Bremer reluctantly created, will be disbanded. Washington must find someone with whom it can do business, someone who can deliver order in return for power.

    That search is Mr Blackwill's job.

    In a nutshell, Washington has bought the old British Middle East strategy, that you deal with local leaders and leave them to it. The fantasies of Mr Rumsfeld and of George Bush's recent "world democracy" speech are at an end. There must be no second Vietnam in Iraq. Necessity has become the mother of humiliating invention.

    We shall never know if Mr Rumsfeld's adventure could have turned out otherwise. As his weapons of mass destruction vanished in the desert air, so has his belief in a "new democratic beacon in the Middle East". That collapsed from the minute he peremptorily tore up the State Department's Future of Iraq Project shortly before the invasion and ostracised its staff. His faith in corrupt expatriates was crazy.

    His post-invasion demolition of Saddam Hussein's state apparatus removed the institutions and disciplines on which any government depends.

    The May 16 order disbanding the Iraqi Army created 400,000 enemies overnight and gave the Saddamists what they most needed, a sea of Sunni resentment in which to swim. The wild shooting habits and hearts-and-minds ineptitude of the 82nd Airborne and 4th Infantry did the rest. They supplied a stream of blood-feud assassins. For Iraqis this inept occupation has brought to life the Arab proverb, "Better 40 years of oppression than one day of anarchy."

    What is amazing is the speed with which Washington recognises its mistakes. The dubiousness of "victory in Iraq" was vividly illustrated last week when George Bush had to visit the country in secret and dared not leave his airbase. Saddam loyalists are operating virtually at will, now even in the south. The White House got the message. Washington sacked its first governor, Jay Garner, within a month of the invasion. It is now effectively abandoning its second within six months.

    Baghdad has seen three regime changes within a year.

    The plan Washington forced on Mr Bremer last month abandoned the Pentagon's policy of steady progress towards democracy through an elected assembly. The new plan was more urgent, a "transfer of power" to a provisional government next spring, with the hope of elections thereafter. This government would be selected from the three provinces on a local "show of hands". It would run the New Iraqi Army and police force and enjoy some patronage over oil revenue and $ 19 billion of aid.

    Now this plan appears also to be in disarray. After witnessing the present governing council, the White House has understandably lost faith in Iraqi assemblies, however chosen. The CIA assessments are clear. Evidence of economic recovery means nothing when Iraqis associate American occupation with fear and lawlessness. They see Saddam loyalists getting away with murder and looters getting away with their property. Something new is needed.

    Iraq has only ever been held together by brute force. Washington is grudgingly accepting the view that this is unlikely to change. A new leader is needed to prevent the place becoming a global magnet for what the Arabist historian, Bernard Lewis, calls "new causes for anger, new dreams of fulfilment, new tools of attack". This was, after all, the view that Washington took in the 1980s when it decided to support a certain Saddam Hussein.

    The 60 per cent Shia majority, long oppressed by Saddam and his Sunnis, see its hour as come. Its primary allegiance is to ayatollahs who, however moderate, require government to be based on Islamic law. Like all Iraqi politicians, these men are playing slow at present. They are watching the chaotic mood swings in the Republican Palace fortress in Baghdad -and biding their time.

    These men include Aziz al-Hakim, chairman of the Sciri group on the governing council, Muqtadah al-Sadr, heir to the heroic Ayatollah al-Sadr whose face has replaced Saddam's in a million picture frames, and the Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani. They are not so close to their one-time Iranian hosts as to scare their fellow Iraqis. They eschew the word fundamentalist and have for the moment (mostly) stood down their militias. Mr Blackwill's game plan must be to find his strong man from this group. He must let the Shias decide which of them should be boss and hand Iraq over to that person. Such a regime would at first embrace the minority Sunnis and the oil-rich Kurds.

    However, it is idle to pretend that this embrace would be stable. Mr Bremer has turned the Sunnis into a mass resistance movement, armed and desperate. They have no jobs or oil and increasingly see Saddam as their champion against Shia domination. Their underground Baath party is a lethal saboteur of any new regime.

    Baghdad, once majority Shia but now heavily Sunni, could become another divided city, a place of nightly horror.

    As for the Kurds in the North, they will allow no loss of the sovereignty they enjoyed under the "no-fly zone". Their current leader, Jalal Talabani, would support a Shia regime for a while. But any Shia decision, say on oil, with which the Kurds disagreed would be opposed. Many Kurds have dreamt of an independence which has never seemed closer than now. Sceptics are already talking of "Kurdistan" becoming "America's second Israel".

    For the Americans to try policing such a confederation is politically inconceivable. To hold the Sunnis in subjugation to the Shias, to deter the Turks from oppressing the Kurds, to reassure the Saudis over an Iranian-backed Baghdad, would all require hundreds of thousands of troops in perpetual battle mode. It is not on.

    The yearning for national unity and dignity may be palpable in Baghdad. It was hoped that, after Saddam, the Americans might deliver it. The Ottomans had ruled Iraq as separate provinces. The British fashioned a nation under a Hashemite king with armed force. Saddam continued this ruthlessly through the Baath party. He rebuilt Babylon and made Baghdad a shrine to pan-Arab nationhood.

    Such unity is not remotely in sight. Possibly if the Americans had purged and redeployed the Baath party it might have stood a chance. They did not. Instead they are turning to the ayatollahs. But they, or their civilian frontmen, would face intense Sunni resistence. The odds would be on the Sunnis eventually demanding similar autonomy to that enjoyed by the Kurds, perhaps with help from their neighbouring co-religionists, the Syrians. Small wonder Iraq's six adjacent states are in a state of suspended horror. They see Mr Rumsfeld's "cradle of stability" turning into anything but.

    The strong man solution cannot hold. Iraq seems ever more likely to split three ways. Fragmentation has become the default mode of Western intervention. It was so in Yugoslavia. It is so in Afghanistan. It will be so in the coming conflicts in the Caucasus. America and Britain apparently cannot tolerate the power centres needed to keep disparate nations in order. We may no longer divide and rule, but we happily divide and debilitate.

    If this was the Pentagon's strategy all along, it has been implemented in a funny way. But since realpolitik has overtaken idealism as Washington's ruling ethos, at least an orderly break-up of Iraq should be planned, not denied. In 20 years of meddling, America and Britain have made a mess of this nation. They owe it the least blood-spattered path they can fashion to whatever the future has in store.

    Nick L. Endymd - 12/4/2003

    "Although it would break with tradition to put a living person on a
    circulating coin, there is no law that prevents it."

    A pretty good illustration of the bogus conservativism of "neo-conservatism". Whatever we can get away with, 'til we get called to account, is fine. If it suits our current progaganda purposes to boot, it is by definition, great.

    editor - 12/4/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #46; 4 December 2003) by Bruce Craig (editor) ; Shannon Parsley
    National Coalition for History (NCH)

    Carter G. Woodson Home National Historic Site Act:
    On 24 November 2003, the Senate passed legislation (H.R.1012) establishing the Carter G. Woodson Home National Historic Site in Washington D.C. Long regarded as the father of African-American history, Dr. Woodson, through his work as a scholar and an educator, helped to bring about in 1926 Negro History Week, which later evolved into Black History Month. His home at
    1538 Ninth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C., is to be rehabilitated and made into a museum to educate the public about Woodson's work. The bill version the Senate passed is similar to the House approved measure that passed in May. The House must approve the Senate version before the legislation can become public law.

    editor - 12/4/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #46; 4 December 2003) by Bruce Craig (editor) <>; Shannon Parsley
    National Coalition for History (NCH)
    1. Congress Poised To Head Home Without Finalizing Budget 2. Congress Agrees To FY-04 Funding Levels for NARA and "Teaching American History" Grant Program 3. A*Census Group Begins Deliberations 4. Pulitzer Prize Board Issues Decision on Duranty Case 5. Legislative Update -- Bills Passed: National Aviation Heritage Act; National Women's History Museum Act; Cold War Theme Study; Carter G.
    Woodson Home National Historic Site Act
    6. Bits and Bytes: Seminar for Historical Administration; Middleton Fellowship Program Announced 7. Articles of Interest: "Museum Won't Remove Beer Logos From Plane"
    (Washington Post; 21 November 2003)

    1. CONGRESS POISED TO HEAD HOME WITHOUT FINALIZING BUDGET Lawmakers are set to depart Washington D.C. next week without having completed work on seven of the 13 appropriation bills that would have kept the federal government fully operating in FY-2004. Early next week the House and Senate will be in session only one day (Monday for the House; Tuesday for the Senate), thus creating one last opportunity to pass an appropriation omnibus bill prior to the end of the first session of the 108th Congress. It is, however, a dim prospect.

    Though the government's fiscal year began 1 October, still unfunded are 11 of the 15 cabinet departments that collectively comprise over one-sixth of the total federal budget. The apparent failure of the Republican controlled Congress to move a huge catch-all omnibus appropriations bill (H.R. 2673) made it necessary to pass yet another (the sixth) Continuing Resolution
    (CR) -- this one designed to keep much of the government lumbering along until Congress reconvenes in January (P.L. 108-135). If Congress cannot agree on the remaining budget measures next week, they will have until 31 January 2004 to act or pass yet another CR.

    According to Hill insiders, if the massive bill fails to be enacted most of the blame will rest with the Republican Congressional leadership and the White House. One of the central concerns to lawmakers was that the Majority party tried to use the omnibus bill as a vehicle to enact White House desired policy changes that, in several instances, were not approved let alone debated by Congress. One of the leadership's objectives was to wrap together into one gigantic $328 billion discretionary spending bill the controversial policy provisions with the remaining pending appropriation measures. The package was then to be advanced to the floor without any opportunity for amendment. The leadership also wanted to break with custom that requires a roll-call vote for appropriation matters and instead pass the measure on voice vote. But under the Senate rules, it takes "unanimous consent" -- the approval of all 100 senators -- to bring a spending bill up for a vote. The Republican desire to break with the procedural custom raised the ire of Senator Robert C. Byrd (D-WV), who vowed to withhold his consent.

    That's the broad picture, but focusing more narrowly on those measures of interest to historians and archivists, the good news is that Congress has already acted on most of the bills of concern to our communities. While funding for the National Archives and Records Administration and the Department of Education bill are slotted to be part of the omnibus bill (see related story below), the Interior and Related Agencies appropriation measure (P.L. 108-83) that funds several programs of key interest (i.e. the National Endowment for the Humanities, Historic Preservation Fund, etc.) has already been passed. Congress also acted on the Homeland Security Department bill (P.L. 108-90) that provides for the creation of the departmental Office of History. The Legislative Branch appropriation bill that provides the annual spending levels for the Library of Congress also has been enacted (P.L. 108-83).

    2. CONGRESS AGREES ON FY-04 FUNDING LEVELS FOR NARA AND "TEACHING AMERICAN HISTORY" GRANT PROGRAM Agreements have been officially reached setting the FY-2004 funding levels for the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) -- including the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) -- and for the last remaining measure of central concern to the history community:
    the "Teaching American History" grant program that is funded by the massive Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education bill (H.R. 2660/S. 1356).
    Funding levels for both are detailed in the Conference Report (H. Rept
    108-401) for the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2004 (H.R. 2673).

    As previously unofficially reported (see "NARA FY-04 Budget Finalized: $10 Million for NHPRC! ERA Restored!" in NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE Vol 9, # 44; 14 November 2003), NARA's general operating budget is set at $256.7 million --
    $1.5 million less than the president's request but $8.4 million over the FY
    2003 enacted level. For the first time in recent history, the NHPRC will
    get its full authorized funding of $10 million.

    Also, the conferees pegged the funding level for the "Teaching American History" program at $120 million. This is far more than the House had recommended ($50 million) but less than the original request posed in the
    Senate ($140 million). The Institute of Museum and Library Services
    (IMLS) is to be funded at $262.596 million with $31.590 million set aside for museum programs. Please bear in mind that all budget numbers are subject to a .59% rescission that will affect the final dollar figures slightly downward.

    The working group charged with developing and conducting a comprehensive nationwide census of the archival profession, A*CENSUS (Archival Census and Education Needs Survey in the U.S.) began deliberations about the scope and nature of this unprecedented collaborative effort during its first meeting in Chicago, 14-16 November 2003. Funded by the Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS), A*CENSUS seeks to define the universe of archivists currently in the workforce, determine the knowledge and skills they need to do their jobs now and in the future, and provide graduate and continuing education programs with baseline data to support recruitment and training of new archivists. According to Society of American Archivists
    (SAA) president Timothy Ericson, the ground-breaking effort "will help to shape the individual and collective interests of the archival community."

    A broad range of archival interests are represented within the working group, including graduate archival education programs, continuing education programs, and the following national and regional organizations: Academy of Certified Archivists, Association of Moving Image Archivists, Conference of Inter-Mountain Archivists, Council of State Historical Records Coordinators, First Archivists Circle, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Mid-Atlantic Regional Archives Conference, Midwest Archives Conference, National Archives and Records Administration/Modern Archives Institute, National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators, New England Archivists, Northwest Archivists, Inc., Rare Books and Manuscripts Section of the Association of College and Research Libraries, Society of American Archivists, Society of California Archivists, and the Society of Southwest Archivists.

    The goal of A*CENSUS is to survey everyone in the United States who works with archival materials through a census. The project will seek active participation from all archival associations in the U.S., as well as many organizations serving closely allied fields whose members bear significant responsibility for historical records, including librarians, local historians, records managers, and museum curators. Current plans call for the census to be conducted through a survey form that will be distributed during the spring of 2004. A preliminary report is to be available by the August 2004 annual meeting of the Society of American Archivists.

    4. PULITZER PRIZE BOARD ISSUES DECISION ON DURANTY CASE After six months of study and deliberation, the Pulitzer Prize Board has decided that it will not undo history by revoking the foreign reporting prize awarded in 1932 to New York Times reporter Walter Duranty, an objective sought by several conservative organizations. The Board determined that, measured by today's standards for foreign reporting Duranty's work "falls seriously short," but they "found no clear and convincing evidence of deliberate deception the relevant standard in the case." (See

    Walter Duranty was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his "profound and intimate comprehension of the conditions in Russia and the causes of those conditions." The prize was made largely on the basis of his reporting on the Soviet Five Year Plan which was in part based on a media coup -- an interview with Stalin. As time passed and the monstrousness of the Soviet regime became more widely known, Duranty was branded by some as a "Stalin apologist." Duranty was specifically targeted by the American Ukrainian community in part because of his reporting (or rather lack of reporting) on the 1932-22 Ukrainian famine that left 5 to 10 million dead.

    Several months back the New York Times commissioned Mark von Hagen, a professor of history at Columbia University and an expert in early 20th-century Russian history, to conduct an independent assessment of Duranty's work during 1931, the year for which Duranty won the Pulitzer. Von Hagen's report ( went beyond the 13 articles that served as the basis for the award nomination to put the totality of Duranty's work into historical perspective. Von Hagen's eight-page report was presented to the New York Times and subsequently it appeared in print in the New York Sun. In June 2003, the Times issued a public statement claiming that it saw "no merit in trying to undo history"
    and noted that the Pulitzer Board had reviewed the prize several times previously and had not seen fit to rescind it.

    Douglass McCollam, writing in the current issue of the Columbia Journalism Review (, critiques both Duranty's coverage and the von Hagen report. McCollam's conclusion:
    "If the case for revoking the prize is based solely on the series that Duranty won for, then it is less compelling. If it is based instead on the totality of his reporting, then the prize should probably be revoked."

    National Aviation Heritage Act:
    On 18 November 2003, the House of Representatives passed legislation (H.R.
    280), the National Aviation Heritage Area Act. The bill seeks to recognize the critical role of aviation in the United States' economic development and emergence as a military power. The act designates a specified area in Dayton, Ohio as a National Heritage Area. The bill was referred to the Senate Energy Committee for consideration.

    National Women's History Museum Act:
    On 21 November 2003, the Senate passed legislation (S. 1741) to provide a site for the proposed National Women's History Museum in the District of Columbia. Introduced by Senator Susan Collins (R-ME) and 17 co-sponsors, the Act provides for renovations and a leasing agreement for the Pavilion Annex of the Old Post Office Building in Washington, D.C. to the National Women's History Museum, a nonpartisan, nonprofit institution designed to research and present the history of women's contributions to American culture. The bill has been advanced to the House for consideration.

    Cold War Theme Study:
    On 24 November 2003, the Senate passed legislation (S. 452), a long-awaited bill (see "Energy Committee Approves Cold War Theme Study" NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE, Vol. 9, #33; 1 August 2003) authorizing $300,000 for a study of sites and resources -- both military and nonmilitary -- associated with the Cold War. The Secretary of Interior is to provide recommendations for commemorating and interpreting such sites and cost estimates for carrying out those recommendations. The bill also directs the National Park Service to research and publish an interpretive handbook on the Cold War. The bill has been referred to the House Committee on Resources where similar legislation (H.R. 114) introduced by Rep. Joel Hefley (R-CO) has been pending for some time.

    Carter G. Woodson Home National Historic Site Act:
    On 24 November 2003, the Senate passed legislation (H.R.1012) establishing the Carter G. Woodson Home National Historic Site in Washington D.C. Long regarded as the father of African-American history, Dr. Woodson, through his work as a scholar and an educator, helped to bring about in 1926 Negro History Week, which later evolved into Black History Month. His home at
    1538 Ninth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C., is to be rehabilitated and made into a museum to educate the public about Woodson's work. The bill version the Senate passed is similar to the House approved measure that passed in May. The House must approve the Senate version before the legislation can become public law.

    Item #1 -- Seminar for Historical Administration. The Seminar for Historical Administration (SHA), long considered the most senior of America's museum professional development programs, is back in business with the goal of developing and strengthening leadership within the history community. The 45th SHA will take place in Indianapolis, Indiana from 30 October to 20 November 2004 at the state-of-the-art classroom at the Indiana Historical Society's headquarters in downtown Indianapolis. The seminar provides an intensive three-week residential experience taught by more than thirty faculty members. For more information about the program tap into the American Association for State and Local History (AASLH) website at: <>;.

    Item #2 -- Middleton Fellowship Program Announced: The Lyndon B. Johnson Foundation, the Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library, and the Institute for the 21st Century have announced the creation of the Harry Middleton Fellowship in Presidential Studies. The Middleton fellowship carries a stipend of up to $5,000, and as many as two will be awarded annually. These fellowships support scholars interested in presidential policy during the postwar period. Funds can be used at any presidential library in the National Archives system, though the successful candidate will develop at least a portion of her or his work from original research in the collections of the Lyndon B. Johnson Library. For additional information tap into the LBJ School of Public Affairs website at:

    One selection this week: In "Museum Won't Remove Beer Logos From Plane"
    (21 November 2003) Washington Post reporter Jacqueline Trescott writes on the controversy surrounding a famous aerobatic plane emblazoned with Bud Light emblems. Twenty members of the House of Representatives had complained in a letter to the Smithsonian's museum that the beer logos represented commercialization and alcohol advertising. But National Air and Space Museum director General John R. (Jack) Dailey said no changes would be made: "Air and Space does not alter artifacts, unless a repair is necessary, and displays the artifacts in a historically honest manner." For the article, tap into:

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
    at: <>;.

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at and at the "network" prompt, scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    editor - 12/4/2003

    Untitled Document Reagan's bust on dime touted
    Souder leading fight to toss FDR in favor of conservative icon By
    Sylvia A. Smith Washington editor

    WASHINGTON - Quick! Which president's profile appears on the dime?

    Hint: It's not Ronald Reagan, but Rep. Mark Souder, R-3rd, wants to
    make it so.

    "This is time for us to make a statement, right now, because we feel
    Ronald Reagan's been unfairly trashed," Souder said, referring to a
    made-for-TV miniseries that was yanked from the CBS schedule after a
    storm of criticism that castigated the movie as unfairly portraying
    the former president.

    A profile of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a Democrat and the 32nd
    president, has been on the 10-cent piece since 1946, a year after FDR
    died in office.

    "Reagan is, in effect, the Republican Roosevelt. He (FDR) is more or
    less the founder, as the New Deal, of interventionist government,"
    Souder said. "He is viewed in many Americans' minds as the founder of
    the current welfare state, and Ronald Reagan is viewed as the founder
    of conservative presidential things."

    Souder said he realizes the suggestion of removing Roosevelt from the
    dime might cause consternation in some quarters.

    So it has.

    The moment Souder's proposal hit the streets on Capitol Hill, a
    Massachusetts Democrat fired back. Rep. James McGovern introduced a
    competing bill that would proclaim Congress' intent of keeping
    Roosevelt on the dime.

    McGovern said he will try to block Souder's bill because removing
    FDR's face from the dime "would be a sign of disrespect. It would be
    a sign we're diminishing his role in our history.

    "Almost every historian who rates presidents always rates Roosevelt
    as one of the top three presidents, regardless of their ideology,"
    said. "So much of what our country cherishes today was as a result of
    Roosevelt's initiatives. And he led our country through one of the
    most difficult times in our history - the Great Depression and World
    War II.
    If World War II turned out a different way, we wouldn't be the great
    country we are today."

    McGovern said Reagan deserves to be honored - and he has been.

    "I don't know why Reagan has to be on a coin," he said. "His name is
    on an airport; his name is on a building in Washington, a school, a
    highway named after him. It's not like Ronald Reagan is a president
    who has not been honored."

    It's that kind of spatting that makes a powerhouse among coin
    collectors doubt the wisdom of sticking to presidential portraits as
    the subject for coins.

    Beth Deisher, editor of Coin World, the major newspaper for coin
    collectors, said she doesn't oppose the idea of a Reagan dime, but
    "bouncing off probably the most prominent Democrat of all time for a
    Republican president - I've got to believe there would be retaliation
    when and if the Democrats regain control of both houses" of Congress.

    Putting Reagan on a coin has been popular in conservative circles for
    several years. It's been advocated by the Ronald Reagan Legacy
    Project, a program of Americans for Tax Reform. The group wants a
    public landmark in every state and all 3,067 counties named for

    Although it would break with tradition to put a living person on a
    circulating coin, there is no law that prevents it.

    Nor is changing the design of a coin an expensive or lengthy process.
    Becky Bailey, a spokeswoman for the U.S. Mint, said the redesigned
    nickel, which will debut next year, will cost about $86,000. She
    estimated it would cost about the same to redesign the dime if
    Congress orders a new image. She said redesigns are usually completed
    in nine months.

    David L. Williams - 12/4/2003

    My heart says Beethoven
    My head says Martin Luther
    My Wife says Guttenberg.

    I guess it's settled. The greatest German is Guttenberg. Without the mass produced book there IS not western civilization.

    Dave Livingston - 12/3/2003

    It is a tad puzzling why this item was posted. It proclaims archeological finds, but after describing each discovery, it proceeds to say the find is meaningless with "It's actually unlikely Simon is buried there," It is unlikely Absalom, a son of King David is buried there..." If the editors don't think the finds are valid, why post this item in the first place?

    Then as kooky, the editors chose to use the silly dating designation C.E., which in truth is an anti-Christian expression, as is the expression B.C.E. One sometimes wishes the Christian-hating secularist types would grow up, but it is most unlikely they fully indoctrinated will ever do so. For Pete's sake, common era? Common as defined by what guage? It is tiresome to have to endure such politically correct semantic gymnastics. By the same token, it is amusing to observe to what ridicuolous lenghts politically correct types will go to avoid making imaginary insensitive remarks. It will not surprise me if one day if the discussion of cuniform writing becomes politically incorrect, lest it offend someone of Sumerian lineage. In short, hypersensitivity has gotten way out-of-hand.

    In that light, those who seek to expand their victim status have become tiresome as well. For instance, a few days ago a Seattle cop was accused of racism because he had a toy ape tied to the grill of his police cruiser. He had it there because a drunk he'd arrested had puked on it & he, the cop, didn't want the stinking thing in his crusier. But espying the ape some crybaby with an overlarge chip on his or her shoulder whimpered, "Racism."

    Luke S. - 12/3/2003

    The article in the twelfth paragraph mistakenly refers to George VII, when it meant Edward VII. There has yet to be a George VII.

    editor - 12/2/2003

    The Times (London)
    December 2, 2003, Tuesday
    SECTION: Overseas news; 18
    HEADLINE: Lawyers set to scupper EU arrest warrants
    BYLINE: Roger Boyes in Berlin
    German lawyers are mounting a late challenge to the new European arrest warrant, which comes into effect on January 1.

    They say that the warrant undermines the protection of individual rights enshrined in Germany's postwar Constitution after the abuses of the Nazi years.

    More than 120 law professors and two professional lawyers' associations argue that the warrant will seriously undermine the national system of justice in Germany.

    The warrant, which makes extradition much easier within the European Union, is stirring anxiety in many countries and prompting legal questions. Will Germany try to extradite David Irving, the British historian, for allegedly questioning the authenticity of the Holocaust? Will Irish or Polish courts seek the extradition of Dutch doctors performing abortions on Irish or Polish citizens? Will holidaymakers who cause accidents abroad be sent back to the scene of the crime and languish, perhaps on the basis of doubtful evidence, in detention centres until a trial date is set?

    Under the new European arrest warrant, courts in EU states will have to decide within 90 days whether to comply with an extradition request from a fellow EU country. Resistance will be difficult. At present extradition requests can be contested in a series of national courts and cases linger on for years. Moreover, extradition decisions will no longer be referred to a politician, typically the Home Secretary or Interior Minister, but will be decided by the courts.

    The new binding European law sets out 32 areas in which the faster extradition will apply, from terrorism to fraud, from serious traffic offences to "environmental crime". That will remove one line of defence: at present a suspect can argue that he has not committed a crime under the laws of the country in which he is living. The new warrant sets aside these objections.

    There is already confusion connected with extradition. For example, France recently arrested a German sympathiser with Islamic fundamentalists. The man, who lives in Germany but who was visiting France, received a mobile phone call from a suicide bomber. The German prosecutor was unable to muster a case against him based on this telephone conversation. The French, however, arrested him on the ground that he could not plausibly explain why he received the phone call. The standards of evidence, in other words, are quite different from country to country.

    The nervousness about the European warrant seems to be strongest in the German legal profession. Protection of individual rights was writ large in the German Constitution after the Second World War. Until 2000 it was forbidden for a German court to extradite a German citizen.

    Hartmut Kilger, President of the German Lawyers' Association, is urging the Government to insist on a double right to defence: that is, legal representation in the home country and in the country demanding extradition.

    The last-minute German lobbying is unlikely to stop the law going ahead, but the lawyers are predicting chaos.

    modestus hamson - 11/30/2003

    Dear Respectful One,

    Permit me to inform you of my desire of going into business relationship with you. I know this mail maycome to you as a surprise, since we have not known
    or written before. Introducing myself, I am Mr Modestus Hamson 18 years of age the only son of the late Mr and Mrs Richard Hamson. My father was a Gold and
    cocoa merchant based in Accra, Ghana and Abidjan(Ivory Coast), he was poisoned to death by his business associates on one of their business trips.Before the death of my father on 29th June 2001 in a private hospital here in Abidjan. he secretly
    called me on his bed side and told me that he has a sum of USD$17.5M (Seventeen Million Five Hundred Thousand U.S),deposited in a Security and finance company in (Abidjan Côte d’Ivoire, that he used my name as his only son for the next of kin in depositing the fund.He also explained to me that it was because of this wealth that he was poisoned by his business associates, that I should seek for a foreign partner in a country of my choice where I will transfer this money and use it for investment purpose such as expansion of his existing cocoa business and real estate management here on how best to transfer thismoney to overseas please.He told me that the fund is a trunk box as such the security does not know the contents of the box.I am humbly seeking your assistance in the following ways:
    1- To assist me in providing an account of yours where this fund can quietly be transferred into.
    2- To serve as the guardian of this fund since I am still in the university.
    3- To make arrangement for me to come over to yourcountry to further my education and to help me securea residential permit in your country.
    Moreover, I am willing to offer you 15% of the total sum as compensation for your effort/input after thesuccessful transfer of this fund into your nominated account overseas, while 5% will be set aside to offset any expenses we may incur. Furthermore, you can indicate your option towards assisting me as I believe that this transaction would be concluded within the shortest possible time if you signify
    interest to assist me.

    NB : Please contact me immediately you receive this message through this
    email address if you are interested.God bless.

    Yours sincerely

    Modestus Hamson

    Tel 225-05-68-47-47

    editor - 11/28/2003

    The Guardian (London)
    November 28, 2003
    SECTION: Guardian Foreign Pages, Pg. 19
    HEADLINE: Greatest ever German? Try a man with a British sense of humour
    BYLINE: Luke Harding in Berlin
    Konrad Adenauer, Germany's grey, postwar leader, is likely to emerge as the greatest German ever, beating off stiff competition from Martin Luther, Albert Einstein, Johann Sebastian Bach and Karl Marx, among other heavyweights.

    Adenauer - the first chancellor of West Germany after the second world war, and the man responsible for its economic miracle - is favourite to be confirmed today as the surprise winner of a poll for Germany's ZDF television station, based on the BBC's Great Britons contest, which was won last autumn by Winston Churchill.

    Over the past three weeks more than 1.5 million Germans have voted in the series, which has been called Our Best rather than Great Germans to avoid accusations of jingoism.

    Einstein took an early lead. But over the past two weeks Adenauer has overtaken him, pursued by Luther, who is currently second, and Willy Brandt, Germany's charismatic social democratic chancellor from the 70s, now in third place.

    Last night several leading German commentators said Adenauer's popularity could be explained by the fact that Germans are fed up with their current political leadership and the country's economic woes.

    As well as bringing about reconciliation with France and the US, and creating unprecedented prosperity, Adenauer led West Germany to a state of "inner peace", they said.

    "For many Germans the 1950s and 1960s were a golden era," said Christian Hacke, a professor of political science at Bonn University. "Everything was getting better. Adenauer was a kind and elderly father figure. He was seen as selfless and incorruptible. He also had a rather British sense of humour, which was unusual for a German politician."

    Prof Hacke added: "I would put him No 1 . . . Everything about him is positive. There are no contradictions."

    German celebrities and historians have clashed on primetime television over the merits of Germany's most famous sons and daughters. The chancellor, Gerhard Schroder, scraped into the top 100 at 82 - way below Daniel Kublbock, a contestant in the dire talent show Germany Seeks a Superstar, at 16.

    The top 10 offered few surprises: Bach, Goethe, Einstein, Marx and Luther were all on the list as well as Otto von Bismarck, the man who unified Germany in the late 19th-century.

    The only unexpected entries were Sophie and Hans Scholl, the student resistance fighters executed by the Nazis in 1943, who were in fifth position lat night.

    editor - 11/28/2003

    November 28, 2003, Friday
    SECTION: Pg. 19
    HEADLINE: Iron Duke memorial row opens old wounds One of the British Army's blackest days is still rankling Spaniards, reports Isambard Wilkinson in Badajoz
    BURIED in an unmarked ditch at the foot of the fortified walls of Badajoz lie the remains of thousands of British soldiers.

    They died during the Duke of Wellington's campaign, with Spanish and Portuguese help, to drive Napoleon's forces back into France.

    But the absence of a memorial marking their sacrifice is no accident. "It does not seem such a good idea to erect a memorial for a horde of devils and savages that raped women and profaned our churches," said one townsman, Juan Maria Cervera.

    Mr Cervera is part of a group of locals that has mounted fierce opposition to successive petitions to honour the British dead.

    The cause of the bad feeling in this remote hinterland of western Spain relates to the events of April 7, 1812, when soldiers embarked on one of the worst atrocities ever committed by the British Army.

    After Wellington's men stormed the French positions at this strategic town they embarked on a barbaric orgy of rape, pillage and murder.

    Their savagery contributed to the Iron Duke's later assessment that his soldiers were "the scum of the earth".

    Capt Alfonso Menendez, a retired infantryman and historian who backed the drive to erect a memorial to the British: "The mayor agreed to erect a plaque and then at the last minute suspended the event as feelings were running high.

    "We want to accept our history and to acknowledge the past. But a minority have stopped it."

    The commemorative plaque to the fallen of Badajoz that was to have been erected on the city walls by the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers has been placed over the border in a cemetery in Portugal.

    A Spanish army spokesman said a compromise was being planned whereby the army would erect a plaque dedicated to all who fell during the siege. "It is doubtful whether the plaque will make any particular reference to the British," he added.

    Summarising opposition to the project, another townsman, Francisco Pilo, said: "The British did not come to Spain out of solidarity, they came to expand their empire. We don't need another monument to British imperialism. We already have Gibraltar."

    The day after the taking of Badajoz 10,000 British soldiers, maddened with drink, rampaged for 29 hours. Old men were shot, children bayoneted, women raped and churches looted. Most of the 5,000 of the town's 21,000 population who had not fled were killed or wounded.

    Attempts by Wellington's officers to halt the rampage, often fuelled by liberated drink, failed. A gallows was erected to hang the miscreants but a number of officers who tried to intervene were shot.

    An officer present at the siege, Robert Blakeney, wrote: "Every house presented a scene of plunder, debauchery and bloodshed committed with wanton cruelty . . . the infuriated soldiery resembled rather a pack of hell-hounds vomited up from the infernal regions for the extirpation of humanity."

    Across the border in Portugal and visible from Badajoz is Elvas. Here, built into the massive ramparts is the spectacular English Cemetery, where lies the only known tomb of a soldier who fell at Badajoz, Lt Col James Oliver.

    On the whitewashed wall is the plaque designed to be fixed to the walls of Badajoz.

    The cemetery is the only known Peninsular War place of rest. It was revived by a retired British officer, Major Nick Hallidie. He proposed the Badajoz plaque and is part a wider struggle to preserve the dwindling legacy of Wellington's Peninsular War force.

    "There is still an edge, a raw feeling in Badajoz. We are certainly not going to force ourselves on the town. But it has got to happen at some point," said Major Hallidie. "There are thousands buried there."

    Wellington lost 5,000 men in taking Badajoz and wept afterwards for the loss. They were cut down in 40 horrific sallies against grape shot, chevaux-de-frise ("Friesland Horses" - blade-studded beams fixed as a defences) and cannon. They were buried with the horses, amid the dirt at the foot of the town walls.

    Peter N. Kirstein - 11/28/2003

    To HF Hazelbaker: The thread that you wrote was more of more recent vintage than my famous antiwar e-mail to the Air Force Academy. So what is good for the goose, is good for the gander.

    To W. Ryor and Jeff Finizia: Academic freedom is never free, and I appreciate your commitment to open inquiry within the academy.

    Peter N. Kirstein

    editor - 11/26/2003

    The Times (London)
    November 22, 2003, Saturday
    SECTION: Overseas news; 21
    HEADLINE: Jungle team seeks Japanese soldiers still fighting war
    BYLINE: Leo Lewis in Tokyo and Tim Johnston
    JAPAN is sending a party of war veterans and negotiators to the Philippines to search for members of the Imperial Army thought to be hiding there almost 60 years after the Second World War.

    Even though the youngest survivors would be well into their eighties, the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare fears that some veterans may not know that the war is over.

    It has begun a mission to retrieve the hidden fighters after receiving tip offs that several Japanese may still be on the Philippine island of Luzon. The team of three ministry negotiators and two former veterans of the war in the Philippines will spend a week looking for four survivors.

    The ministry acknowledges that the search may have come too late, but says that it has a duty to do everything in its power to retrieve even the remains of fallen members of the Imperial Army.

    Yoshihiko Terashima, 82, one of the veterans who will accompany the mission, remained under arms in the Philippines for five years after the surrender and is the president of a veterans' organisation. "If they are there, then my father will bring them home," his son, Kazuhiko, told the South China Morning Post.

    The decision to send the mission was made on the basis of information from a Japanese soldier who voluntarily stayed in Manila after the war. Like many Japanese soldiers, he worked his way into local society and for years passed himself off as a local resident.

    Before his death, in 1996, he is thought to have made contact with Japanese soldiers still hiding in the mountains near his home. Other corroborating evidence comes from Japanese voluntary groups, who make regular visits to the Philippines to look for the remains of those missing in action. These groups have forged strong links with local people, and have learnt to sift good information from bad.

    A ministry spokesman said: "Even if the reports are accurate, it is very likely that the men made their decision to stay there and lead a normal life with local people."

    In 1974, acting on similar information, the Japanese government found Michio Onoda, a former second lieutenant, who had survived in the jungles. He was unaware that the war had ended. Despite pleas from his family and Japanese officials, Lieutenant Onoda refused to surrender until ordered to do so by his former commanding officer.

    In 1972, Shoichi Yokota was found still standing guard on Guam. The former tailor's apprentice was armed with a rusting machinegun and wearing clothes made from fibres from hibiscus plants. Two of his comrades had died of starvation eight years earlier.

    Historians say that the emergence of Japanese soldiers decades after the end of war reflects how the island outposts were seen by both sides in the conflict. As American and Australian forces advanced, they avoided islands of little strategic value. Japanese soldiers manning those positions were left to starve or surrender when they eventually found out that the war was over.

    At the same time, the Japanese military taught its soldiers that surrender was a terrible dishonour. soldiers were trained to live off the land wherever they were posted.

    If any soldiers are found, they might be better off remaining where they are: many who have tried to return to Japan after extended periods in the jungle, such as Lieutenant Onoda, have had considerable difficulties returning to a country that has changed beyond recognition from the one they left more than 60 years ago.


    Japanese fighters carried on the war effort for many years after 1945 in parts of the Philippines and Guam

    In 1972, Shoichi Yokota, who was found in Guam still with his original army rifle, said: "I am sorry I did not serve His Majesty to my satisfaction. We Japanese soldiers were told to prefer death to the disgrace of getting captured alive"

    In 1974, Michio Onoda, an intelligence officer, emerged from the jungle of Lubang Island in the Philippines with his rifle, 500 rounds of ammunition and several hand grenades. Japan had declared him legally dead 15 years before. When he learnt that the war was over, he wept openly. He was unable to adapt to modern life in Japan and retired to a ranch in Brazil

    Salomon Vides, 72, emerged in 2001 from the Honduras jungle, where he had hidden since 1969. He had fled his farm after border disputes with El Salvador escalated into war. Unaware that the conflict finished after just 100 hours, he hid for the next 32 years

    William Bonga, a guerrilla fighting for Zimbabwe's independence, became separated from his unit in 1978 and hid in a cave. War ended in 1979 but he stayed there until 1986 because he heard gunfire.

    editor - 11/26/2003

    November 22, 2003, Saturday
    SECTION: Pg. 18
    HEADLINE: Computer could solve 600m-piece Stasi files jigsaw
    BYLINE: By Kate Connolly in Berlin
    IT IS the most complex jigsaw puzzle in the world, 600 million shreds of paper which contain the secrets of decades of communist espionage.

    Now German scientists have developed a highly sophisticated machine that will "unshred" the files of the East German secret police, the Stasi. All could be revealed within five years.

    The E-Puzzler, developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Design Technology in Berlin, will rebuild the spy records shredded by hand into 16,000 sacks during the final days of the communist regime after shredding machines broke down.

    For the past eight years, 15 workers - a mix of ex-Stasi employees and clerks from a defunct asylum seekers' centre - have been painstakingly sticking paper shreds together with Sellotape and tweezers.

    Working at a rate of around 10 documents a day, 500,000 pages - 250 sacks - have been manually reconstructed since 1995. Experts estimated that it would take 400 years to complete the task.

    The E-Puzzler is set to reduce that to around half a decade at an annual cost of pounds 7 million, if the government approves. Its software works by identifying the characteristics of the paper scraps and grouping them together.

    "After the scraps have been scanned in, the computer sorts them according to such categories as colour, handwriting, folds, creases and texture," said Bertram Nickolay, who has led the E-Puzzle project for seven years and was previously involved in reconstructing damaged Nazi concentration-camp records.

    Once pieced together the documents, largely the records on the 174,000 unofficial employees of the Stasi and the estimated six million they spied on in the 1970s and 1980s, are expected to be of huge significance.

    Historians say they are likely to disclose everything from the crimes committed by the secret police to love affairs between agents. They will probably tarnish a number of reputations in the process.

    They are also expected to open the floodgates for compensation claims and court cases, provided not too many years have elapsed by the time the documents are complete.

    Several public figures, such as the former chancellor Helmut Kohl and Katerina Witt, the Olympic ice skater, are fighting to keep their records closed.

    Disclosures from the huge number of files the Stasi failed to shred have already broken up marriages and friendships as Germans found that spouses and friends had been spying on them.

    The Bundestag has still to approve the funding to use the E-Puzzler. Experts suggest that politicians across the spectrum will be nervous about what the files might reveal about them.

    While the politicians procrastinate, the assiduous civil servants continue to toil away in the southern city of Nuremberg, their desks covered in fragments of paper.

    But repeated attempts to establish their views of the "miracle machine" that could revolutionise their working day, were blocked by a spokesman for the Stasi archive, Christian Booss.

    "The people currently doing this work manually are unqualified and uneducated,' he said. "It is not important to know what they think."

    editor - 11/26/2003

    The Jerusalem Post
    November 23, 2003, Sunday
    SECTION: NEWS; Pg. 3
    HEADLINE: Gospel inscription discovered on Jerusalem tomb
    BYLINE: Karin Laub, Ap
    A barely legible clue - the name "Simon" carved in Greek letters - beckoned from high up on the weather-beaten facade of an ancient burial monument. Their curiosity piqued, two Jerusalem scholars uncovered six previously invisible lines of inscription: the Gospel verse Luke 2: 25.

    Archeological finds confirming biblical narrative or referring to figures from the Bible are rare, and this is believed to be the first discovery of a New Testament verse carved onto an ancient Holy Land shrine, said inscriptions expert Emile Puech, who deciphered the writing.

    A few Old Testament phrases have been found on monuments, and a passage from Paul's Letter to the Romans (3: 13) is laid into a floor mosaic in Caesarea.

    Jim Strange, a New Testament scholar from the University of South Florida, said the ancients apparently believed chiseling Scripture into monuments debased sacred words. The widespread use of Bible verses on shrines began only around 1,000 CE, in Europe, said Strange, who was unconnected with the discovery.

    The inscription declares the 20-meter-high monument is the tomb of Simon, a devout Jew who the New Testament says cradled the infant Jesus and declared him the Messiah.

    It's actually unlikely Simon is buried there; the monument is one of several built for Jerusalem's aristocracy at the time of Jesus. However, the inscription does back up what until now were scant references to a Byzantine-era belief that three biblical figures - Simon, Zachariah, and James, the brother of Jesus - shared the same tomb.

    Earlier this year, an inscription referring to Zachariah, who was John the Baptist's father, was found on the same facade. Puech and Joe Zias, a physical anthropologist, continued to study the monument. Applying a "squeeze" - a simple 19th-century technique of spreading a kind of papier mache over a surface - they uncovered the Simon inscription. Now, they hope to complete the trio by finding writing referring to James.

    The Simon and Zachariah inscriptions were carved around the 4th century, at a time when Byzantine Christians were searching the Holy Land for sacred sites linked to the Bible and marked them, often relying on local lore, said Puech.

    The monument is in the Kidron Valley, between Jeru- salem's walled Old City and the Mount of Olives. The Bible says James was hurled off the Jewish Temple, bludgeoned to death in the Kidron Valley below and buried nearby. The historian Josephus refers to a Temple priest named Zachariah being slain by zealots in the Temple and thrown into the valley. There is no word on Simon's death.

    There have been historical references to a Byzantine belief of joint burial of the three, although there is no evidence they were actually buried together.

    The six lines in the Simon inscription run vertically. The letters run together, are of different height, a little crooked, and relatively shallow.

    They were clearly carved by laymen, said Shimon Gibson, of the Albright Institute of Archaeological Research in Jerusalem, who was present when Puech and Zias applied the squeeze during the summer but who was not connected with their research.

    Referring to the carvers, Strange said: "These were folks who knew their Greek and their Luke, but didn't know how to be masons."

    The inscription says the monument is the tomb of "Simeon who was a very just man and a very devoted old (person) and waiting for the consolation of the people." Simeon is a Greek version of Simon.

    The passage is identical to the Gospel verse Luke 2: 25, as it appears in a 4th-century version of the Bible, the Codex Sinaiticus, which was later revised extensively.

    " The inscription shows there were different versions of the Old and New Testament going around," said Zias, who presented his find Thursday at the annual conference of the American Schools of Oriental Research in Atlanta.

    The Zachariah and Simon inscriptions were chiseled into what is known today as Absalom's Tomb, one of three large funerary monuments built in the Kidron Valley for the city's rich.

    It is unlikely Absalom, a son of King David, is buried there; the monument was built several hundred years after his death.

    The name was assigned to the tomb in medieval times, along with a custom of stoning the facade as a show of disdain for Absalom, who murdered his half brother for raping their sister and later incited a rebellion against his father.

    Jews, Christians, and Muslims participated in the ritual, badly scarring the facade and all but erasing the inscriptions.

    Zias, a member of the Science and Archeology Group, a team of scholars affiliated with the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, found the Zachariah inscription by chance - in a photograph of the facade taken just before sundown.

    Had the photograph been taken at any other time of day, he might not have seen the worn inscription. Using a squeeze, Puech deciphered the words: "This is the tomb of Zachariah, martyr, very pious priest, father of John."

    Strange said he had little doubt the inscriptions were genuine. If fake, "then it was forged by someone who failed because nobody noticed (the inscriptions)," he said.

    editor - 11/26/2003

    November 25, 2003, Tuesday
    SECTION: Pg. 09
    HEADLINE: Vicar seeks exhumation in the hunt for King Harold
    BYLINE: By Stewart Payne
    A VICAR is seeking permission to open a medieval tomb that some historians believe contains the remains of King Harold.

    Experts hope that modern DNA techniques can help solve the 900-year-old mystery of what happened to the Saxon king's body after he was killed at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Canon Tom Inman hopes to get permission from the Church of England to exhume the headless, legless remains buried below the chancel arch of Holy Trinity Church in Bosham, West Sussex.

    "I have been vicar here for 17 years and I am not alone in being fascinated to know if we can establish whose remains these are," he said. Workmen came across the remains, in a finely crafted coffin, in 1954 but the grave was closed again.

    Some historians refuse to accept the most commonly-held belief that Harold was buried at Waltham Abbey, Essex. The king grew up in Bosham and said prayers at the church before sailing for France.

    John Pollock, an amateur historian who is heading the campaign for the exhumation, believes that a scene from the Bayeux Tapestry which portrays a figure, possibly Harold, being decapitated and dismembered lends weight to the theory that the Bosham remains are those of the king.

    He has traced three people who claim to be descendants of Harold and their DNA will be matched with any DNA that may be obtained from the bones at Bosham. A consistory court of the Chichester Diocese sat at Holy Trinity Church yesterday and is expected to give its decision before Christmas.

    However, Dr Mark Thomas, a DNA expert from University College, London, who has agreed to take a sample from the remains, said: "Even if we found similarities, it would remain speculation as to whether the remains were Harold's."

    editor - 11/26/2003

    The Times (London)
    November 26, 2003, Wednesday
    SECTION: Home news; 15
    HEADLINE: Pearl Harbor victim named after 62 years
    BYLINE: Tim Reid
    THE remains of an American sailor killed at Pearl Harbor have been identified 62 years after he died during the Japanese attack on the American naval base.

    The two sisters of Payton L. Vanderpool Jr described their shock and emotion yesterday as naval officials told them that their brother, listed as presumed dead since January 1942, had been positively identified.

    After the dogged efforts of Ray Emory, a Pearl Harbor survivor and historian, to identify American "unknowns" killed in the attack, military officials disinterred Fireman 2nd Class Vanderpool's remains in June from the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Honolulu.

    Mr Emory began working to identify Mr Vanderpool in March last year, after noticing that one of the Pearl Harbor casualty files contained dental records. A forensic odontologist who reviewed the case said that a photograph of a smiling Mr Vanderpool, missing a tooth, provided a key bit of information. The remains were missing the same tooth.

    Flora Mae Young, 81, one of the sisters, said that before she was told her brother's remains had been identified she never fully understood what grieving families meant when they spoke of closure. The other sister, Thelma Blanton, 76, repeatedly called the news unreal. She was still a schoolgirl when she last saw her brother.

    "I just can't imagine this happening in my lifetime," she said. "I am still in awe of it all. It is just a miracle to me. I am so thankful that us sisters were still here when this happened so we can be a part of it."

    On December 7, 1941, Mr Vanderpool, 22, was a fireman aboard the USS Pennsylvania, which was in dry dock. He was on the pier sitting on pile of wood drinking coffee when the surprise attack began. His personnel file said that he was conscious when an ambulance took him away.

    The first two telegrams that arrived at the family home in Missouri in January 1942 said that he was missing, then "accounted for". The last said that he was "presumed dead".

    The local chapter of the American Legion held a memorial service for Mr Vanderpool at the county courthouse in 1942. "I remember I cried," Mrs Blanton said.

    Mr Emory has made identifying "unknowns" a personal crusade. His research led to the identification in November 2001 of the first and only other "unknown", Apprentice Seaman Thomas Hembree.

    The evidence that led to the identification of Mr Vanderpool included dental records, historical data, a photograph of the dead man and the sailor's physical description, US Navy Captain John Lewis, the official in charge of the identification, said.

    "It was a remarkable resemblance between the photograph and the dental remains," Captain Lewis said. "This was one of those cases I would say is relatively rare.

    It really jumped out at you."

    Mr Vanderpool will be buried at the family plot next month in Braymer, Missouri, on December 7, the anniversary of the attack. He will be buried next to his parents with full military honours.

    editor - 11/26/2003

    The Gazette (Montreal, Quebec)
    November 26, 2003 Wednesday Final Edition
    SECTION: News; Pg. A25
    HEADLINE: Commuters win over Roman ruins: 200-car lot to be built over site of recently discovered third-century warehouses
    In the battle between saving ancient glories and easing modern hassles, score a victory for Rome's commuters.

    Frustrated archeologists said that a sprawling area of recently discovered early third-century warehouses will soon be topped by a 200-car parking lot in the Trastevere area near the Tiber River.

    Archeologists had to put down their tools after exploring only a small slice of the approximately 420-square-metre expanse of storehouses that once served as busy port when Roman traders and armies sailed the Mediterranean during the Imperial era.

    While there's money available to build parking spots in this car-choked metropolis, the coffers for archeological exploration are practically bare.

    But archeologists expressed relief that they will at least be able to rescue three stunning mosaics from what could be thermal baths from the start of the fourth century.

    The mosaics were found about three metres above the level of the storehouses, thought to date about a century earlier.

    It's not the first time Romans' hunger for more parking lots fared better than archeologists' thirst for more knowledge. A frescoed, second-century Imperial villa was razed on the Janiculum hill to make way for a multi-storey Vatican parking garage for its 2000 millennium celebrations.

    "The fortune, or misfortune, of Rome, is that it continues to live on top of its ancient ruins," said Piero Pruneti, a historian and editor of Archeologia Viva, an Italian archeological magazine.

    The mosaics and the storehouses came to light when Rome's public transport company, ATAC, asked archeologists to do some excavations at the site.

    Discoveries of ancient columns, statues and other antiquities are common during construction in Rome, and many companies invite archeologists to do sample digs in hopes of avoiding surprises that can hold up projects for years.

    The mosaics were described as an extraordinary find.

    Fiorenzo Catalli, who led the excavation, said the largest of the three mosaics measures nine-by-nine metres and depicts romping, mythical sea animals in black and white tiles.

    Another well-preserved but smaller mosaic that is also black and white features a lion's head with a flowing mane and a manlike face, surrounded by fish.

    In the unlikely prospect that generous funding should come through for extensive excavations, ATAC will have to allow some digging in the parking lot area, Catalli said.

    ATAC abandoned a tram-depot plan in favour of the lot because it would have involved underground foundations that could have destroyed the ancient finds.

    Steven Uanna - 11/26/2003

    This information is not new. It was known that President Kennedy was in talks with Castro the day he was assassinated and that upon hearing of the assassination Castro was heard to say something to the effect of "this is very, very bad."
    This current information debunks the notion held by some assassination researchers that Lee Harvey Oswald killed President Kennedy because of JFK's repeated attempts on the life of Castro. Because of the many suspicious and unexplainable connections that Oswald seems to have to US Intelligence agencies these researchers (who support the lone nut scenario) have been forced to fall back again and again to their conclusion that Oswald was either a plant in US Intelligence (by Castro or the Soviets) or struck out on his own at JFK because of JFK's plots to kill Castro.
    One of the chief "researchers" who follows this thread is Gus Russo, author of LIVE BY THE SWORD. View the web site and see Mr. Russo's thesis debunked and get an explanation to much more. Meet the man I call the MOST WANTED MAN IN AMERICA, Mr. Layton Martens. Mr. Martens was a close associate of David Ferrie, and he may well hold the answer to the assassination of JFK.
    The web site is the story of the Chief of the State Department's Divison of Physical Security, William Lewis Uanna, who was murdered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on December 22, 1961. During WW II he was the main security officer on the Manhattan Project. Yet "official" history is oblivious to his many contributions to US security. He has been "written out" of history and the US Department of State is covering up his murder. Please visit the site and help me find his murderers. I believe they are the same people who murdered JFK. I am his son, Steven Uanna. Thank you.

    editor - 11/25/2003

    National Security Archive Update, November 24, 2003



    Oval Office Tape Reveals Strategy to hold clandestine Meeting in Havana; Documents record role of ABC News correspondent Lisa Howard as secret intermediary in Rapprochement effort

    For more information contact:
    Peter Kornbluh - 202/994-7116
    email -

    Washington D.C. - On the 40th anniversary of the assassination of John F.
    Kennedy, and the eve of the broadcast of a new documentary film on Kennedy and Castro, the National Security Archive today posted an audio tape of the President and his national security advisor, McGeorge Bundy, discussing the possibility of a secret meeting in Havana with Castro. The tape, dated only seventeen days before Kennedy was shot in Dallas, records a briefing from Bundy on Castro's invitation to a U.S. official at the United Nations, William Attwood, to come to Havana for secret talks on improving relations with Washington. The tape shows President Kennedy's approval if official U.S.
    involvement could be plausibly denied.

    The possibility of a meeting in Havana evolved from a shift in the President's thinking on the possibility of what declassified White House records called "an accommodation with Castro" in the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
    Proposals from Bundy's office in the spring of 1963 called for pursuing "the sweet approach…enticing Castro over to us," as a potentially more successful policy than CIA covert efforts to overthrow his regime. Top Secret White House memos record Kennedy's position that "we should start thinking along more flexible lines" and that "the president, himself, is very interested in [the prospect for negotiations]." Castro, too, appeared interested. In a May 1963 ABC News special on Cuba, Castro told correspondent Lisa Howard that he considered a rapprochement with Washington "possible if the United States government wishes it. In that case," he said, "we would be agreed to seek and find a basis" for improved relations.

    The untold story of the Kennedy-Castro effort to seek an accommodation is the subject of a new documentary film, KENNEDY AND CASTRO: THE SECRET HISTORY, broadcast on the Discovery/Times cable channel on November 25 at 8pm. The documentary film, which focuses on Ms. Howard's role as a secret intermediary in the effort toward dialogue, was based on an article -- "JFK and Castro: The Secret Quest for Accommodation" -- written by Archive Senior Analyst Peter Kornbluh in the magazine, Cigar Aficionado. Kornbluh served as consulting producer and provided key declassified documents that are highlighted in the film. "The documents show that JFK clearly wanted to change the framework of hostile U.S. relations with Cuba," according to Kornbluh. "His assassination, at the very moment this initiative was coming to fruition, leaves a major 'what if' in the ensuing history of the U.S. conflict with Cuba."

    Please follow the link below:
    THE NATIONAL SECURITY ARCHIVE is an independent non-governmental research institute and library located at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. The Archive collects and publishes declassified documents acquired through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). A tax-exempt public charity, the Archive receives no U.S. government funding; its budget is supported by publication royalties and donations from foundations and individuals.
    The National Security Archive does not and will never share the names or e-mail addresses of its subscribers with any other organization. Once a year, we will write you and ask for your financial support. We may also ask you for your ideas for Freedom of Information requests, documentation projects, or other issues that the Archive should take on. We would welcome your input, and any information you care to share with us about your special interests. But we do not sell or rent any information about subscribers to any other party.
    You may leave the list at any time by sending a "SIGNOFF NSARCHIVE" command to . You can also unsubscribe from the list anytime by using the following link:

    Csaba Csallokozi - 11/25/2003

    Please send me a link that where can I find the list of the Germans who have been voted with the result.

    Mike Chlebek - 11/24/2003

    In late 1939 my grandfather was taken from his family by the Russians - never to be seen or heard from again. My father believes he may have one of the thousands massacred at Katyn Forrest. His name was Joseph Chlebek. Is there anywhere I may be able to confirm this information.
    Mike Chlebek

    Vickie rubinson - 11/24/2003

    Hi Dr. Prosl,
    I totally agree with you. P.S. I have a new book coming out next month. I've been trying to get your address to send you a copy. Cheers! Vickie.

    W.J.Keehnen (Bill) - 11/24/2003

    Dear Sir,

    I was amazed finding the name Magito in your story about Amundsen. With a friend of mine (Bert Magito) we are doing genealogical research about the family. The Magito family used to be a very famous circus artists family who in the 18e century performed in Europe, also in Norway. I wonder if more is known about the name Magito in your Archive. Is it possible to reach Mr.Ikuallaq by e-mail? Hope to hear from you.
    Kind regards Bill Keehnen. e-mail:

    editor - 11/20/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #45; 20 November 2003) by Bruce Craig (editor) ; Shannon Parsley
    National Coalition for History (NCH)

    1. Special Donation Appeal to Readers
    2. Court Decides Schrecker FOIA Case
    3. Winners of National Humanities Medals Announced 4. Controversial Reagan Movie to Air 30 November 5. Legislative Update: House Approves Black History Museum; Senate Poised to Act 6. Bits and Bytes: Meeting Date for NCH Policy Board Set; Notice to Potential "Teaching American History" Grant Applicants; Historian Named Professor of the Year; NARA Strategic Plan 7. Articles of Interest: Why Commemorate Death?" (The Christian Science Monitor; 20 November 2003)

    As long-time readers of this publication are aware, the National Coalition for History (NCH) is supported largely by the voluntary donations of nearly 70 institutional supporters that collectively provide most of the organization's annual operating budget. Unfortunately, this year's economic downturn and stock market losses hit several of our supporting institutions hard. Consequently, several members were unable to meet their annual donation commitments. As we approach the end of our fiscal year, it appears that the history coalition may operate at a deficit. Consequently, it may become necessary to tap into the organization's reserves to cover annual operating expenses.

    Given the present value of the NCH reserve portfolio, the NCH Policy Board would prefer not to have to use institutional reserves to cover expenses. Therefore, we appeal to the readers of this publication to help offset the anticipated budgetary shortfall with a special end-of-year tax-deductible contribution.

    This year, the history coalition has a record of accomplishments of which to be proud. In part because of the actions taken by the history coalition, a record-high budget for the National Historical Publications and Records Administration (NHPRC) was realized and funding in excess of $100 million continues to flow for the Department of Education (ED) "Teaching American History" grant program. A new influx of money for history and humanities was realized through the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) "We the People" (WTP) program. The NCH played a critical role in taking action to insure that vigorous attempts by some members of
    Congress to tap into the WTP funds would not succeed. Several ongoing
    issues of concern to the history and archival community were also resolved. For example, the controversy surrounding the disposition of the Florida ballots from the 2000 election finally came to a happy end and the History Office for the Department of Homeland Security was authorized -- the first such departmental office to be created through legislative mandate.

    As we approach the holiday giving season, please recognize the NCH's important work throughout the year, including the timely production of the NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE that shows up in your electronic mailbox each week without cost to subscribers. The NCH Board of Directors invites readers to consider making a special end-of-the-year contribution to the history coalition. Your suggested contribution of $50 (gifts in any amount are
    appreciated) will help insure the continuation of our important education and advocacy activities to advance the interests of the historical and archival communities.

    Contributions may be made payable to the "National Coalition for History"and are FULLY TAX DEDUCTIBLE (federal tax ID #01-0688590) for federal income tax purposes. Please send your contribution to: National Coalition for History, 400 A Street SE, Washington D.C. 20003. All contributions will be acknowledged in writing.

    On 18 November 2003, the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals issued its decision on a case filed by Public Citizen Litigation Group on behalf of Yeshiva University history professor Ellen Schrecker. The court decided against Schrecker and affirmed that in FOIA requests, while the privacy interest requiring non-disclosure of "identifying information may be diminished where the individual is deceased," the government's existing method for determining life status is adequate.

    The case centers on a Freedom of Information (FOIA) request made by professor Schrecker to the Department of Justice's Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) seeking information on two individuals -- Gerhart Eisler and Clinton Jencks -- both of whom were subjects of investigation by the FBI during the McCarthy era. The bureau withheld names from those files asserting the personal privacy exemption. The key issue litigated was whether names in documents should be released, and whether privacy concerns have expired or diminished over time due to the probable death of the anonymous persons who are mentioned in the subject files.

    In June 2003, an Amici Curiae brief was filed on Schrecker's behalf
    ( by the National Coalition for History, the American Historical Association, American Studies Association, Society of American Historians, Association for Documentary Editing, Organization of American Historians, and the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press. The Amicus argued two central points:
    First, that the FBI "improperly" presumed that individuals named in 50-year-old records were still alive. Second, that the Bureau's practice of withholding names unless there is proof an individual is dead or was born more than 100 years ago has no basis in law. In its decision, the court considered these arguments but ultimately ruled that the government had properly balanced public and privacy interests in withholding personal information.

    For practical purposes, the case means that the government will continue to presume that a person named in a document sought by a researcher under FOIA is alive (and hence the name will be redacted in requested documents) unless 100 years has elapsed since that person's birth and provided that the individual's birth date is reflected somewhere in the sought after document (a rare occurrence indeed), or unless other documentation providing proof of death is provided by researchers. The ruling means that researchers filing FOIA requests continue to bear the burden of proof to provide convincing documentation that an individual is dead. For the court's decision tap into: .

    3. WINNERS OF NATIONAL HUMANITIES MEDAL ANNOUNCED On 14 November 2003, President George W. Bush awarded the 2003 National Humanities Medal to distinguished Americans for their contributions to the humanities. At a White House ceremony, the President presented National Humanities Medals to ten individuals, including three academics -- emeritus lecturer of English at Northeastern University Joseph Epstein, historian and Eleonore Raoul Professor of the Humanities at Emory University Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, and professor emeritus of classics at Howard University Frank M. Snowden Jr. Following the presentation, First Lady Laura Bush and Lynne Cheney participated in a reception honoring the new medalists.

    The National Humanities Medal, first awarded in 1989 as the Charles Frankel Prize, honors individuals whose work has deepened the nation's understanding of the humanities, broadened citizens' engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand America's access to important resources in the humanities.

    Others who received the National Humanities Medal for 2003 include:
    explorer Robert Ballard; one of the creators of Sesame Street Joan Ganz Cooney; conservative activist and former magazine and journal editor Midge Decter; children's book author Jean Fritz; actor Hal Holbrook; Partisan Review editor Edith Kurzweil; and novelist John Updike.

    4. CONTROVERSIAL REAGAN MOVIE TO AIR 30 NOVEMBER Showtime Entertainment has moved up the broadcast date for the controversial mini-series entitled "The Reagans" that we reported on earlier (see "Reagan Drama Generates Controversy" NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE, Vol. 9 #43; 6 November 2003) to 30 November 2003.

    The cable network station reaches 15 million homes -- far less that the 100 million homes that CBS television network reaches (CBS originally had planned to screen the program). Showtime also announced it will telecast the project without commercial interruption and as the producers and director had envisioned it. There will be one exception -- the made-up line spoken by President Reagan "They that live in sin shall die in sin..."
    (a reference to the subject of AIDS) that created such furor has been deleted.

    In a press statement, Showtime Entertainment President Robert Greenblatt said that the line has been deleted as the screenwriter of the mini-series had no source citing Reagan as ever having said those exact words. Greenblatt added, however, "we could have put in the accurate line, which was even worse." Greenblatt cited Edmund Morris's authorized Reagan biography Dutch, where President Reagan reportedly said, "Maybe the Lord brought down this plague" because "illicit sex is against the Ten Commandments." Greenblatt explained that the scene remains and only the line is cut. In the revised scene where the AIDS epidemic is discussed, Reagan remains silent which Greenblatt explained, "we think is more effective and dramatic."

    The Republican National Committee (RNC) and various conservative members of Congress had wanted to have the mini-series edited by a panel of Reagan friends, colleagues, and historians friendly to the Reagan legacy. Last week, however, in a New York Times editorial (9 November 2003) biographer Edmund Morris blasted program censors writing "the idea that anything so trivial as a made-for-TV mockumentary might harm his [Reagan's] reputation is ludicrous." In lieu of action by a panel of experts, the RNC states that "the only proper" way to telecast the program is with a crawl at the bottom of the screen during the telecast declaring it a work of fiction.

    5. LEGISLATIVE UPDATE: HOUSE APPROVES BLACK HISTORY MUSEUM; SENATE POISED TO ACT On 19 November 2003, by a vote of 409 to 9 the U.S. House of Representatives approved legislation (H.R. 3491) to establish within the Smithsonian Institution the National Museum of African American History and Culture.

    Passage of the legislation is the culmination of a 15-year effort by the principal sponsor of the bill -- former civil rights leader, Rep. John Lewis (D-GA). Since 1988 Lewis has introduced legislation creating the museum but for one reason or another his bills failed in the House or Senate. Assuming the Senate approves the measure (scheduled to be taken up by the full Senate today, 20 November) President Bush is expected to sign the bill before the end of the year.

    Item #1 -- Meeting Date for NCH Policy Board Set: The date for the annual Policy Board meeting of the National Coalition for History (see p. 42 of the AHA program) has been set for Friday, 9 January 2004 during the 118th annual meeting of the American Historical Association (AHA) in Washington D.C. An information packet for Board members and NCH institutional representatives is in preparation and will be mailed out in early December.

    Also, please note that from 12:15 to 1:45 p.m. on Friday, the NCH will sponsor a brown-bag lunch forum entitled, "The Bush Administration And Federal History Programs: What's In Store for the Future" (see p. 100 in the AHA program). During this session, NCH director Bruce Craig and representatives from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC), and Department of Education (ED) will discuss the status of several federal history programs as well as current legislative and policy initiatives impacting history and archives on Capitol Hill. Please mark your calendars and plan to attend. All are welcome!

    Item #2 -- Notice to Potential "Teaching American History" Grant
    Applicants: On 4 November 2003, the Department of Education (ED) published a notice inviting public comment on proposed priorities in the Federal Register (Vol. 68, No. 213, pp. 62445-62447) that address the use of "Scientifically Based Evaluation Methods." Department officials have alerted the NCH that the FY 2003 "Teaching American History" grant application included up to 20 bonus points for applicants who proposed to conduct experimental or quasi-experimental evaluations. The most recent notice in the Federal Register explains how the department would use such a priority in upcoming grant cycles, including the TAH competition. The deadline for public comment on the proposed priority is 4 December 2003. For the "Notice of Proposed Priority" tap into:>.

    Item #3 -- Historian Named Professor of the Year: The Council for Advancement and Support of Education and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching announced four national winners from nearly 400 nominees for their teaching abilities and performance in the classroom. The winner of the doctoral and research granting university category was University of Virginia Professor of History and Dean of Arts and Sciences Edward Ayers. Ayers is well known for his lectures, which students often describe as "spellbinding." Winners of the annual teaching award receive a $5,000 prize.

    Item #4 -- NARA Strategic Plan: The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has issued its strategic plan 1997-2008 (rev. 2003) in hard copy form. The plan, entitled "Ready Access to Essential Evidence"
    includes new goals for electronic records, identifies new initiatives to redesign federal records management procedures, describes new Internet based outreach efforts, and recasts objectives in light of long-range goals. The report is also available online at:>

    In light of the 40th anniversary of the assassination of President John F.
    Kennedy, a series of related postings on the theme "Why Commemorate Death?"
    all from The Christian Science Monitor ( 20 November 2003). Articles explore the trend toward commemoration of fatal accidents, "remembrance" in the museum setting, and the importance of healing prior to looking at the past. All the articles and their related links can be accessed by tapping
    into: .

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
    at: .

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at and at the "network" prompt, scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    editor - 11/20/2003

    The Times (London)
    November 14, 2003, Friday
    SECTION: Home news; 14
    HEADLINE: Diana Mosley taught children Nazi salute, new MI5 files reveal
    BYLINE: Michael Evans reports
    Files released by the National Archives reveal odd traitors and spies.
    DIANA MOSLEY, who died in August this year aged 93, was a "most dangerous character" who instructed her children how to do "Heil Hitler" salutes, according to MI5, which kept a file on her in the build-up to the Second World War.

    Many of Lady Mosley's most outrageous remarks in support of her "friend" Hitler were revealed secretly to MI5 by her governess, who faithfully relayed conversations in the family home to her security service handlers. However, it was Lady Mosley's former father-in-law, Lord Moyne, who finally persuaded the authorities that she needed to be locked away, writing a character assassination letter to MI5. She was detained in Holloway prison for much of the war.

    Previously secret information about Lady Mosley, who was married to Sir Oswald Mosley, the leader of the "blackshirt" Fascists in Britain more than 70 years ago, were revealed yesterday among nearly 200 MI5 files declassified and released by the National Archives (formerly the Public Record Office) at Kew, Surrey.

    The description of her as a dangerous woman was provided by Lord Moyne, the father of Bryan Guinness of the brewery family, to whom Lady Mosley was previously married.

    In his letter he wrote: "When the situation was most perilous in Belgium, Lady Mosley said triumphantly to the governess that the British Army was now in a wedge and could not possibly be extricated. She added that it was perfectly obvious that the British Army would be caught in a pincer movement and made no secret of her delight in what was happening."

    Lady Mosley, one of the notorious and glamorous Mitford sisters, had other epithets: newspapers referred to her as a "dumb blonde", and one MI5 file said she was "someone of no great brains". But she was widely thought of as the most beautiful woman of her day, more lovely than Botticelli's Venus, as she was once described. Christopher Andrew, Professor of Modern and Contemporary History at Cambridge University and now also official historian of MI5, said yesterday that she was a classic example of "a celebrity behaving badly".

    The governess told MI5 that Lady Mosley had once said: "We are revolutionaries and we would kill." She always referred to her new husband, Sir Oswald, as "the leader", but when she was in Holloway trying to gain her release, her solicitor, Oswald Hickson, rebuked her for using such a term.

    "You must say my husband," he said. Their conversation was being bugged by MI5. At one point Mr Hickson "jokingly remarked that when Mosley was Queen of England, there would be a number of people whom she would like to imprison". She agreed.

    Before her detention, MI5 had been monitoring her frequent trips to Germany at least seven times in 1938 -where it was known that she was meeting Hitler. She had planned to take her two sons from her first marriage to meet Hitler but it was cancelled at the last moment because of the imminence of war. Her governess told MI5: "The children would have known how to greet the Fuhrer, for they had been taught to give the Nazi salute and to say 'Heil Hitler'."

    It was "our man in Berlin" (MI6 station chief) who in April 1937 tipped off MI5 that "Mrs Bryan Guinness" had married Sir Oswald Mosley "in the presence of Hitler".

    She and Sir Oswald were released in November 1943.

    editor - 11/18/2003

    The Independent (London)
    November 15, 2003, Saturday
    HIGHLIGHT: A canon overlooking the former battlefield near Slavkov in the Czech Republic. A painting depicts the the Battle of Austerlitz, 1805

    BATTLE LINES are again being drawn up at the site of Napoleon's most spectacular victory, the Battle of Austerlitz, which gave military supremacy to the French Emperor.

    Austerlitz, formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is now in the south-east of the Czech Republic and called Slavkov, which means "place of fame". Slavkov is gaining fame once again as local people, historians and conservationists fight plans to build a Nato radar station on the former battlefield. Opponents say the 90ft-high radar station, with its bulbous white top, will blight the area's scenery and overshadow the monument that marks the battle site. They fear it could cause environmental damage and encourage terrorist threats.

    Leaders of 22 towns and villages have joined activists to apply for a court order banning the development amid the rolling hills and lakes of the bucolic Moravian countryside. There, in December 1805, Napoleon vanquished a combined Russian and Austro-Hungarian army watched by the two countries' leaders the Russian Tsar Alexander I and the Austrian Emperor Franz I. Of more than 150,000 men in the battle, about 36,000 died.

    At the start of the 20th century an elaborate monument was erected on top of the Prace plateau, a plane pivotal to Napoleon's victory. Called the Burial Mound of Peace and about the size of the Albert Memorial, its base holds a chapel where some of the bones of the dead are interred. Above it is a pyramidal tower with concave scalloped sides.

    The village of Sokolnice, which lies about two miles from the monument, is at the forefront of opposition to the EUR29m (pounds 20m) radar station due for completion in 2006. Jiri Zivotsky, the mayor of Sokolnice, said people were angry that the government began work two years ago, without consulting villagers, at a nearby Cold War-era military facility. Mr Zivotsky said the village had lodged a lawsuit to halt the work but had not yet been given a date for court proceedings. He said: "The most serious fear is that as there are only two such radars planned for the Czech Republic we will become a target for terrorists."

    The area was listed and residents had to obey strict planning regulations if they wanted to alter their homes. "It seems very unfair that we have to ask permission to change our windows whereas the government can put up a big ugly radar station without consulting anyone," he said.

    The Czech Republic, which with Hungary and Poland was the first former Soviet bloc country to join Nato, is keen to be an enthusiastic member of the alliance. It says the site near Sokolnice is the best location for the station.

    Miroslav Kostelka, the Czech Defence Minister, held a meeting with mayors and representatives of the local communities last month but did not offer any compromise. Robert Pszczel, a Nato spokesman, said the radar stations planned for the Czech Republic were part of an "essential" chain covering the alliance's territory. He acknowledged the terrorist concerns but said: "We all face the terrorist challenge." He said Nato would help the Czechs to allay terrorist fears.

    One opponent of the scheme, Miroslav Jandora, said activists had asked Lord Robertson of Port Ellen, Nato's secretary general, to intervene. Mr Jandora said: "We are aware of the state's defence needs, but we trust that a more suitable location can be found that is not a protected, historic landmark."

    Mr Pszczel said selection of the site "is really in the hands of the host nation - the Czech Republic." But Mr Zivotsky said the Defence Ministry had ruled out alternative locations.

    Jane Richards - 11/16/2003

    Is this condition not attested to in the tomb of Ankhtifi; a 'nomarch'/warlord of the 1st Int. Period [probably after the 8th D.;Old Kingdom]? This tomb is located in the necropolis of Moalla, south of Wst,(GR. Thebes). I believe it contained, in his biography on the tomb wall text, a reference to: "All of Upper Egypt was dying of hunder and people were eating their children, but I did not allow anyone to die of hunger in this town"...
    {Note}: This tomb, which had been described as a 'simple rock-cut tomb' has now been discovered to have been a pyramid burial,(usually reserved for royalty), in a free-standing pyramid-shaped mountain. It is my opinion that this 'governor' could possibly have been a member of the royal Intef line/family.
    Jane R.
    Egypt and Beyond

    editor - 11/16/2003

    EDITOR'S NOTE: We received the following email from Mr. Chaitkin on Nov. 13, 2003.

    I co-authored {George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography}, published 1992, the definitive story of the Bush family's relations with the financing of Hitler and the Nazi war machine. I wrote that account based in part upon the work of my father, Jacob Chaitkin, the legal cousel and strategist for the Boycott against Nazi Germany carried on by the American Jewish Congress.
    I am history editor of Executive Intelligence Review, the weekly 72-page magazine associated with the political movement of Lyndon LaRouche.
    In the "Bush / Nazis" field at present, you are operating in the following geometry. We, and those working with us, are acting to bust up the Cheney-Rumsfeld-Ashcroft-Wolfowitz cabal, aiming for the immediate ouster of Cheney. This fight is now at the stage of an absolute showdown, with a potential nuclear war the possible outcome if we do not break these lunatics right away. IN THIS SITUATION, some people are reviving the Bush / Nazis story in order to deflect attention from the political struggle now underway. For example, as you know, former President Bush ("41") has been acting in what strikes many as strange ways recently, evidently trying to restrain Junior from going over the abyss with Cheney. Thus, the story - which I put into the political mainstream in 1992 is only now being trotted out, for NOT necessarily good purposes.
    For example, John Loftus, who did almost no original research, is now being hyped as the big source for the Bush-Nazis story; Loftus was recently at a war-crazies' "summit" in Israel with Richard Pearl et. al., promoting a new set of wars.
    A test of the sincerity of any new promotion of this story, would be whether the promoters actually get in touch with me, now. Here is my phone number - XXXX. Please give me a call -- I'd be pleased to talk with you, and assist you in any way that I can.
    By the way, you can access the entire Unauthorized Biography, on many different websites. Just put my name and Bush into a search engine.
    Yours truly,
    Anton Chaitkin
    Executive Intelligence Review
    60 Sycolin Road, Leesburg, VA 20175

    editor - 11/15/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #44; 14 November 2003) by Bruce Craig (editor) ; Shannon Parsley
    National Coalition for History (NCH)
    1. NARA FY-04 Budget Finalized: $10 Million for NHPRC! ERA Restored!
    2. Nixon Records Revisited
    3. Senate Gives Historic Preservationists a Victory 4. Legislative Update: Bills Passed -- Vietnam Veteran's Memorial Visitors Center 5. Bits and Bytes: NCH Signs On To CRS Report Letter; Fulbright Scholars Announced; Independent Women's Forum Report; Historic Site Grant Program 6. Articles of Interest: "Too Big a Man for the Small Screen" (New York Times; 9 November 2003); "Is a Museum Obligated to Tell the Whole Truth"
    (Christian Science Monitor; 12 November 2003) ______________
    In last week's UPDATE there was a typo error in the story on the Kluge Prize. The prizes were awarded on 5 November 2003, not 5 October 2003.

    While members of the United States Senate were staging a 30-hour talkfest on the uses and abuses of the filibuster as a legislative technique, House managers and frogee-voiced Senate conferees of the Transportation, Treasury, and Independent Agencies Appropriations subcommittee met for six hours on 12 November to resolve outstanding issues relating to the FY-2004 budget for several governmental agencies, including the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). At 11:15 pm members passed a conference report that recommends restoration of funding for the Electronic Archives Project ($35.9 million) and full funding -- $10 million -- for the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). This figure represents the highest unrestricted figure in the history of the commission. The agreed to measure also pegs NARA's general operating budget at $256.7 million. This figure is about $1.5 million less that the president's request but some $8.4 million over the FY 2003 enacted level.

    While the budgetary figures are still unofficial (the conference report has yet to be filed), news of the subcommittee's decision was announced at the meeting of the Association of Documentary Editing that is taking place this week in Chicago.

    The National Coalition for History wishes to express a big THANK YOU to readers, who, through their letters and calls, contacted members of Congress on this issue over the last couple of weeks and months. Also, a special THANK YOU to those organizational representatives who came to Washington D.C. in mid-October to participate in the Hill-visit effort this year that focused on addressing the needs of NARA (see "Historians, Archivists, and Librarians Join Hands to Advocate for FY-2004 National Archives Budget" Vol 9, #40; 16 October 2003). You all have the happiness of knowing that your extra efforts paid off!

    For those of you who did contact your member of Congress, undoubtedly your member would appreciate hearing a word of thanks from you for their efforts on behalf of the NARA budget.

    For over 20 years following President Richard Nixon's resignation, a host of legal battles focused on resolving controversial issues pertaining to the ownership and possession Nixon's presidential records. With Nixon's death in 1994, the government's purchase of the Nixon collection for $18 million, and the enactment of the Presidential Records Act in 1974, the former president's and the government's right to possession of these collections was deemed settled. Once again though the ultimate disposition of the government records emerged this last week as an issue of concern to historians, archivists, and presidential scholars.

    Tucked away in the conference version of the Transportation/Treasury appropriations bill that funds the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is a provision focusing on the Nixon presidential records. The language was added to the bill with the mutual consent of Republican and Democratic Congressional negotiators.

    Negotiators agreed to amend a part of the Presidential Recordings and Materials Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-526) that prevents the government owned Nixon tapes and papers from leaving Washington D.C. The language advances the ultimate goal of consolidating all of Nixon's personal and presidential papers and related materials at the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California. The bill was sponsored by Rep.
    Thomas M. Davis (R-VA) and advanced on behalf of the Nixon library with lobbying assistance provided by the firm Cassidy & Associates, Nixon daughter Julie Nixon Eisenhower, and former President Gerald Ford. .

    The inclusion of the language in the conference version of the Transportation, Treasury, and General Government appropriations bill is procedurally unusual, though not unprecedented. Legislative rules and procedures provide that, ordinarily, only those items raised in the House or Senate bill that remain unresolved may be addressed in conference -- the Nixon provision broke that rule as it was a "new" item for discussion. It was not mentioned in either the House or Senate passed versions of the appropriations bill. Incorporation of the language in the conferenced appropriations bill means that it will become law without opportunity for public hearing or a full airing of related issues, several of which remain unaddressed or unresolved.

    As previously reported ("Private Nixon Library Exploring NARA Affiliation Options" see NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE; Vol. 9, #41; 24 October 2003) the Nixon Library Foundation -- the private organization that currently owns and operates the library and birthplace -- considers enactment of this measure an important first step in long-term initiative to eventually have the library/birthplace become a full-fledged NARA facility. Should this occur, the anomaly of President Nixon being the only president between Herbert Hoover and Bill Clinton to not have a government-operated presidential library would be abolished.

    NARA and Nixon library officials claim that the change in the law was necessary to clear the way for the Nixon Foundation and NARA officials to begin formal negotiations that ultimately may lead to the establishment of a new NARA-operated presidential library. Nixon library and birthplace director John Taylor has indicated to the National Coalition for History that scholars will be included in discussions that are to take place in the future between NARA and the foundation officials.

    It should be noted that the bill language does not specifically mandate that the papers be moved to the Nixon library (though it remains the most likely repository for the records). It merely empowers the Archivist of the United States to "transfer such recordings and materials to a Presidential archival depository in accordance with section 2112 of title 44, United States Code." This language insures that in order to move the government-owned Nixon materials, the Nixon foundation would have to meet the stringent requirements that apply for establishing NARA presidential libraries. For example, the foundation would have to provide a suitable archival facility to house the documents (estimated at 35,000 sq. feet) without cost to taxpayers. Second, once an appropriate facility is donated, NARA would have a free hand to staff and operate the archival facility to NARA standards, and presumably the library/museum as well. According to director Taylor, should the library be brought into the NARA system, the foundation would no longer run or operate the library and birthplace but would turn the facility over to the government to operate.
    The foundation would then focus on the fundraising/support activities that typically are carried out by non-governmental presidential foundations that currently support other presidential libraries.

    After hearing that a bill was being crafted scholars expressed concern about language involving continued access to the records. To this end, the measure insures that: "Nothing in section 103 of the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation amended by this subsection may be construed as affecting public access to the recordings and materials referred to in that section..."

    At present NARA's Washington D.C.-based Nixon records project office holds a total of 46 million documents, of which 37 million have yet to be processed. By best estimates there are still three to five additional years of work needed to complete the processing of the White House tapes.
    In all likelihood, by the time the Nixon Library Foundation raises the needed funds and constructs a facility to house the presidential materials, the processing of the tapes would be finished. The processing of other Nixon records would still be ongoing.

    3. SENATE GIVES HISTORIC PRESERVATIONISTS A VICTORY Historic preservation advocates are delighted at the decision reached in the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee not to revise the Section
    4(f) provision of a $225 billion federal transportation law in pending legislation (Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and Efficient Transportation Equity Act) popularly known as SAFETEA (S. 1072) . When considering a six-year reauthorization of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), the Bush administration had advanced language that would have eviscerated a provision in the 1966 Department of Transportation Act that mandates "all possible planning to minimize harm" and provides that a federal highway project cannot destroy any park or historic area if there is a "prudent and feasible alternative."

    The 4(f) provision has successfully been invoked by preservationists to block and force mitigative action in dozens of highway projects from California to Florida that potentially could destroy important historic sites. For example, the provision has been used to save San Francisco's Fisherman's Wharf in California from destruction; it has also prevented the paving-over of parts of the French Quarter in New Orleans.

    The SAFETEA legislation was crafted by the Bush administration to "streamline" the process of road construction. The administration hoped to remove the Section 4(f) provision, and substitute it with new language granting agencies within the Department of Transportation the authority to decide which sites are historic. Though such agencies would still have to consult with communities on the significance of sites, communities would have lacked any legal basis upon which to base their challenges to transportation agency decisions.

    Friends of historic places are not out of the woods yet. In upcoming weeks and months SAFETEA is to be advanced to the Senate floor where administration supporters may make another run at modifying the 4(f) provision. Also, the measure faces an uncertain future in the House of Representatives.

    For more information on Section 4(f) and its role in historic preservation, tap into:

    Vietnam Veteran's Memorial Visitors Center: On 7 November 2003, Rep.
    Richard Pombo's (R-CA) legislation "Vietnam Veterans Memorial Visitor Center Act" (H.R. 1442) authorizing the design and construction of an underground visitor center in the vicinity of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was sent to the president's desk for signature. After a voice vote on 6 November, the House approved the bill that had previously been acted on by the Senate.

    The total cost for design and construction of the 10,000 square foot center, estimated to be between $13 million and $15 million, is to be born entirely by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, a nonprofit organization authorized by Congress in 1980 to build the memorial. Exhibits at the proposed center are to feature photos, stories, and some of the items left at the memorial since its opening in 1982. According to fund spokesman Alan Greilsamer, "We're hoping that this will be a place where you can learn more about the [58,000] individuals…whose names are on the wall."

    Item #1 -- NCH Signs On To CRS Report Letter: Several weeks ago, Congress abruptly terminated the limited public access that had existed for several years to the official database reports prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). Dozens of public interest groups from around the country are petitioning members of Congress to support continued public access to the database. The NCH joined dozens of other groups in signing on to a letter advanced by the American Library Association. For the letter, tap into:

    Item #2-- 2003-04 Fulbright Scholars Announced: The Council for International Exchange of Scholars has announced the recipients of the 2003 Fulbright Awards. Recipients of the award will travel to a variety of locations to serve as lecturers, consultants, and researchers in an effort to, in the words of the founder of the award, Senator J. William Fulbright, to further "mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries of the world." For a directory of the recent winners and additional information on the annual award competition, tap into: .

    Item #3 -- Independent Women's Forum Report: According to a report issued by the Independent Women's Forum (IWF) entitled Death of the Liberal Arts, "political correctness has killed the liberal arts" at ten of America's top liberal arts institutions. After evaluating the courses offered to freshmen in the fields of English, history, and political science, the IWF report noted that not all colleges offered freshmen comprehensive introductory courses to provide them with a basic knowledge of the field, and only three of the ten schools required freshman to take such survey courses. More often than not, the IWF observed, students opted to take courses that focused on social trends, particular themes in history, or classes that focus on non-Western cultures. The report ranks the top-ten liberal arts colleges and urges parents and prospective students who believe in foundational education in the liberal arts to compare the strengths and weaknesses of individual colleges. For the IWF press release and link to the report, tap into: .

    Item #4 -- Historic Site Grant Program: Last week we posted information on the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) solicitation of proposals from organizations for its America's Historic Places grant program. We now have a better link to their webpage that describes the program. Projects can interpret a single historic site, a series of sites, whole neighborhoods, communities or towns, or larger geographical regions. The application deadline is 3 February 2004. For more information, on the program tap into: .

    Two postings this week -- First, following up on the last week's story about the controversy surrounding CBS's decision to pull the plug on a Reagan mini-series, in "Too Big a Man for the Small Screen" (New York Times; 9 November 2003) Reagan presidential biographer Edmund Morris writes that Ronald Reagan can survive such a "petty assault." Furthermore, "the idea that anything so trivial as a made-for-TV mockumentary might harm his reputation is ludicrous." Tap into:

    Second, in "Is a Museum Obligated to Tell the Whole Truth" (Christian Science Monitor; 12 November 2003) Janaki Kremmer writes on the controversy surrounding Australia's new national museum, which allegedly advances a "grotesque historical misinterpretation" of that nation's history in which the original inhabitants are portrayed as "massacred and their land's stolen." Tap into: .

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
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    Editor - 11/14/2003

    Thomas Bartlett, writing in the CHRONICLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION NOV. 14, 2003

    The winners of the 2003 U.S. Professor of the Year awards were announced on Thursday by two national education organizations.

    The four national winners -- selected from a community college, a baccalaureate college, a master's institution, and a Ph.D.-granting university -- were chosen out of nearly 400 nominees for their performance in the classroom. The awards are given annually by the Council for Advancement and Support of Education and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Each winner receives a $5,000 prize.

    Edward Ayers, a history professor and dean of the college of arts and sciences at the University of Virginia, was honored in the doctoral category. Mr. Ayers has developed, with the help of his students, a vast digital archive called the Valley of the Shadow, which documents life in two towns, one in the North and one in the South, during the Civil War (The Chronicle, March 20, 1998). Mr. Ayers is also well known for his lectures, which students describe as spellbinding. "I love the immediate gratification of having an idea and going into a classroom and trying it out right there," he said. "I find it a necessary component of what we do."

    Peter Rollins - 11/14/2003

    For a differnt slant on the reporting of the Vietnam war,
    see my article on the subject for The Journal of American
    Culture 4 (1981): 114-135

    We based two television shows on this research base and they
    were shown on PBS and on WTBS.

    This show was a critique of the PBS series on VN.

    This effort focused on selected microcosms of the
    Tet offensive of 1968 and traces the impact of
    incorrect reporting on the US public and policy

    Both are available on VHS from Accuracy in Media. Ask for Don
    Irvine at 800.787.4567

    From the news reports, it looks to me as though the PBS rendering of the series--by basing much information on David Halberstam and other reporters--is recycling the misconceptions of the era. The statement by Halberstam (agreed to by Neil Sheehan in his Pulitzer Prize-winning book) that the reporters wanted to see an American victory is highly questionable. It sure sounds good, though, and makes their false reports seem all the more ingenuous.

    As far as the Safter report at Cam Ne (southwest of DaNang) is concerned, he left out the fact that the Marines had taken fire
    from the village and there had been a number of troops wounded.
    The burning took place to destroy and enemy position, not as revenge.....

    What is so disturbing is that the same misrepresentations are
    being recycled--perhaps by a new generation of filmmakers who know Vietnam via Oliver Stone's Platoon?

    Peter Rollins
    US Marines, 1963-66 and
    Regents Professor, Oklahoma State U

    editor - 11/14/2003

    The Toronto Star
    November 12, 2003 Wednesday Ontario Edition
    HEADLINE: Battling for truth in war reports
    BYLINE: Vinay Menon, Toronto Star
    Mitchell Stephens, a media historian, believes journalism is most crucial during war.

    In the swirling madness, amid the bleak, bloody devastation of battle, war correspondents often produce the profession's greatest, most enduring work.

    But the relationship between the media and military has changed over the last century. Today, it's an unstable union, complicated by divergent expectations, corporate agendas, political interests, historical animosity and relentless shifts in culture and technology.

    Reporting America At War (PBS, 9 p.m. tonight) is a three-hour documentary that charts how the U.S. media has reported on conflicts ranging from the Spanish-American War to Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    The first part, titled The Romance Of War, aired last week and looked at how correspondents portrayed the Spanish-American War as a heroic adventure, creating near-mythic snapshots of military figures during epic battles.

    The trend toward heroic reporting would continue in World War I, as journalists saw the conflict as "a great crusade for democracy." They were unwilling or unable to deviate from propaganda campaigns.

    The idea that war is a moral imperative in an evil world would continue into World War II. Most correspondents, who felt an intense solidarity with the troops and believed in the cause, were loathe to report details that might compromise the effort or damage morale at home.

    The documentary's second part, which airs tonight, is appropriately titled Which Side Are You On? The 90-minute film explores how the relationship deteriorated, starting with the Korean War.

    As the spectre of communism triggered Cold War policies that would reshape the geo-political landscape, the Korean War galvanized a new kind of conflict, one predicated upon ideology not national survival.

    When American ground troops were first sent to Korea in 1950, there were no formal press guidelines in place, no military censors scrutinizing the free-ranging correspondents.

    Homer Bigart, a Pulitzer Prize-winning writer who believed journalists had a moral obligation to tell the truth, filed harrowing dispatches from the front, richly detailed stories often critical of American efforts.

    Soon, the once cozy, mutually beneficial relationship between the media and military was in violent flux. The military, defensive and outraged, enacted rigorous censorship rules. Bigart and others were branded traitors.

    The mutual distrust would reach its zenith during the Vietnam War, a conflict exhaustively explored in the documentary, including personal accounts from such legendary journalists as Malcolm W. Browne, Ward Just, William Prochnau, David Halberstam, Morley Safer, and Peter Arnett.

    Again, when the conflict started, there were no censorship rules, meaning correspondents had access to war zones. The ongoing conflict also coincided with the early rise of television. Americans were now not only reading about the war; they were seeing it play out in their living rooms.

    There's an abiding cultural myth that blames the media for the quagmire that was Vietnam. But as Halberstam, who was just 28 when he went to Saigon for the New York Times, recalls: "We wanted Americans to win, we wanted it to work ... (but) we were finding out stuff we didn't want to find out."

    In 1965, Morley Safer, then a 33-year-old CBS television reporter, filed one of the war's most haunting, controversial stories. He was with marines during a "search and destroy" mission.

    Portions of his story are rebroadcast tonight, including images of American soldiers casually torching peasant homes with flame-throwers as old men and women flee screaming. "I had never heard anything like that," says Safer. "People saw American troops acting in a way people had never seen before."

    A month after his report, the U.S. military put regulations into place to safeguard civilians. But by then, Americans had turned against the operation.

    Did the media shape public opinion or merely reflect it? That's a question that arises as Vietnam is discussed. Colonel Jay M. Parker, a military scholar, says, "You can't take an audience that has existing beliefs, existing attitudes, and somehow by showing them one story or giving them one opinion change everything they base their lives on. It doesn't happen that way."

    Vietnam would become a watershed, the conflict that echoes in the ears of military strategists who devise rules of media engagement - from the unprecedented press blackout during the Grenada invasion, to the sanitized video-war of Desert Storm, to the embedded policy of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Reporting America At War is both history lesson and cautionary tale at a time when we desperately need both.

    editor - 11/14/2003

    Ottawa Citizen
    November 12, 2003 Wednesday Final Edition
    SECTION: News; Pg. A3
    HEADLINE: Nov. 11 -- the day Canadians repelled an American invasion: Historians regret so few are aware that Canada was saved by 800 men 190 years ago
    SOURCE: The Ottawa Citizen
    BYLINE: Randy Boswell
    Two leading authorities on Canada's military history say citizens pausing this week to honour the veterans of 20th-century wars should also spare a thought for thousands of much older soldiers fading away even faster from our collective memory.

    The day Canada honours the sacrifices of the First and Second World War and Korea is also the anniversary of a battle that saved the country from an American invasion during the War of 1812. And as the First World War slips from living memory into pure history, how Canadians have marked the other Nov. 11 from our military heritage -- the 1813 Battle of Crysler's Farm -- offers a sobering glimpse of the future of remembrance.

    "That battle spelled the end of the most serious American attempt to conquer Canada during the War of 1812," says Donald Graves, a military historian whose 1999 book Field of Glory is the definitive account of the fight at John and Nancy Crysler's farm near Cornwall. "The date, of course, is coincidental. But we tend to think about the poppy as being from 1918 on. Actually, a lot of soldiers have died over the centuries to preserve this country."

    The Battle of Crysler's Farm, fought exactly 190 years ago yesterday on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River between Kingston and Montreal, resulted in a crucial and resounding victory over 4,000 Americans by an Anglo-Canadian force of just 800. The defeat halted a planned American assault on Montreal, by far the largest and most important city in British North America at the time.

    Notably, the winning side included French- and English-Canadian militiamen who fought alongside Mohawk warriors and professional British soldiers under the direction of Lt.-Col. Joseph Morrison.

    The triumph of the underdog thanks to those key alliances -- French and English, mother country and colony, white man and First Nation -- makes the battle "particularly significant in terms of the mythology of Canada," says Mr. Graves.

    Despite being the site of a true turning point in Canadian history, the Crysler's Farm battlefield -- along with the graves of hundreds of soldiers from both sides of the fight -- was flooded during the creation of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1958. A small historical exhibit and a hill-top obelisk commemorating the battle stand near the site today, a tourism sidebar to a popular pioneer village built nearby.

    The destruction of the battlefield, Mr. Graves lamented in his book, has made it "difficult, if not impossible, to stand on that mound and get any sense of the ground as it was in 1813."

    But in 1913, decades before the inundation and just months before the start of the First World War, thousands gathered at the original Crysler's Farm to celebrate the centennial of Canada's great victory.

    The armistice that ended the First World War on Nov. 11, 1918, led to an annual ceremony celebrating victory and mourning the dead. The event has come to include remembrance of those who served in the Second World War and Korean War, but soldiers from earlier battles -- including the South African conflict of 1899-1902 -- are typically not recognized.

    By contrast, the U.S. Memorial Day holiday that originated after the Civil War was later broadened to honour soldiers from all wars throughout American history.

    "I think it's important that we remember, on a day like this, all those who have either served or died in service to the country. And that includes those that occurred even before we became a country," says Joe Geurts, director of the Canadian War Museum.

    "I certainly think back to all of the events prior to and into the 18th and 19th centuries. We should be conscious of those. We need to recognize that military events and activities have shaped the country."

    editor - 11/14/2003

    The Independent (London)
    November 12, 2003, Wednesday
    BYLINE: DAVID MCKITTRICK IRELAND CORRESPONDENT Every so often, the Irish police dig up part of the countryside in the search for the Crown Jewels, including the diamond-encrusted badge. Prime suspect is Frank Shackleton (top), but Sir Arthur Vicars took the blame.
    NOW IT can be told: a huge scandal involving the disappearance of valuable royal goods, coteries of gay courtiers, drunken parties, inquiries that lead nowhere and a cover-up at the very highest level.

    And all this is on a scale big enough to rock the monarchy and appal the citizenry, with an amazing cast of characters, some of whom end up disgraced, in prison or meeting sudden mysterious ends.

    It all happened in the Ireland of 1907, when Edward VII went ballistic after somebody stole the Irish Crown Jewels from Dublin Castle. The extraordinary details of the theft, and the facts that the jewels have never been recovered and the culprits never found, have given rise to a rich crop of theories about what really happened.

    Last night, RTE, the Irish state television station, aired a documentary on the topic, which suggested investigations into the theft had been pursued with less than maximum vigour. One theory is that the King hastily ended inquiries after being informed of a homosexual network based at the castle, which included Frank Shackleton, the disreputable brother of the polar explorer Ernest Shackleton, and the Duke of Argyll, the King's brother-in-law, who had a known fondness for Guardsmen.

    The King, though himself no model of marital rectitude, had seen the German monarchy damaged by a homosexual scandal and certainly would have wanted things hushed up. He reportedly declared: "I will not have a scandal. I will not have mud stirred up and thrown about - the matter must be dropped."

    The historian Owen Dudley Edwards commented in last night's programme, The Strange Case of the Irish Crown Jewels: "The very same people who may condemn homosexuality - maybe if not necking themselves with attractive footmen in the conservatory - may certainly be on the very best of terms with people whom they know are."

    The Irish Crown Jewels consisted of a star and a badge encrusted with diamonds, emeralds and rubies. They had great symbolic value, as well as being worth millions at today's prices.

    They went missing on the eve of a visit to Dublin by the King in 1907. No doors or locks were forced during the burglary, indicating an inside job.

    A Scotland Yard detective was brought in to investigate, but his reports have gone missing. Another inquiry laid the blame on the hapless Sir Arthur Vicars, Ulster King of Arms. He was blamed not because he had taken the gems but because he was responsible for their safety. He was dismissed, and years later killed by the IRA for entertaining British officers at his home in Co Kerry.

    He always maintained his innocence, complaining in his will that he had been treated in an "outrageous way by the Government backed up by the late King Edward VII when they shielded the real culprit and thief, Francis Shackleton."

    Shackleton, Vicars' assistant, remains the prime suspect. He was one of a number of homosexual residents and employees at the castle, some of whom had colourful pasts. There were said to be drunken parties on the premises, with decades of rumours of "unnatural vice" going on behind its well-guarded walls. One nationalist politician intent on emphasising British corruption, referred to it as "Sodom and Begorrah". The fact that Shackleton was a friend of the Duke of Argyll is one reason George VII may have been his protector. Certainly someone up there liked Shackleton: one official report was generally inconclusive but made a point of declaring his innocence.

    Any protection ended after the King's death, with Shackleton sentenced to 15 months' hard labour for fraud. Some say the jewel theft was Frank's way of helping Ernest, who was short of money to finance his polar expedition.

    Frank's friend Richard Gorges, also homosexual, is suspected of being the man who took the jewels. He was later jailed for the manslaughter of a policeman in London. Another suspect died when he accidentally shot himself in the chest with his shotgun while climbing over a fence.

    Today, the Crown Jewels remain unrecovered. Some say they were offered for sale to the Irish government in 1927; some say they are buried somewhere in Ireland; others say they were discreetly returned and that some of them are worn today by Queen Elizabeth. The official assumption, outlined recently by Jeremy Bagwell Purefoy of the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, is that they were broken up and sold in the Netherlands.

    But every decade or so, an anonymous phone call or letter arrives, and Irish police dig up a piece of land in search of them. Whatever the true fate of the jewels, the episode continues to provide a rich vein of royal and Irish folklore.

    editor - 11/14/2003

    The Australian
    November 12, 2003 Wednesday All-round Country Edition
    SECTION: WORLD; Pg. 10
    HEADLINE: Curse of a cannibal murder
    BYLINE: * A correspondent in Nabutautau, Fiji
    HUNDREDS of villagers in a remote mountain region of Fiji will gather to beg forgiveness tomorrow for an act of cannibalism they believe has cursed them for 137 years.

    In 1867, the men of Nabutautau murdered and ate English Methodist missionary Thomas Baker and eight of his Fijian supporters. Now the villagers hope the Australian descendants of the missionary will accept their remorse.

    Since the killing, several family lines have died out, no village child has gone past high school and marijuana has become a blight on an area with no roads, electricity, school or health facilities.

    "We are facing so many hardships," Ratu, or chief, Filimoni Nawawabalevu said. "We believe we must have been cursed, and we must apologise for what happened. When we have made the apology we will be clean again."

    Eleven of Baker's descendants from Australia will make the five-hour trip from the coast by four-wheel drive over logging tracks cut into cliffs to attend the apology ceremony.

    Mr Nawawabalevu, 70, is the grandson of the chief who led Baker to his death at a rock just above the village.

    editor - 11/14/2003

    November 13, 2003, Thursday
    SECTION: Pg. 20
    HEADLINE: Ho Chi Minh aide jailed for attack on communism
    BYLINE: By Alex Spillius South East Asia Correspondent
    A FORMER bodyguard of Vietnam's revolutionary president Ho Chi Minh was jailed for 10 months yesterday for criticising the Communist Party that his leader founded and inspired.

    Tran Dung Tien, 74, who protected Ho for two decades, was arrested in January, two days after writing an open letter calling for the release of two dissidents, a former army colonel and an military historian. He wrote: "To remain silent is to be irresponsible, for it amounts to accepting the continuation of crimes and tyranny."

    Tien joined the struggle against French colonial rule in the 1940s and was a member of the elite Quyet Tu Quan unit before joining Ho's guard. The then president died of natural causes in 1969, six years before North Vietnam defeated the American-backed South.

    Like many revolutionaries, Tien became disillusioned with the Communist authorities in the 1990s. The party had liberalised the economy, often to its own benefit, and kept a stiff grip on political and social expression. He left the party five years ago and has been an outspoken critic of it since. Journalists and diplomats were barred from his two-hour trial in Hanoi and received news from family members and anonymous officials.

    Outside, a fellow military veteran, Hoang Minh Chinh, 81, said that like Tien he had known Ho but now opposed the government.

    "The problem, that not just myself but the whole people face, is no democracy. No democracy here is specifically no press freedom," he said.

    International rights groups and the US state department have repeatedly criticised the Vietnamese regime for its repressive treatment of religious and political dissidents. Hanoi maintains that only lawbreakers are punished.

    In the past year it has clamped down further on democracy advocates with one critic receiving 13 years, later halved, for an open letter attacking the government.

    But Tien's sentence was shorter than expected and he may be released later this month, having spent almost the length of his term in custody since his arrest.

    "The shortness of the sentence is surprising but he should never have been tried in the first place," said a Western diplomat. "I don't know if this is a reaction to international pressure or his domestic standing." - 11/13/2003


    Karl Rotstan - 11/13/2003

    Bellesiles writes "The originator of the policy of "shock and awe" was not a Pentagon employee but Giulio Douchet, an Italian advocate of air power in the 1930s." He then goes on to refer to him as Douchet throughout the rest of the article.

    Forgive me, but wasn't the man's name "Giulio Douhet"? At least that's what it is in Italian...

    FWBaumgartner - 11/13/2003

    Great article. Pyramids and Sphink probable weere about 12,000BC
    The Sphinx faces the morning constellation of Leo and shows erosion marks from a time of veru abundant rainfall. Thanks again-FWB

    The real messiah of 2003 - 11/13/2003

    I ask my father in heaven to give the drought, and he answers before I ask. So be it, my beloved.

    M Mullin - 11/13/2003

    I found this article interesting as it confirms other information I have reeived. MMullin

    Laura Odelius - 11/13/2003

    Dude, who are you talking to? The editor just reproduced an article from the Glasgow Herald. Appreciate your information, but save your scorn for the article's actual author, Martin Williams.

    Dano - 11/13/2003

    Wow at least do you homework and study history . I don't know where to start , for your info there ARE 3000 YEARS that seperates the south of Egypt templeS (which are a marvel), and the Pyramids/Sphinx . So if we calculate 7000 years where it started in the north and south seperately , then you get the ancient civil war , ................all the way to Cleopatre which is the most recent . Then smarty when did this collapse happened ?? , when they were building there many temples , or was it just after the last Pyramid , or may be while they were building many wonders .

    So what you're saying a civilization that lived in harmony with knowledge and creativity for at least 4000 years (of your calender) that even today we don't have the answers for how they did it , disappeared for a thousand years because of a drought . ARE YOU HIGH ?? , in those days the jungle came up to half of Egypt of todate , and not to forget that the Nile (the longest river in the world) when it floods it created lakes and other rivers that existed until the construction of the Sad-elali? in the 50's .
    When did this happen ?? and how come history does not show a clue to this ? , and last which thousands years are you talking about ??? .

    Aaron Alexander - 11/12/2003

    The film Rosenstrasse traces the Nazi release of the Jewish spouses of Germans to one of the women protesters' giving herself for one night to the general in charge (presumably a fictionalization of Goebbels). If this were true, it would eliminate the only known public protest against the deportation of Jews as an example of the possibility of German protest affecting Nazi policy. Since it is not true, its appearance in the film is an outrageous desecration of history. It is much worse than "troubling," the one word with which Dr. Stoltzfus dismisses the fabrication. It fortifies Germans' excuse for their collaboration with Hitler, that "nothing could be done."

    editor - 11/12/2003

    The Herald (Glasgow)
    November 11, 2003
    SECTION: Pg. 8
    HEADLINE: Drought that destroyed a civilisation;Scientists discover how natural disaster killed off ancient Egyptians
    BYLINE: Martin Williams
    IT is one of history's biggest mysteries and has confounded experts for hundreds of years.

    But a team of scientists believe they have discovered why the world's first great civilisation, established in Egypt nearly 5000 years ago, crumbled and plunged into a dark age that lasted for more than 1000 years.

    The researchers, including one academic from St Andrews University, have produced new evidence linking the demise of the Egyptian Old Kingdom with decades of drought after a study of layers of sediment at the source of the Blue Nile at Lake Tana in northern Ethiopia.

    The Sphinx and the pyramids at Giza are among the only remaining legacies of the Old Kingdom, which lasted from 2575 to 2150 BC, before the time of Tutankhamen, Ramses, and Queen Nefertiti.

    The destruction of the pharaohs' power and the collapse of central government had followed 1000 years of cultural advancement, with its characteristic architecture, literature, and art.

    The famine that followed the drought was so severe that there is evidence people violated the royal dead and that some were forced to eat their own children.

    Some of the theories for the collapse of the world's greatest dynasties have included political conflict and an invasion from Asia.

    But most historians believe the initial breakdown was prompted by significant drops, over two or three decades, in the level of the Nile, whose annual floods were crucial for the irrigation of crops.

    Texts from the period say that the famine was brought about by the failure of the floods, but there has been little scientific proof of this.

    Other scientific studies have shown a short-lived but pronounced decline in rainfall and reduced water-flow around 2150 BC over an area that extended from Tibet to Italy.

    editor - 11/12/2003

    Ottawa Citizen
    November 10, 2003 Monday Final Edition
    SECTION: News; Pg. A1
    HEADLINE: Mata Hari was innocent, historian says
    SOURCE: The Times, London
    BYLINE: Adam Sage
    PARIS -- Mata Hari, the striptease artist executed by France as a German spy during the First World War, was the victim of a miscarriage of justice, says the great-grandson of the French magistrate who sent her to her death by firing squad.

    Philippe Collas, a historian, says Margareth Gertrude Zelle, who became a celebrity under her stage name, was manipulated by French authorities.

    His new take on the now legendary case is based partly on his great-grandfather's private papers, part of the family archive.

    Mr. Collas says that his forebear, Pierre Bouchardon, had just discovered that his wife had a lover, a discovery that bred in him hostility towards women in general and to what he saw as loose women in particular.

    Mata Hari, who had never made a secret of her numerous liaisons, became the focus of this hostility. "And now we arrive at the true reason (behind the verdict)," Mr. Collas writes. "Mata is guilty because she is immoral. A liberated woman, a sex symbol, a free woman ... Mata shocked (Mr. Bouchardon); Mata offended him."

    He quotes his great-grandfather's notes on the case. "We can guess what a woman like Mata Hari could expect from her successive liaisons to obtain half-secrets," Mr. Bouchardon wrote.

    "It is in vain that her partners tried to stay on their guard. In this sort of battle, the man, however adroit he may be, is always vanquished."

    Mr. Collas has written a television film portraying Mata Hari as a naive and vulnerable woman confronted with a merciless French establishment, personified by his great-grandfather.

    The dancer is played by Maruschka Detmers, a Dutch actress born 50 kilometres from Leeuwarden, the town where Mata Hari spent her early childhood. The film was broadcast on French television on the weekend to coincide with the publication of a book on the affair by Mr. Collas.

    He says that the French secret services needed to pull off a high-profile coup to distract attention from their bungling in the first three years of the First World War. They had been infiltrated by the Germans and had proved incapable of supplying worthwhile intelligence. So Mata Hari was arrested, charged with treason and shot after a trial behind closed doors.

    Captain Georges Ladoux, head of the Information Centralization Section of the French counter-intelligence agency, hid evidence from the investigating magistrate, Mr. Collas says. The captain failed to say that although the dancer had agreed to spy for Germany at the beginning of the war, she had changed sides by 1917 and was supplying information to the French. Mata Hari's lawyers told Judge Bouchardon the truth, he writes, but their argument was dismissed.

    Mr. Collas says Mata Hari was not the femme fatale that history remembers. Her childhood in The Netherlands had been unhappy, with her parents divorcing after her father was made bankrupt.

    So, too, was the marriage into which she entered when she answered an advertisement in a newspaper lonely hearts column. Her husband, a Dutch army officer, drank and beat her. Her son died of poisoning and although Mata Hari was given custody of their daughter after the divorce her husband kidnapped the child.

    When she arrived in Paris in 1904 she was alone and penniless. Claiming to be half Hindu and half British, and to have been trained as an Indian dancer, she started to perform an exotic act that attracted the attention of a Parisian impresario who was "stunned at this Brahamanic vision."

    "For the first time, someone was daring to show themselves naked," Mr. Collas says. Within months, she had adopted the name Mata Hari --meaning sun in Malay -- and was a star. "When she performs, the audience is out of its mind," said the French newspaper La Vie Parisienne in 1905.

    But the First World War put a stop to her performances, and a German official offered her 20,000 francs to seduce French soldiers and report what they told her. She accepted the money, went to bed with senior army officers, but never disclosed what she learned.

    Mr. Collas says that the British secret services were aware of her activities and told Capt. Ladoux in Paris. He recruited her as a double agent. Mr. Collas said that Mata Hari promptly seduced a German army major, who revealed military secrets that she passed on to French intelligence. However, the German army major came to suspect Mata Hari and her cover was blown. Capt. Ladoux decided to sacrifice her to salvage the reputation of the intelligence agencies.

    Don Williams - 11/12/2003

    1) I find it fascinating that Bellesiles could cite the southern militia's victory at King's Mountain in the above article but somehow overlooked that victory when discussing the performance of the militia in Arming America. The US Army's Center of Military History reference "American Military History" cites King's Mountain as the pivotal point in the Revolutionary War.

    2) I was also unable to suppress a giggle when Bellesiles argued about the effectiveness of guerrilla warfare in Iraq. In Arming America, Bellesiles somehow failed to realize that George III was running his North American campaign on money borrowed from the Dutch bankers (vice money stolen from the Social Security Trust Fund).

    George III borrowed money for the war because if he had tried to raise the money from the English taxpayers, then the taxpayers would have asked why George was spending enormous amounts of blood and money in North America. George's only answer would have been "because some of my political supporters have investments there."

    Ultimately, however, the Dutch bankers cut off George's line of credit (that's George III not George W) because the victories of the southern militia at King's Mountain (and yes, at Cowpens) showed the bankers that the costs of subduing a resistance movement in the wilds of North America --a resistance with no center of gravity, established among the poor, and based on a strange ideology -- would cost far more than any potential profits. Moreover, profits in North America were impossible so long as the resistance blew up oil pipelines --er, I mean, disrupted commerce.

    Meanwhile, when the political establishment discovered that George had run up a debt of $3 Trillion --err, I mean 40 million pounds, they declared poor George insane , had him confined under guard, and installed his degenerate son as regent.

    But I'm sure Bellesiles can explained why the economic effects of guerrilla war works in Iraq of 2003 but not in the North America of 1780.

    Editor - 11/11/2003


    History New Service

    From colonial times, the military has believed that having a technological
    superiority leads to swift victory. Not so, says historian Michael
    Bellesiles, and Iraq is simply one more case of misplaced faith in

    The Limits of Shock and Awe

    Michael Bellesiles
    History News Service

    The United States began its war against Iraq with a campaign of "shock and awe." An overwhelming demonstration of American airpower was designed to persuade the Iraqis to throw down their arms and surrender even while rising in revolt against Saddam Hussein. Sadly, that expectation has been thwarted, as the war drags on and Americans and Iraqis continue to die.

    The term "shock and awe" is in keeping with a long-standing Anglo-American faith in technological quick fixes. Military techno-hype has frequently fed expectations of a "clean" victory. But we have found that the latest
    technology does not always shorten wars.

    As early as 1609, John Smith, a leader of colonial Virginia, told his
    troops that if they just discharged their muskets, "the very smoake will bee
    sufficient to affright them." Unfortunately, Smith was wrong. Virginia's
    Indians developed tactics to circumvent the colonists' technological
    advantages. Smith returned to England, proclaiming his mission accomplished;
    but the Virginia Indian wars lasted for decades.

    In the American Revolution, Britain's Captain Patrick Ferguson believed his ingenious breech-loading rifle would guarantee victory. His confidence cost
    Ferguson his life in the South Carolina forests at King's Mountain, where
    American "peasants" carrying old-fashioned weapons wiped out his forces.
    Modern weaponry is far more destructive and would seem able to convince any opponent to avoid fighting. The American Richard Gatling employed such reasoning in the nineteenth century, predicting that his rapid-fire gun would put an end to war, as no one could advance in the face of such
    overwhelming firepower.

    But Gatling, like many later innovators, underestimated the willingness of people to give their lives in even the most bloody conflicts. The Gatling gun and its successors did not prove decisive in any war, though they increased casualty rates on all sides.
    Sophisticated weapons such as machine guns and even tanks remain within human reach, and thus subject to low-tech destruction. Aircraft, it is often held, changed everything, placing an attack above any but equally high-tech defenses.
    The originator of the policy of "shock and awe" was not a Pentagon
    employee but Giulio Douchet, an Italian advocate of air power in the 1930s.
    Sounding like a contemporary defense analyst, Douchet predicted that within
    two days of an air attack against urban centers, a "panic-stricken people"
    would flee the cities "to escape this terror from the air."

    Any society would experience "a complete breakdown," as civilians, seeking to end their "horror and suffering," would "rise up and demand an end to the war." Douchet recommended pre-emptive strikes such as the United States launched against Iraq. But repeatedly civilians have proved Douchet wrong.
    "Shock and awe" was tested during World War II. In 1942, Air Marshal Arthur "Bomber" Harris told Winston Churchill that his massive bombing campaign would "knock Germany out of the war within a matter of months." Yet, despite the horrendous firestorms created in Dresden, Lubeck and Hamburg by British and American bombers, airpower did not defeat Germany; massive ground forces did.
    Teams of experts from the United States and Britain who investigated
    the effectiveness of allied bombing discovered German military production
    had not been decisively hindered, nor had bombing destroyed German morale.
    American and British faith in superior technology had been misplaced.
    Twenty years later, in 1965, one member of the U.S. Strategic Bombing
    Survey, George Ball, warned President Lyndon Johnson that airpower alone
    could not defeat the North Vietnamese. U.S. air strikes, which showed little
    regard for civilians, destroyed every significant structure in North
    Vietnam. Yet the Vietnamese communists persisted in their low-tech war --
    "grabbing the Americans by their belts," as they called it --and fighting
    face to face.

    These lessons of the limitations of "techno-war" were forgotten, as the
    ghost of Giulio Douchet hovered over the Bush administration's planning for
    the campaign of shock and awe. It seems that the president does not read
    either newspapers or history.

    None of this is to say that the Bush administration was irrational to
    expect that the Iraqi people would recognize American technological
    superiority. It is to suggest rather that history indicates that warfare
    cannot be reduced to a precise calculus in which advanced weaponry brings
    predictable results.

    American airpower did enormous damage to the Iraqi military, destroyed
    numerous key government structures and killed hundreds of civilians. In the
    process, the United States alienated millions of people around the world,
    including, it seems, a great many Iraqis.

    War is a blunt instrument that produces no "clean" victories. Ultimately,
    troops must leave their armored vehicles and establish order on the streets;
    they must confront the people previously targeted from afar. The consequence
    is often a low-tech struggle in which superior technology may only get in
    the way.

    Michael Bellesiles is the author of several books, including "Revolutionary
    Outlaws" and "Arming America," and a writer for the History News Service.

    Check out the History News Service website at:



    The History News Service, an independent, nonprofit distribution service provided by professional historians to the news media, offers commentary that places current issues in their historical perspectives. Articles may be used in their entirety or in part, or to generate suggestions for staff-written assignments. Articles represent the views of the individual writer only. Please contact the author for clarification or revision of text.

    Subscription to the History News Service grants one-time publication rights to the above text. The author retains all rights to this material for further publication, presentation, or other use, including revisions made thereto, and your use of any portion of the above text acknowledges author ownership of this material. The History News Service requests compliance with your publication's standard writer attribution and honorarium policies. Please contact the author directly in case of payment and about all editorial changes.



    Joyce Appleby, Professor of History, University of California, Los Angeles,and Jim Banner, independent scholar

    Josh Greenland - 11/11/2003

    Sorry, the lefties involved were with the Communist Workers Party. Your thoughts about the Revolution Communist Party have no relevance whatever to the Greensboro massacre.

    editor - 11/10/2003


    The royal courtyard and gates at Louis XIV’s chateau at Versailles will undergo a £270million refurbishment. The proposed 17-year project has the backing of French President Jacques Chirac, whose speechwriter, Christine Albanel, will take charge of the renovations. The gates were destroyed during the French Revolution of 1793 and the chateau was last renovated in the 1830s by King Louis-Philippe. Chirac’s steps to preserve France’s most visited historical site follow former President Francois Mitterand’s renovations in the Louvre and at La Defense in Paris. The royal palaces at Versailles, southeast of the capital, were started in the 17th century and were the residences of the French kings until 1790. Treaties at the end of the Franco-Prussian and First World Wars were also signed here. (Nov 3rd)

    editor - 11/10/2003

    November 08, 2003, Saturday
    SECTION: Pg. 16
    HEADLINE: New Zealand 'settled by Chinese before Maoris'
    BYLINE: By Paul Chapman in Wellington
    A BRITISH amateur historian backed by the controversial author Gavin Menzies yesterday claimed that mysterious shoreline objects in New Zealand indicate that the Chinese settled the islands long before the Maoris.

    Cedric Bell, a retired marine engineer and former project manager for Castrol Oil, says a Chinese walled city of 4,000 people flourished where Christchurch is now, one of at least 40 such settlements in South Island.

    The claims were widely derided by New Zealand's leading historians and archaeologists. Most experts say Maoris and Morioris were the first to discover and settle New Zealand, in about the 9th century.

    Prof Kerry Howe, a historian, said the claims would never get published "in serious academic journals".

    Wolf Gruner - 11/10/2003

    Dear Readers:
    In his recent posting, Nathan Stoltzfus makes a number of dismissive comments about recent work on the Rosenstrasse episode, including my own, but he does not engage with our arguments, nor does he provide citations, so that readers might make up their own mind. Allow me, then, to briefly respond here.
    I first considered the Rosenstrasse protest in my 1997 book on forced labor of German Jews. Recently, I published a much more detailed investigation of the event in an article, which has been translated into English as "The Factory-Action and the Events at the Berlin Rosenstrasse. Facts and fiction about 27 February 1943 - Sixty Years Later, in: Central European History, Vol. 36, 2003, Nr. 2, S. 179-208).
    The main points of my article are:
    1. Several Gestapo decrees demonstrate that the Nazis’ aim in February 1943 was to deport all so-called “full Jews” except – for the time-being – those Jews living in mixed marriages. This policy was certainly NOT intended to ease the living conditions of the latter group. In fact, Jews living in mixed marriages and working already as forced laborers were transferred from industry to hard manual labor. This did not constitute a final decision, since a lot of them were deported later, the majority in early 1945 to Theresienstadt.
    2. During the factory raid at the end of February 1943, 2000 Berlin Jews in mixed marriages were interned at the Rosenstrasse. This was no mistake! (Stoltzfus seriously mischaracterizes my argument in that regard.) Together with other “full Jews” the Jews from mixed marriages were rounded up at their forced labor sites, but were later singled out by the Gestapo at different collection points and brought to a special assembly center at the Rosenstrasse in trucks. This group of 2000 people was “only” one quarter of the total number of Berlin Jews living in mixed marriages at that time. If the Gestapo intended to deport all Jews from mixed marriages, there would not have been need to undergo a time consuming procedure looking for those individuals in every assembly center and to transfer them to another building in another Berlin-district. Moreover, the Gestapo would obviously have arrested the whole group.
    3. The aim of the internment of those Jews, mostly forced laborers and mostly men, was a different one. Since the Reich Security Main Office wanted to deport all full Jews at the end of February 1943, they targeted also those full Jews still working in the Jewish community, at facilities like the Jewish hospital, and for the RSHA and the Gestapo (in total in January 1943 almost 1000). To deport at least part of those and nevertheless to keep the Jewish institutions working, although on a lower level, and to provide cheap workforce for the persecutors, the RSHA needed to find skilled replacements within a few days. Mainly therefore the people were brought to the Rosenstrasse. Documents of the Jewish Community as well as testimonies of survivors demonstrate that in the building the Gestapo interrogated the internees about their former professions and skills. During the days following the Factory raid more than 320 internees were selected and altogether transferred to the Berlin Jewish Community. According to available staff registers, out of this number approximately 250 Jews living in mixed marriages were immediately employed at different departments of the Jewish community (tax office, real estate office, archive etc.) or its hospital or by the Gestapo (transport, construction and library work) itself. Those replacements allowed the Gestapo to deport more than 450 former employees plus their families to Auschwitz (March 12) and to Theresienstadt (March 17).
    4. I underlined in my article that these findings do not in any way reduce or harm the courage of the women standing protesting outside the building, since they could not know what was actually going on and what plans the Gestapo had developed. But I did raise the question: Can the protest in the Rosenstrasse, conducted at a time when most of the Jews were already deported and murdered, serve further as a striking example of a chance of success of resistance against Nazi dictatorship and its anti-Jewish policy? In my view, non-Jewish Germans should have protested much earlier against the anti-Jewish policy, in the thirties, when there was a real chance to prevent the horrible events.
    5. And a last point barely mentioned before: During the few days of the raid almost 4.000 German Jews went into hiding in Berlin alone. The biggest (uncoordinated) action of the persecuted in Germany! That means every third out of the number the Gestapo planned to deport resisted. They could do so because they got plenty of warnings by non-Jews. And afterwards many non-jews provided shelter and food for the hiding. Not all, but many of those "submarines" did survive.
    Wolf Gruner
    Desmond Lee Visiting Professor
    Webster University, St. Louis/USA

    Rememberwhen - 11/8/2003

    My impression of the Truth Commission would have been much enhanced if the term "activists" had not been used globally for Revolutionary Communist Party. RCP was the creation of Bob Avakian and cheerfully avowed intent was to bring on a violent revolution. The original inspiration was the Gang of Four. In later years, with China taking "the capitalist road," enthusiasm switched to Enver Hoxha's Albania.

    None of the above speaks to the facts of the killings. My non-dispositive memory recalls network TV report that Klan had been cleared, as the film showed RCP fired first. I have no idea as to whether this is factually correct as to reason for the verdict. Given this is a board dedicated to history, there would seem to be no reason to recount evils of the Klan and explain why this shooting should be freighted with sad history of recent past.

    SHOULD that be necessary, try THE GREAT SOUTH CAROLINA KU KLUX KLAN TRIALS, 1871-1872

    Rememberwhen - 11/8/2003

    My impression of the Truth Commission would have been much enhanced if the term "activists" had not been used globally for Revolutionary Communist Party. RCP was the creation of Bob Avakian and cheerfully avowed intent was to bring on a violent revolution. The original inspiration was the Gang of Four. In later years, with China taking "the capitalist road," enthusiasm switched to Enver Hoxha's Albania.

    None of the above speaks to the facts of the killings. My non-dispositive memory recalls network TV report that Klan had been cleared, as the film showed RCP fired first. I have no idea as to whether this is factually correct as to reason for the verdict. Given this is a board dedicated to history, there would seem to be no reason to recount evils of the Klan and explain why this shooting should be freighted with sad history of recent past.

    SHOULD that be necessary, try THE GREAT SOUTH CAROLINA KU KLUX KLAN TRIALS, 1871-1872

    Rememberwhen - 11/8/2003

    My impression of the Truth Commission would have been much enhanced if the term "activists" had not been used globally for Revolutionary Communist Party. RCP was the creation of Bob Avakian and cheerfully avowed intent was to bring on a violent revolution. The original inspiration was the Gang of Four. In later years, with China taking "the capitalist road," enthusiasm switched to Enver Hoxha's Albania.

    None of the above speaks to the facts of the killings. My non-dispositive memory recalls network TV report that Klan had been cleared, as the film showed RCP fired first. I have no idea as to whether this is factually correct as to reason for the verdict. Given this is a board dedicated to history, there would seem to be no reason to recount evils of the Klan and explain why this shooting should be freighted with sad history of recent past.

    SHOULD that be necessary, try THE GREAT SOUTH CAROLINA KU KLUX KLAN TRIALS, 1871-1872

    Robert Guiscard - 11/8/2003

    A few notes: The non cooperation of the marchers in the criminal proceedings was a major factor in the jury decision. Another factor in the jury deliberation is that both the Klan and the Marchers were seen as outsiders--the March had been orgainzed by the Communist Workers Party. The march was advertised as a "Death to the Klan March" and the promoters had disrupted an earlier Klan March--this was irresponsible and dangerous. There is some concern that the Truth Commission is unbalanced. A major player is one of the organizers of the "Death to the Klan March". As a whole the local community is of a decidely split mind of the wisdom of this Commission.

    editor - 11/7/2003

    From: Greensboro Truth and Community Reconciliation Project
    Date: November 7, 2003
    Contact: Signe Waller, 336-230-0001, <a href=""></a>
    Pictures are available on request.

    Spiritual Preparation Conference and Advisory Committee Meeting Yield Fruit

    North Carolina Congressman Mel Watt of the 12th District was among the nearly 200 people gathered at the Bennett College Chapel for the Opening Session of the “Spiritual Preparation for Truth-Seeking, Healing and Reconciliation: A Gathering of People from All Spiritual Traditions and Walks of Life.” The event commemorated the 24th anniversary of a tragic moment in the city’s history. The Greensboro Truth and Community Reconciliation Project grew out of the daylight killing of five labor and community organizers by members of the Ku Klux Klan and American Nazi Party on November 3, 1979. Despite two criminal trials and one federal civil rights trial, no one was ever sentenced for those deaths. In the civil rights trial, however, a historically unprecedented verdict found some Klansmen, Nazis and Greensboro police officers jointly liable for wrongful death. Recently, Congressman Watt officially signed on to endorse the project and to serve as a member of its National Advisory Committee.

    Commemorative activities, from Oct. 31through Nov. 2, were part of a Spiritual Preparation for the city’s truth-seeking and community reconciliation process. An impressive array of human rights leaders from the local to international arenas spoke and shared their perspectives powerfully during the three-day conference. The audience, though largely from Greensboro, included attendees from all over the country, South Africa, Peru, and Australia.

    Rev. Bongani Finca, who served as a Commissioner in the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, stressed the significance of the Greensboro truth process to the entire world. Eduardo Gonzalez, from the Peru Truth Commission, reminded the audience of the importance of hearing all the stories in all their variety. He emphasized the fact that the truth process did not mean having one story but that it should isolate the stories of deception and untruths. Mr. David Potorti, whose brother was killed at the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, appealed to those assembled to be committed to writing a new story and to not dwell on the tragedy of a situation but to move toward future possibilities for a more just and peaceful world.


    The Greensboro Truth and Community Reconciliation Process is chaired locally by Former Mayor Carolyn Allen and Retired Presbyterian Minister Z Holler. The project has been endorsed by local leaders, including Mayor Pro Tem Yvonne Johnson, Guilford County Commission Chairperson Melvin “Skip” Alston, and a host of Greensboro’s religious and civic leaders. The project is advised by an international advisory committee, and the International Center for Transitional Justice serves as its consultant.

    The project also enjoys the support of Archbishop Desmond Tutu, former Chairperson of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. It was Archbishop Tutu’s advice during an April meeting with the Local Task Force of the truth project that helped shape the spiritual preparation focus of the conference.

    The process of nominating and selecting a truth commission by a broad spectrum of community, religious, business and education groups is currently underway. The Commission is expected to be seated by the Spring of 2004. Its report should be issued 12 to 15 months later.

    editor - 11/6/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #43; 6 November 2003) by Bruce Craig (editor) <>; Shannon Parsley
    National Coalition for History (NCH)

    1. Congress Acts on Interior Appropriations Bill -- NEH "We the People"
    Funding Assured
    2. Reagan Drama Generates Controversy
    3. First Kluge Prize Awarded
    4. Legislative Update: Congressional Hearings (Kate Mullany National
    Historic Site; Steel Industry NHS)
    5. Bits and Bytes: NARA Request for Comments; Historic Site Grant
    Program; Battlefield Conference Announced; The People's Vote; Paul Peck Award
    6. Articles of Interest: "Leave Some Pork on the Table" (New York Times;
    6 November 2003)

    On 27 October House and Senate conferees reached agreement on the FY 2004 Interior Appropriations bill (H.R. 2691; H. Rept. 108-330) that provides funding for the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) and the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). The conference agreement provides the NEA with $122.5 million for FY 2004 (a $6.8 million increase over FY 2003) and the NEH with $136.1 million (a $11.2 million increase over FY 2003).
    Included in this figure is $10 million for the NEH "We the People"
    program. The NEH funding level is the largest percentage increase since
    1979 and the largest actual dollar increase since 1991. The House approved the conference report by a vote of 216 to 205 with the Senate also approving it 87 to 2.

    NEH supporters were especially pleased to see language in the conference report that provides the "We the People" initiative with $10 million without any strings attached to the funding. Congress' desire to fund Senator Lamar Alexander's "American History and Civics Education Act" of
    2003 (S. 504/H.R. 1078) had threatened to divert some if not all of the WTP monies to the Tennessee Senator's history program.

    The report language reads: "The conference agreement includes an amount of $10,000,000 in new funding to support the Administration's `We the People'
    American history and civics initiative. Both Congress and the Administration have demonstrated strong interest in expanding the monies intended specifically for grants in this area. Legislation currently pending in the Congress may complement and extend the reach of the `We the People' grants proposal put forward by the Administration in its fiscal year 2004 budget justification. Should the authorization bill now under consideration be enacted into law, the managers expect that this will be reflected in future budget requests. The NEH should, however, not wait on potential future action before allocating available funds for the initiative as originally proposed. Further, the managers are aware that throughout the past year, State humanities councils have dedicated considerable time and effort to crafting program proposals for the `We the People' initiative that would be implemented at the local and regional levels. The managers expect that as funds are allocated to the various programmatic areas participating in the American history initiative, state humanities councils will be represented appropriately."

    An overall administrative increase of $1,374,000 was approved by the conferees that will allow the NEH to meet the escalating costs associated with employee pay and benefits, rent, and related administrative expenses.
    However, the managers did not agree to the NEH request for the establishment of a separate office with its own funding line dedicated to the administration of the "We the People" initiative.

    For the various NEH program activities, the estimated unadjusted conference allocations are as follows: Federal/state partnership -
    $31,623,385 (+$1.385 million over enacted FY-03); Preservation and access
    - $18,782,874 (+$874,000); Public programs - $13,029,284 (+$284,000); Research programs - $12,978,613 (+$613,000); Education programs -
    $12,542,449 (+ $449,000); Program development - $394,435 (+$435,000);"We the People" grants - $9,935,400 (+$9,935,400); Administration -
    $20,810,689 (+$1,238,689); Treasury Funds - $5,649,268 (+ $268,000); Challenge Grants - $10,368,583 (+ $583,000) for a total budget of $136,114,980 (+ $11,178,980).

    Several other history-related programs are also funded in the Interior bill. The Historic Preservation Fund (HPF), which is included within the National Park Service budget, is set for an increase of about $5.5 million for a total (adjusted) funding level of about $74 million. HPF funding includes $35 million (+$1 million over enacted FY 2003) for the State grant programs and $3 million (level funding) for Tribal preservation programs. A long-time favorite of both Democratic and Republican administrations, the "Save America's Treasures" program will receive an allocation of $32.8 million ($15 million for competitive grants and $18 million for earmarked projects), an increase of nearly $3 million over FY-2003. Also included in the conference report is a provision funding the last $500,000 installment for the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Historic Sites Fund -- monies over the last several years that have provided on-going major maintenance and restoration projects at the Trust's collection of historic sites.

    Prior to the conference it looked like the National Park Service, which oversees the management of hundreds of historic sites and parks, would fair well. The president had requested an operational increase of $67.5 million and both the House and Senate recommended a larger increase of approximately $72 million. But in conference that increase was slashed by
    $17 million thus giving the NPS new operational funds of just over $55 million, thus falling below even the president's request.

    The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, an non-controversial budget item, received what had been requested -- level funding of approximately $8.5 million.

    Stung by an angry reaction launched by the Republican National Committee (RNC), conservative members of Congress, and thousands of e-mail messages from protectors of the Reagan legacy that targeted CBS and its commercial sponsors including Hallmark greeting-cards, CBS decided it will not broadcast a controversial mini-series about the former President Ronald Reagan. Insisting that the network did not "succumb to a barrage from the right," executives stated that the production "does not present a balanced portrayal of the Reagans." The program will, however, be broadcast over the pay cable network Showtime, in 2004. Showtime potentially reaches 28 million pay-TV subscriber homes while CBS reaches 100 million homes. Both CBS and Showtime are owned by the media conglomerate Viacom.

    The controversy developed when snippets of the script from the four-hour $9 million mini-series appeared in the New York Times. Conservative web-master Matt Drudge picked up the story and sent out excerpts of the script to conservative talk radio, cable, and Internet sites. It did not go unnoticed by Reagan's admirers that liberal activist Barbara Streisand's husband James Brolin was depicting Reagan in the series or that it was being produced by Craig Zadan and Neil Meron, both of whom are well-known in Hollywood circles for their gay advocacy TV projects. One specific concern was the script's portrayal that the former president was apathetic toward the AIDS crisis: reportedly, in one scene, Reagan speaks an invented
    quotation: "They that live in sin shall die in sin."

    Based on the handful of script excerpts, critics immediately challenged the entire caricature of the former president and his wife presented in the mini-series and launched a campaign to get the network to revise or abandon the project, which was characterized as "a partisan hatchet job...and a distortion of history." Rep. Eric Cantor (R-VA) mobilized Republican colleagues and sent a letter to CBS president protesting the film. He wrote, "One cannot help but note the liberal politics of those directly involved with the creation of this mini-series...the past political associations and ideology of CBS executives and actors have seeped into production." RNC Chair Ed Gillespie also weighed in with the GOP launching a nationwide web-based protest. Gillespie recommended that people close to the former president and "a panel of historians review the production for accuracy." Brent Bozell, president of the conservative media watchdog group Media Research Center sent over 100 letters to leading corporate television advertisers to carefully consider whether they want to sponsor the program.

    Though the miniseries has been re-channeled to Showtime, the "solution"
    scarcely resolves the situation. Editorials in both right- and left-leaning papers are blasting CBS and Viacom. The conservative Washington Times criticized CBS for not "spiking" the series entirely: "if the miniseries is so skewed that it should not air on CBS, it should not be seen on Showtime either." In its editorial the more liberal-leaning New York Times declared that "CBS was wrong to yield to conservative pressure and yank it" and noted that in this era when broadcast networks feature "ordinary people competing for cash by eating live insects...cable TV seems to have become the home for any programming with the least hint of
    political controversy." Still no word whether historians will ultimately
    be asked to pass judgement on the merits of the mini-series interpretation of the Reagan legacy.

    On 5 October 2003, the Library of Congress awarded the first John W. Kluge Prize for Lifetime Achievement in the Human Sciences to Polish philosopher Leszek Kolakowski. Though best known for his work in politics and religion, notably his three-volume study "Main Currents of Marxism: Its Rise, Growth, and Dissolution," Kolakowski's writings explore a variety of topics ranging from to discussions of everyday life to contemplations of the metaphysical.

    Now a retired senior research fellow at All Souls College, in his youth Kolakowski was a devout Marxist. After his expulsion from the Communist Party in 1966, he left Poland. He then taught at several universities in Canada and America where he continued to publish anti-Communist essays that influenced the Solidarity movement and other Polish dissenters. According to Librarian of Congress James Billington, Kolakowski "made clear from within the Soviet system the intellectual bankruptcy of the Marxist ideology, and the necessity of freedom, tolerance of diversity and the search for transcendence for reestablishing individual dignity…His voice was fundamental for the fate of Poland, and influential in Europe as a whole."

    The Kluge Prize seeks to recognize achievement by a scholar in fields such as history, philosophy, political science, anthropology, religion, and the arts. The $1 million prize is intended to honor not only the accomplishments of such scholars but also the "trajectory" of their career and its impact on both the academic world and the world around them. It is the hope of its creator Billington, and sponsor philanthropist John W.
    Kluge, that the prize will someday grant scholars in the humanities and social sciences the level of distinction the Nobel Prize has awarded other scholars and statesmen.

    For more information on the award and the winner, tap into:

    Kate Mullany National Historic Site:
    On 30 October 2003, the National Parks Subcommittee of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee conducted a hearing to consider Senator Hillary Clinton's (D-NY) legislation (S. 1241) to establish the Kate Mullany National Historic Site in New York. The bill seeks to establish a site in the National Park System that represents industrial development and labor themes including the development of worker cooperative organizations in the northeast. Similar legislation (H.R. 305) was introduced by Rep.
    Mike McNulty (D-NY) on 8 January 2003 and was referred to the House Committee on Resources.

    Steel Industry National Historic Site:
    On 5 November 2003, the House Committee on Resources marked up Rep. Michael Doyle's (R-PA) bill (H.R. 521) that seeks to create a new national park unit out of a number of properties associated with the former United States
    Steel Homestead Works in southwestern Pennsylvania. Similar legislation
    (S. 1787) was introduced 28 October 2003 in the Senate by Senator Arlen Specter (R-PA). Both Doyle and Specter have been working for several years to establish the new park area.

    Item #1 -- NARA Request for Comments: The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has issued a notice in the Federal Register (29 October 2003; Vol. 68, no. 209; pp 61703-61704) announcing a request for comments on disposition authority relating to several agency records schedules. Schedules Pending include: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; Department of Homeland Security, Transportation Security Administration; Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation; Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives; Department of the Treasury, U.
    S. Mint; National Archives and Records Administration, Electronic and Special Media Records Services Division; Office of Management and Budget, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs; Office of Navajo and Hopi Indian Relocation; and Small Business Administration, Office of Government Contracting and Business Development. Once approved by NARA records schedules provide mandatory instructions on what happens to records when no longer needed for current government business. They authorize the preservation of records of continuing value and specify the destruction, after a specified period, of records lacking administrative, legal, research, or other value. Requests for copies must be received in writing on or before 15 December 2003. For further information (including a detailed description of the nature of hard copy and electronic documents affected by this notice) contact: Paul M. Wester, Jr., Director, Life Cycle Management Division (NWML), National Archives and Records Administration,
    8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Telephone (301) 837-3120.

    Item #2 -- Historic Site Grant Program: The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is inviting proposals for public programs that use one or more historic sites to address themes and issues central to American history in its America's Historic Places grant program. Projects can interpret a single historic site, a series of sites, whole neighborhoods, communities or towns, or larger geographical regions. The deadline is February 3, 2004. For more information, visit the NEH web site at:

    Item #3 -- Battlefield Conference Announced: The National Park Service's American Battlefield Protection Program (ABPP) will hold its 7th National Conference on Battlefield Preservation 19-25 April 2004 in Nashville, Tennessee. The week-long conference will combine meetings, workshops, presentations, and tours of four battlefield preservation groups: the ABPP, the Civil War Preservation Trust (CWPT), the International Battlefield Terrain Conservation Group, and the International Battlefield Archeology Conference. Details concerning the conference and call for papers may be found at the ABPP web site from now until April 2004 at:

    Item #4 -- The "People's Vote": The National Archives, National History Day, and U.S. News and World Report, invites Americans of all ages and educational backgrounds to vote for 10 documents from the list of 100 milestone documents chosen by the National Archives, or to write in the documents they think are most significant. The results of the "People's
    Vote" will be announced on December 15, 2003, Bill of Rights Day. Tap
    into: to view original speeches, international treaties, Supreme Court cases, patent designs, and Constitutional amendments that changed the course of history. To cast your vote, go to and click on "People's Vote." For more information on "Our Documents," go to: <>;.

    Item #5 -- Paul Peck Awards: On 18 October 2003, the Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery honored the recipients of the 2003 Paul Peck Presidential Awards, Ambassador Thomas Pickering and journalist Diana Walker. The winners each received $25,000 and a specially designed medal. A diplomat for over 40 years, earning him the rank of career ambassador, Pickering was recognized for his outstanding service to presidents throughout his career. Walker, a White House photographer from the Ford administration to 2001, when she published a retrospective of her work, Public and Private:
    Twenty Years of Photographing the Presidency, was recognized for her excellence in portrayal of the nation's highest office. Two awards are made each year: one for "Service to the President" and a second for "Portrayal of a President." For more information on the awards, tap into:

    One posting this week -- In "Leave Some Pork on the Table" (New York Times;
    6 November 2003) the Times editorial staff notes the existence of more than
    $1 billion in earmarks in the pending $470 billion Labor, Health and Human Services and Education appropriations bill. The paper urges the Republican leadership "not use the $1 billion in pork" but rather "make up some of the shortfall in the president's education promises." Tap into:

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
    at: <>;.

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at and at the "network" prompt, scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    editor - 11/5/2003

    The Independent (London)
    November 5, 2003, Wednesday

    Hohmann: apologised for his anti-Jewish remarks; Reinhard Guenzel, the dismissed commander of Germany's KSK special forces Michael Dalder/Reuters

    THE HEAD of Germany's elite special forces was summarily dismissed from his post yesterday for praising a flagrantly anti-Semitic speech by a right-wing conservative MP which described the Jews as a "race of perpetrators".

    Brigadier-General Reinhard Guenzel, commander of Germany's crack KSK special forces and a 40-year veteran of the armed forces, was fired with immediate effect. His dismissal was coupled with a Defence Ministry recommendation that he be retired from all army duties at once. Peter Struck, the German Defence Minister, said: "I have decided to relieve him of his command and to dismiss him. With that, the case is closed for me. "This is not an honourable discharge. It is the case of one confused general agreeing with an even more confused MP. His remarks were intolerable and have damaged the reputation of the German army."

    General Guenzel's unprecedented sacking followed a German television report which revealed that the 59-year-old commander of the equivalent of Britain's SAS had praised a recent anti-Semitic speech by the opposition Christian Democrat MP Martin Hohmann in glowing terms. "It was an excellent speech, of a courage, truth and clarity, which one seldom hears or reads in our country," General Guenzel wrote in a letter that was leaked yesterday.

    Mr Hohmann, in an address to his constituency in west Germany last month, claimed that the Jews had acted like a "race of perpetrators" during the Russian revolution of 1917 and that large numbers of them were involved in Communist secret police massacres. He said their actions were comparable to those of the Nazis.

    Mr Hohmann, who apologised for his remarks last week, was rebuked by the Christian Democrat leadership, but not asked to resign as an MP. However, German Jewish leaders said his comments "reached into the lowest drawer of disgusting anti-Semitism" and historians dismissed his claims as "amateur rubbish".

    General Guenzel wrote to Mr Hohmann to congratulate him on his remarks. An excerpt from his letter read: "You can be sure that with your opinions, you are speaking from the soul for a majority of our people. I hope you will not be put off by criticism from the left and that you will hold your course with courage."

    Germany's special forces, the Kommando Spezialkraefte, were created in the 1990s after German reunification. They recently returned from a tour of duty in Afghanistan, where they were at the forefront of Germany's first combat operation outside Europe since the Second World War. German troops under the command of General Guenzel took part in last year's US- led Operation Anaconda on suspected Taliban and al-Qai'da hold-outs in the mountains of Afghanistan's eastern Paktia province. The special forces have been in the forefront of Germany's attempts to take on more of a role in helping to contain international flashpoints.

    Germany's Central Council of Jews yesterday said it had begun legal proceedings in an attempt to prosecute Mr Hohmann for incitement to racial hatred. Paul Spiegel, the council's chairman, told German radio he could not understand why the Christian Democrats had allowed him to continue as an MP. "Hohmann has caught a particular mood in Germany," he said. "Hundreds of people heard his speech. Nobody got annoyed. They applauded. It is a scandal that so many people simply accepted it. How can a German government, how can a German political party accept that such statements are made from their ranks? People abroad can't understand it."

    Gerry Regan - 11/5/2003

    When a student at Trinity College Dublin, I researched a debate between an English historian and a Jesuit priest in the mid-1800s. It comprised a series of articles and replies in a journal whose name I've long forgotten. The subject: Was the Guy Fawkes' plot conjured by political enemies of the Catholic Church in England? I seem to recall (my student days were nearly 30 years ago) that the Jesuit made a compelling case for questioning the government version of the plot. Yet this article seems to be unquestioning. Anyone know whether Fawkes and the other alleged plotters did in fact conspire as the government alleged?

    editor - 11/5/2003


    Guy Fawkes plot could have ruined London

    If the Gunpowder Plot to blow up James I had succeeded the Houses of Parliament and much of Whitehall could have been wrecked, scientists have calculated. Westminster Abbey would have suffered severe structural damage and windows 1,600ft away from the blast may have broken. The research was by physicists from the Centre of Explosion Studies at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, and coincides with the anniversary of the November 5th plot in 1605. The team believes the 5,500lb of gunpowder would have caused immense damage to central London and walls and roofs would have collapsed hundreds of feet away from the epicentre of the blast, in a cellar under Westminster Hall. Researcher Geraint Thomas stated: “We can use the weight of explosives to work out how it will affect its surroundings… If Guy Fawkes was an expert in explosives and knew what he was doing and had the gunpowder confined in barrels and well packed, it could have been almost as powerful as the equivalent TNT explosion.” The plot was the result of a group of Catholics who wanted to blow up the king at Parliament’s formal opening but they were betrayed and Guy Fawkes was later hanged, drawn and quartered. (Nov 5th)

    editor - 11/4/2003

    from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy Volume 2003, Issue No. 96 November 4, 2003


    Two weeks ago, Congress abruptly terminated the limited public access that had existed for several years to the official database of reports prepared by the Congressional Research Service (Secrecy News, 10/28/03).

    Now, with his trademark resourcefulness and ingenuity, Russ Kick of has given back much of what Congress had taken away.

    Hundreds of recent CRS reports, copied from the now inaccessible database, have been posted here:

    Meanwhile, dozens of public interest groups from around the country are petitioning members of Congress to support continued public access to the CRS database.

    "We urge you to work with CRS to restore at least the same level of access to CRS reports that your web site has provided in the past," the organizations wrote to Rep. Christopher Shays and Rep. Mark Green in a November 3 letter organized by the American Library Association.

    See a copy of the letter here:

    Secrecy News is written by Steven Aftergood and published by the Federation of American Scientists.

    To SUBSCRIBE to Secrecy News, send email to
    with "subscribe" in the body of the message.

    To UNSUBSCRIBE, send a blank email message to

    OR email your request to

    Secrecy News is archived at:

    Steven Aftergood
    Project on Government Secrecy
    Federation of American Scientists
    voice: (202) 454-4691

    Kelly - 11/4/2003

    nanking was bad...that was a really bad time in our history!!!

    John Matzko - 11/1/2003

    Only one date mentioned--and it's wrong.

    P.N.Hellmann - 11/1/2003

    Can't you make it plain and simple • K.I.S.S.

    Jim Williams - 10/31/2003

    Isn't the correct name Atlantis?

    Patrick Casey - 10/31/2003

    Indeed Mark Lane's 'Rush to Judgement' was instrumental in building public distrust of the lone gunman thesis -- although it was first published in 1966, not 1980. Lane's work is more a defense brief against the Warren Commission than a scholarly dissent. Evidence of Lane's persuasive abilities is eveywhere -- just look at how many of his interpretations, accurate or otherwise, have become part of the conventional wisdom about the assassination.

    For more sophisticated, nuanced critiques of the Warren Report check out Edward J. Epstein's 'Inquest' (1966) or Josiah Thompson's 'Six Seconds in Dallas' (1967) -- both works are products of the corporate media culture, by the way. Also well-argued are the works of Carl Ogelsby ('The Yankee and Cowboy War' and 'Who Killed JFK?').

    Publications supporting the Warren Report are sparse compared to the critiques, but David Belin's 'Nov. 22: You Are the Jury' (1968) is worth a look, as is Gerald Posner's 'Case Closed' (1993).

    One last thing -- if a person really wants to study the JFK assassination, it's worthwhile to have a look at the Warren Report itself -- I've often wondered how many folks who disbelieve this document have actually read any part of it.

    editor - 10/31/2003

    Ottawa Citizen
    October 26, 2003 Sunday Final Edition
    SECTION: News; Pg. A5
    HEADLINE: Canadians split on nation's origins: Confederation tops survey as our most defining moment, but most youth, French disagree
    SOURCE: The Ottawa Citizen
    BYLINE: Joe Paraskevas

    More than half of Canadians younger than 30 believe our country's origins lie in the European settlement of New France, or the migration of aboriginal people to North America, rather than subscribe to the traditional view that Canada began with Confederation in 1867, according to a new study.

    That finding and others, from a poll commissioned by the Association for Canadian Studies, a Montreal-based think-tank, underline how Canadians' understanding of the events that have shaped their country are changing, said the association's executive director.

    "It's moving away from the political development of Canada's origins, something earlier generations would have been drawn towards, versus the founding origins being associated with exploration or discovery or roots," said Jack Jedwab. "The political events (surrounding Canada's origins) have become de-emphasized in the 1990s."

    And just as they differ on how the country started, young and old Canadians might argue over its development, the study suggested.

    Many young people see the story of Canada as one of an increasingly multicultural society, whereas their elders point to the establishment of the social safety net or the search for balance between French and English cultures as developments that have come to epitomize the country.

    "Younger people are looking at our growing diversity," Mr. Jedwab said. "They're making the connection (between) history and what's going on today."

    The study also showed that opinions about the most significant event in Canadian history vary considerably but that English- and French-speaking Canadians place different emphasis on the importance of two of the country's earliest defining moments: Confederation, and the defeat of the French by the English at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759.

    For the study, Environics Research polled 2,002 adults on Canada's beginnings and the events that have come to define the country. The results are accurate to within 3.5 percentage points, 19 times out of 20.

    The events around Confederation were by far the most representative of the origin of Canada, researchers found. Forty-four per cent of all survey respondents said the conferences that led to the drafting of the British North America Act best represent this country's formation. Among respondents 60 and older, the attachment to Confederation was shared by 50 per cent of respondents.

    But only 36 per cent of respondents aged 18 to 29 chose Confederation as Canada's starting point. Twenty-nine per cent said a better example would be the European settlement of New France and 22 per cent said it was the migration of aboriginal people to North America.

    Young and old diverged even more when asked to name a trend or series of events that defined Canada's development.

    Thirty-nine per cent of survey respondents 18 to 29 years old said the growth of multiculturalism best described Canada's story. But just 17 per cent

    of respondents older than 60 agreed. Twenty-five per cent instead preferred the establishment of the social safety net, while 27 per cent suggested it was the relations between French and English cultures.

    Differing views about Canada's founding and development between young and old aren't surprising, said a University of Western Ontario historian, who teaches a survey course spanning 500 years of our history.

    Ruth Compton Brouwer, chairwoman of the history department at the London, Ont., university's King's College, said the flowering of history studies, particularly in the last three decades, has opened students to aspects of Canadian social history, not just the study of what Ms. Compton Brouwer called "big events" such as Confederation.

    "It would be terribly negligent of historians now not to pay more attention than was done in the 1960s, to the history of First Nations, the history of women," Ms. Compton Brouwer said.

    The study also drew distinctions between how English- and French-speaking Canadians see major events in history.. Whereas 22 per cent of English-speaking respondents to the survey listed Confederation as the most significant event in Canadian history, only 10 per cent of French-speaking respondents agreed.

    By comparison, 20 per cent of French-speaking respondents said the French defeat against the English in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759 was Canada's defining event. Only eight per cent of English-speaking respondents agreed.

    Steve Brody - 10/31/2003

    Jim’s comments are not just bitter and distrusting. Many of them are wrong.

    why was the airforce ordered to stand down on 911?… Garbage. The Air Force was up and ready to fire on Flight 93. It crashed before they could intercept.

    why did bush allow saudi royal family members to fly out of the us after 911?… How could he stop them? There was no proof then that they did anything wrong and there is no proof now.

    why did he say he saw the first airliner hit the trade center on tv?… Bush never said it. He did say he saw one of the planes hit ( as I did), presumably the second.

    how could he sit in a classroom full of small children for 20 minutes or more after the second airliner hit?… I don’t know how long he stayed in the classroom with the children. If it was 20 minutes, so what.

    why have they tried to cover up the nazi/bush family connections for years? …. oh, brother.

    why does it take a british reporter to uncover the fraud in florida?… What fraud? You mean the Democratic Party election Commissioners who designed the “butterfly ballot”? Florida was well reported in the US media.

    why is it ok for an election to be stolen anyway? … The Florida media conducted a full recount. Under every likely recount scenario Bush won in Florida.

    the last time we had an unelected president and vice president in the whitehouse the same people were working for that administration that are working for this unelected administration…. ??????

    Jim is a man in serious need of some facts.

    Richard, your right. There are dozens of theories and most of them are mutually exclusive. That means if any one of them are correct, then all the others are wrong. So, take your pick. Better yet, read Case Closed by Posner. Lee Harvey Oswald as the loan gunman still makes the most sense.

    editor - 10/30/2003


    The BBC and US broadcaster HBO have announced that they are to co-produce a new 12-hour series on the history of Rome. The series, which will utilise the latest computer-generated imagery technology, will cost £600,000 per episode and cover the period from the conquest of Gaul to the assassination of Julius Caesar in 55 BC. (October 27th)

    Editor - 10/30/2003


    Search for Lost City of Atlanta to be launched

    Plans for an expedition to the Straits of Gibraltar in search of the fabled lost city of Atlanta will be unveiled at the Royal Geographical Society next month. Professor Jacques Collina-Girard, Paul-Henri Nargeolet and George Tullcoch will set off next summer to explore a location about 20 miles south of Tarifa, Spain, and 12 miles north west of Tangier. Using a subermersible capable of diving 3,200ft, the team will search for signs of temples, buildings and prehistoric artefacts. The choice of location is based on the writings of the Greek philosopher Plato who suggested that the city lay before the Pillars of Hercules – today’s Straits of Gibraltar. (October 27th)

    editor - 10/30/2003


    Auction of historic English documents

    £2m sale to be held at Christie's in December

    An archive of English historical manuscripts, valued at £2million, is to be auctioned in London in December. Christie’s are holding the sale of the collection of art dealer Harry Spiro at the request of his widow, Brigitte. Documents include Henry VIII’s plans to divorce Catherine of Aragon in 1529 while another item valued at £4,000 details Henry VII worrying about covers for his bed with “three quishions of blewe velvet”. A 1567 letter signed by Queen Elizabeth I relating to the country’s public lottery is valued at around £15,000. Another letter estimated at £25,000 involves the granting of a passport for Elizabeth’s ambassador to Scotland, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, who was to travel to Mary Queen of Scots and upset her plans to marry Lord Darnley. Further documents relate to Richard the Lionheart and Winston Churchill amongst many others; Tom Lamb of Christie’s stated: “This is history come alive.” (Oct 24th)

    editor - 10/30/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #42; 30 October 2003) by Bruce Craig (editor) <; Shannon Parsley (contributor) National Coalition for History (NCH) Website *****************

    1. Senate Acts on National Archives Budget 2. UNESCO Funding in Trouble 3. Public Interest Declassification Board -- An Update 4. Historians to Protest Enola Gay Exhibit 5. Legislative Update: Bills Passed ("Graduate Opportunities in Higher Education Act of 2003"); Bills Introduced (Presidential Sites Improvement Act) 6. Bits and Bytes: Battlefield Protection Grants; Editorial Position Available 7. Articles of Interest: "You Are There" (National Public Radio's "All Things Considered" 27 October 2003)

    1. SENATE ACTS ON NATIONAL ARCHIVES BUDGET On 23 October 2003, by a vote of 91-3, the Senate approved its version of the Transportation, Treasury, and Independent Agencies appropriations bill (H.R. 2989) that includes funding for the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). As expected, the Senate approved the Senate Subcommittee on Transportation, Treasury and General Government recommendation of zero funding for the Electronic Records Archives (ERA) and only $5 million for the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). The measure now will go to conference where House and Senate managers will decide the future of the ERA and the FY 2004 funding level for the NHPRC.

    As previously reported ("Historians, Archivists, and Librarians Join Hands to Advocate for FY-2004 National Archives Budget" NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE, Vol. 9. #40; 16 October 2003) history and archive supporters have been contacting members of Congress in an effort to see that funding for the ERA is restored and to increase funding levels for the NHPRC.

    In acting on the Transportation/Treasury bill the Senate also voted itself a pay raise to an average annual salary of $158,000 -- an increase of about 2.2 percent. Senate Appropriations Chair Ted Stevens (R-AK) stated that it was a mistake to call it a pay raise, rather it was a cost-of-living increase. The Senate passed measure also provides for a 4.1 percent raise for Federal civilian employees.

    In considering the bill, the Senate narrowly defeated (48 to 47) an amendment sponsored by Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) to rescind newly revised Office of Management and Budget (OMB) regulations (A-76 Circular) relating to competitive outsourcing of federal jobs. Earlier, the House passed language similar to Mikulski's that addressed the competitive outsourcing issue. Hill insiders expect that the House-Senate conference will have to address the contentious issue in their report.

    2. UNESCO FUNDING IN TROUBLE As readers may recall ("US Rejoins UNESCO" NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE, Vol. 9 #38; 1 October 2003) on 1 October 2003, the United States reentered the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) after a nineteen-year absence. UNESCO's mission is to advance human rights and tolerance, improve education, preserve the cultural heritage of all peoples, and facilitate scientific cooperation among nations. Mrs. Laura Bush, traveling in Europe at the time, made the reentry announcement and stated that American participation was expected to add about $60 million to UNESCO's current annual budget of $544 million.

    While the House allocated the funds as requested by the president ($71 million in FY 2004) and funding for UNESCO has the support of several powerful House and Senate members, the Senate Commerce, Justice, State and Judiciary Subcommittee on appropriations zeroed out the UNESCO payment from the State department's FY 2004 budget. This means that unless funding is restored, the U.S. will be in immediate arrears.

    The NCH has learned that Senator Judd Gregg (R-NH), chair of the Senate committee of jurisdiction, was "personally" responsible for deleting the entire budget amount requested by the president. Gregg has several reasons for not wanting the U.S. to reenter UNESCO. First, it is not a well-known let alone a popular agency with the American public; second, the administration made little if any effort to engage Congress in considering whether the U.S. should reenter UNESCO; and third, in the opinion of Gregg, neither UNESCO's policies nor bureaucracy has been sufficiently reformed (i.e. the central issue that led President Reagan to pull U.S. participation in 1984 remains unchanged). In a nutshell, Gregg thinks the U.S. has little to gain by reentering UNESCO at this time.

    Representatives of several national humanities-based organizations concerned about US participation have been meeting in an effort to coordinate a legislative effort to mobilize public support for funding UNESCO at the level requested by the president. On 14 October 2003, the 90-member National Humanities Alliance (NHA) sent a letter to Gregg urging the senator to "take appropriate steps to assure that we pay our share in the revival and reentry [into UNESCO]."

    President Bush made the UNESCO announcement over a year ago when he was trying to build international support for the war on Iraq. Most Hill insiders believe that Bush's announcement was calculated to demonstrate to the international community that his administration realized that military force is not sufficient to win the war against terrorism and that there was a need to address the roots of social ills. According to Bush's critics, the president has not made any substantive effort to uphold his commitment. In a communication with the NCH, spokesperson for Senator Gregg stated that repeated requests have been made of the administration for answers to questions about UNESCO posed by the Senator. According to staff, thus far there has been "no energetic response" [from the State Department] to the Senator's request for information.

    While the State Department (and hence the administration) is officially on record supporting the funding request, exactly where the White House stands on the funding issue remains something of a mystery. On one hand the White House budget request is for $71 million (actually closer to $85 million when the devalued American dollar is taken into account) and Mrs. Bush, reportedly, continues to have a personal interest in the issue. Yet, sources close to the Senate committee of jurisdiction report that the zeroing out was done with the knowledge of the White House. White House press spokespersons declined to comment when contacted by the NCH for a clarification statement.

    Former U.S. Senator Tim Wirth, president of the UN Foundation/Better World Fund is leading the effort to see to it that the Senate allocates funds. If the United States "is to triumph against global terrorism," says Wirth, "the U.S. must prevail in the war of ideals...It's time for Congress to honor Bush's commitment."

    Persons interested in communicating their views on this issue may wish to contact Senator Gregg's office at (202) 224-3324 or by e-mail at: < In the House, Congressman Frank R. Wolf (R-VA) is the chair of the House subcommittee of jurisdiction, and, reportedly, supports the president's funding proposal. Wolf may be contacted at: (202) 225-5136 or via e-mail through a link at the Congressman's website at: <;. As always, members of Congress are especially interested in hearing the views of constituents.

    3. PUBLIC INTEREST DECLASSIFICATION BOARD -- AN UPDATE This last week, word filtered down from informed sources on Capitol Hill that the White House is finally considering making appointments to the Public Interest Declassification Board (PIDB). The so-called "Moynihan Board" was established by law in the 2001 Intelligence Authorization Act but members have never been named. The viability of the move to make the appointments apparently depends on statements of interest from the Congressional leadership.

    The PIDB was the brainchild of the late Senator Patrick D. Moynihan (D-NY) who during his years in the Senate spearheaded efforts for greater government openness. According to Steven Aftergood of the Federation of American Scientists's Project on Government Secrecy, the PIDB "is practically the only surviving remnant of the secrecy reform agenda proposed by his 1997 Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy." The law provides for the appointment of a nine-member board (five members are to be appointed by the president with the remaining four named by the majority and minority leaders of the House and Senate). PIDB is charged to "advise the President...and other executive branch officials...on the systematic [declassification]... of records of archival value... including records and materials of extraordinary public interest."

    According to Aftergood, the PIDB concept did not generate great enthusiasm among declassification advocates because it was to be purely advisory and without independent authority to compel declassification. However, supporters, including several members of the NCH, contend that it still could provide a valuable official venue for debate and deliberation on declassification policy.

    The NCH and representatives of several other organizations that have been meeting with White House officials on a periodic basis for over a year have been urging officials to move forward with the appointments. Letters urging the appointment have also been sent to Administration officials from the State Department's Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation.

    ACTION ITEM! It now appears that organizational and constituent communications with Congressional leadership, each of whom is entitled to appoint one member to the PIDB, is needed. They include: Majority Leader Bill Frist (R-TN; website at: <;) and Minority Leader Thomas Daschle (D-SD; website at: <";) in the Senate; and Majority Leader Dennis Hastert (R-IL; webpage at: <;) and Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA; webpage at: http://www.//;) in the House. Also, communications with Rep. Porter Goss (R-FL; website at:, who chairs the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and played a key role in advancing the Moynihan amendment when Congress attached the provision to the 2001 Intelligence Authorization Act, are in order.

    In communications, emphasize the importance of appointing members to the declassification board. Suggest that Members communicate their interest in the board with other Members; and suggest the Members urge the White House to move forward with appointments to the board consistent with the Act.

    Persons making calls to member offices should be familiar with the key provisions of the enabling legislation. The functions and authorities of the PIDB are spelled out in Title VII of the 2001 Intelligence Authorization Act. For the Act tap into: <;.

    4. HISTORIANS TO PROTEST ENOLA GAY EXHIBIT In recognition of the 100th anniversary of the first powered flight, in December the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM) will open its new facility, the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center at Washington Dulles International Airport. Over 200 aircraft and 135 space artifacts will be displayed. The centerpiece of the new exhibit will be the Enola Gay -- the B-29 super-fortress that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Fully restored, the Enola Gay will be displayed as a "magnificent technological achievement." Some scholars contend that, given its role in the 6 August 1945 attack, the B-29 has gained notoriety and has a symbolic meaning that extends beyond its significance as an example of the technological advances in aviation in the 1940s.

    A coalition of scholars, religious leaders, veterans, scientists, and citizen activists plan to protest the exhibit in its current form. They claim that it lacks historical context and fails to address the controversy surrounding the bombings or information on casualties. Arguing that the "celebratory nature of the exhibit gives legitimacy to the 1945 bombing," the coalition joins other groups that have already objected to the exhibit. According to Peter Kuznick, professor of history and director of the Nuclear Studies Institute at American University, who drafted the committee's statement, "We are not opposed to exhibiting the Enola Gay...we welcome any exhibition that will spur an honest and balanced discussion of the atomic bombings in 1945 and of current U.S. nuclear policy."

    The coalition, called the "Committee for a National Discussion of Nuclear History and Current Policy," has issued a statement of principles to which several prominent historians have already added their signatures of endorsement. Those interested in this issue, tap into: <;.

    5. LEGISLATIVE UPDATE: BILLS PASSED/BILLS INTRODUCED "Graduate Opportunities in Higher Education Act of 2003": On 21 October 2003, Rep. Peter Hoeskstra's (R-MI) legislation (H.R. 3076) that amends title VII of the Higher Education Act of 1965 to ensure graduate opportunities in post-secondary education, passed the House. Section 5 of the measure authorizes $10 million for the "establishment of academic programs including graduate and undergraduate courses, seminars and lectures, support of research, and development of teaching materials for the purpose of supporting faculty and academic programs that teach traditional American history." The measure has been referred to the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions for consideration.

    Presidential Sites Improvement Act: On 16 October 2003, Senator Mike DeWine (R-OH) introduced legislation (S. 1748) to establish a program to award grants to improve and maintain sites honoring Presidents of the United States. The bill creates a grants commission that would award up to $5 million a year in support of "major maintenance and improvement projects at Presidential sites to owners or operators of Presidential sites." Such capital improvements include new construction, installation of heating and air conditions systems, interpretive exhibits, and improvements. The measure was referred to the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee for consideration.

    6. BITS AND BYTES Item #1 -- Battlefield Protection Grants The American Battlefield Protection Program (ABPP) of the National Park Service invites Federal agencies, tribal, state, and local governments, educational institutions, and nonprofit historical preservation and other private sector organizations to submit applications for grants. The purpose of this grant program is to provide seed money for projects that lead directly to the identification, preservation and interpretation of battlefield land and/or associated properties. In recent years grants have averaged about $25,000 per award. Applications must be received in the ABPP office by 9 January 2004. For additional information, visit the ABPP website at: for details, or contact Kristen Stevens, grants manager, at (202) 354-2037, or by e-mail at: <

    Item #2 -- Editorial Position Available: National Coalition for History member organization The American Society for Environmental History and the Forest History Society have launched a search for an editor of the quarterly journal, ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY, to replace Adam Rome in 2006. For information on the position, tap into: <;.

    7. ARTICLES OF INTEREST One posting this week -- not a print article but an audio feature: In a 27 October story on National Public Radio's "All Things Considered" commentator Walter Cronkite discussed his involvement in "You Are There," a history-based program that he hosted in the 1950s. In the broadcast Cronkite states that not only did the program teach history, but it had a secrete history of its own: All the writers were on the McCarthy-ear blacklist. Tap into: <;. You'll need an audio player to hear it, and you can find the right one for your computer at: <;. If you have any problems, please visit the NPR audio help page at: <;.

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    Richard Dyke - 10/29/2003

    "Jim's" remarks sound somewhat bitter and distrusting, and the Kennedy assassination does in fact mark a turning point in people's trust in the government. It will be interesting to see what ABC has to say, specifically whether they may be marketing a one-hour production that provides some new perspectives but does not necessarily answer the ultimate questions. Most authors have seen fit to give full book-length treatment to this subject, beginning with Mark Lane's RUSH TO JUDGMENT in 1980. There are now perhaps five dozen or so books with perspectives and theories to offer. Questions abound. It would probably have been easier to swallow that Oswald was a lone killer if he had not died so soon afterward. If Jack Ruby killed him only out of love for Kennedy, then he did a great disservice to the country and to history. And if others had not killed Bobby Kennedy, perhaps "conspiracy" would not have been so uppermost in people's minds, let alone the assassination of Martin Luther King in April 1968, just about two months before Bobby Kennedy was gunned down. To be convincing, ABC News will have to deal with the documentary evidence as well as new computer-assisted visual aids. Again, it will be interesting and even provocative to see. Anyone who has read some of the books on the assassination will be harder to convince than the new generations born after Kennedy was killed. I think it is too late for a "smoking gun." (Speaking of guns, I remember authors questioning Oswald's weapon, which had apparently not been fired ---or tested?)

    jim - 10/29/2003

    enough is known, enough lies have been told, and enough propaganda spread by the corporate media that we would have to be idiots to buy into this crap. when they start asking tough questions of the government and exposing the obvious double speak and misinformation we are being fed then they may be able to regain some credibility. why was the airforce ordered to stand down on 911? why did bush allow saudi royal family members to fly out of the us after 911? why did he say he saw the first airliner hit the trade center on tv? how could he sit in a classroom full of small children for 20 minutes or more after the second airliner hit? why have they tried to cover up the nazi/bush family connections for years? why does it take a british reporter to uncover the fraud in florida? why is it ok for an election to be stolen anyway? the last time we had an unelected president and vice president in the whitehouse the same people were working for that administration that are working for this unelected administration. Why? yeah, sure, i believe their made up oswald propaganda too. give me a break.

    editor - 10/29/2003

    The Gazette (Montreal, Quebec)
    October 29, 2003 Wednesday Final Edition
    SECTION: News; Pg. A23
    HEADLINE: Missing Rubens found: Tarquin and Lucretia lost since Second World War
    SOURCE: Chicago Tribune
    The e-mail came to the German historical foundation in the usual way, mixed in among the thank-you notes from tourists, requests for museum information and banal spam promising remarkable offers. Only this offer truly was one of a kind.

    When a specialist at the Prussian Palace and Gardens Foundation opened the e-mail's photo attachment, he sat stunned as a battered 17th century masterpiece materialized before his eyes, a Peter Paul Rubens painting that had been missing since the Second World War and feared destroyed amid the pillage and plunder of a collapsing Nazi Germany.

    The painting, "Tarquin and Lucretia," was in private hands. And the e-mail's author wanted to know: Would the German foundation like it back?

    So began a murky, meandering recovery process involving Potsdam art historians, a Moscow businessperson, Swiss bankers, German police, the Kremlin, Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder's office, Russian federal agents and a few other characters who may or may not be adding their own fanciful brush strokes to the tale.

    Russian authorities recovered the painting but have not returned it to Germany, at least not yet. No money has changed hands, nor has anyone been arrested. The Germans are pleased with the way things have gone, at least so far.

    But Russia and Germany have squabbled for decades over so-called trophy art, the treasures taken by enemy forces in Russia and Germany during the Second World War. And there are rumblings the Rubens work, which Germany's Ministry of Culture considers the most important and valuable piece of trophy art ever, might not be heading back west any time soon.

    Tarquin and Lucretia is a seminal Rubens painting. The Flemish master completed it around 1611, during the period that would make him famous but before financial success allowed him to expand his studio and hire more apprentices. Unlike many of his later works, Rubens painted all of Tarquin and Lucretia himself, said Hartmut Dorgerloh, general-director of the Prussian Palace and Gardens Foundation of Berlin-Brandenburg.

    "When we got the e-mail, it came as a big surprise because we had no idea that the painting still existed," Dorgerloh said. "Our first answer was that we were really, really interested."

    Dorgerloh's agency gets several feelers a year from people who want to return items taken from one of the 27 palace buildings the foundation maintains. Usually the pieces are small, a bust or a piece of furniture, a chandelier, maybe part of the molding from a fireplace. The foundation compensates the people with a few hundred euros.

    Tarquin and Lucretia might be worth as much as $90 million.

    "It was clear from the beginning that this was of a different dimension," said Dorgerloh, who has a keen appreciation of understatement.

    Dorgerloh alerted higher-ups and followed up on the e-mail. He dispatched a pair of experts to Moscow, where they were met at the airport, brought to a private apartment and shown the work.

    The painting had been abused. Cut from its frame, apparently by a Red Army officer, the canvas had been folded small enough to fit in a suitcase and be carted to the Soviet Union. Kicked around over the years, it had lost colour and vibrancy, and Lucretia's face, as she looks with fear upon a predatory Tarquin, has been so scratched up that her lips have disappeared.

    The curators took notes. They made photographs. Then they flew back to Germany and reported to Dorgerloh: "So, it is our painting."

    This is the German view. Vladimir Logvinenko has a different one.

    Logvinenko, who started all this with the e-mail and a desire to be compensated 25 per cent of the painting's value through his Swiss bank, says he acquired the work on the open market and is its rightful owner. He said he now wants the painting to stay in Russia.

    Exactly how Logvinenko, a real estate businessperson, procured the painting he does not make clear. But he said he bought it legitimately and had gone to the Russian Ministry of Culture before approaching the Germans to find out whether the work was registered as trophy art. The painting was not on the official list.

    editor - 10/29/2003

    October 29, 2003, Wednesday
    SECTION: Pg. 14
    HEADLINE: Children killed in Nazi clinic laid to rest
    BYLINE: By Kate Connolly in Gordon
    THE remains of three children were laid to rest yesterday more than six decades after their deaths at the hands of Nazi euthanasia doctors.

    The youngsters, identified only as brothers Herbert and Gunther K, one and three years old, and their seven-year-old cousin Alfred K, were murdered on the orders of Nazi doctors.

    But the only remains of the boys, classified as "high-class idiots" by doctors, were their brains, which for years passed through the hands of neurologists in Germany and Austria before their discovery in preparations of formaline and paraffin in the basement of a Viennese psychiatric clinic two years ago.

    Slim wooden urns were lowered into a tiny grave plot layered with pine branches in Gordon, near Brandenburg, eastern Germany, at a burial ceremony in the grounds of the clinic where the children died.

    The funeral, attended by school children and local dignitaries took place 63 years to the day that 59 children from the same clinic were gassed to death in the local prison.

    All the clinic's children had "died before they had had a chance to live", said a pastor who was presiding at the burial.

    Most were sent to the clinic to be used in experiments.

    It is believed that some 1,700 children were murdered at Gordon as part of the Nazi euthanasia programme, which killed around 70,000 children with mental or physical handicaps.

    The boys' family name was concealed to protect the identity of the mother of Herbert and Gunther, who still lives in northern Germany.

    The brothers' sister told historians who contacted her that she wished to spare her mother "the pain of knowing the truth of what happened to her sons".

    Kristina Hubener, a historian who researched the fate, of the "K boys" said yesterday: "We'd like to think that we can now draw a line under this chapter, but there's no knowing what specimens might still be out there."

    editor - 10/28/2003


    ABC News Declares Oswald Acted Alone


    NEW YORK - ABC News has conducted an exhaustive investigation of the Kennedy assassination, complete with a computer-generated reconstruction, which irrefutably confirms that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone, the network said Monday.

    A two-hour special on the event is scheduled to air Nov. 20, two days before the 40th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's killing.

    "It leaves no room for doubt," said Tom Yellin, executive producer of the special, narrated by Peter Jennings. He called the results of the ABC's study "enormously powerful. It's irrefutable."

    The conclusion that Oswald alone shot Kennedy during a motorcade in Dallas mirrors that of the Warren Commission, the official government inquiry into the assassination. Even today, public opinion surveys find that less than half of Americans believe there was more than one shooter, said Gary Mack, curator of the Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza in Dallas.

    But that reservoir of doubt, largely fed by government secrecy and Oliver Stone's movie on the assassination, is important to address, Yellin said.

    ABC News worked with an expert who created a computer-generated reconstruction of the shooting based on maps, blueprints, physical measurements, more than 500 photographs, films and autopsy reports, ABC said.

    It enables a person to view the scene from any number of perspectives, including what Oswald saw from the sixth floor of the former Texas school book depository, Yellin said.

    "When you do that, it's chillingly clear what happened," Yellin said. He dismisses theories that there was another gunman. Through interviews and other documentation, ABC News also concludes that Jack Ruby, who later killed Oswald, acted simply out of his love for Kennedy.

    The computer-generated technology, only available for the past few years, is now frequently used in criminal investigations, Yellin said.

    While Stone's movie raised doubt in many people's minds about the Warren Commission, it also led to the release of many government documents that had previously been kept hidden and fueled conspiracy theorists, Yellin said.

    None of the documents offer significant evidence refuting the conclusion that Oswald acted alone, Yellin said.

    Still, much of Americans' cynicism about their government can be traced to Nov. 22, 1963, making further investigation important even 40 years later, he said.

    "I think it's very hard for people to accept the fact that the most powerful man in the world can be murdered by a disaffected person whose life had been a series of failures up to that point," Yellin said.

    It's hardly foreign territory for news organizations. CBS News, in fact, has done six separate specials on the assassination, including a two-hour, "CBS Reports: Who Killed JFK, the Final Chapter," that was broadcast 10 years ago. That investigation also concluded that Oswald acted alone.

    Both Yellin and Mack admit that no matter what evidence ABC News lays out, it's not likely to quiet people who believe otherwise.

    "The history of this subject is pretty clear," Mack said. "No matter what information comes out, people are going to believe what they want."

    editor - 10/28/2003


    National Women's History Museum:

    On 16 October 2003, Senator Susan Collins (R-ME), along with 17 co-sponsors, introduced the "National Women's History Museum Act of 2003" (S. 1741), legislation designed to establish a museum and research institution in the District of Columbia "to research and present historic contributions that women have made to all aspects of human endeavor." The legislation states that the museum would be located adjacent to the Old Post Office Building at 11th and Pennsylvania Avenue NW. The bill was referred to the Committee on Governmental Affairs.

    editor - 10/28/2003

    SECRECY NEWS from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy Volume 2003, Issue No. 94 October 29, 2003


    The White House yesterday modified the list of directories on its web site that are off limits to search engines (SN, 10/28/03). As a result, external search engines now have full access to the contents of the site. (Numerous duplicate pages remain blocked, as do various non-existent directories.) For further updated information, see:

    The example of a blocked page that was given in Secrecy News yesterday was incorrect. The cited page was in fact accessible through external search engines. The error was noted here:

    SECRECY NEWS from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy Volume 2003, Issue No. 93 October 28, 2003


    The White House is bl

    Editor of HNN - 10/27/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #41; 24 October 2003)
    by Bruce Craig (editor) or the American
    Historical Association website at:
    . For oral history evaluation
    guidelines issued by the Oral History Association, tap into:

    The Nixon Library and Birthplace Foundation, with the concurrence of the
    Nixon family, is exploring the possibility of bringing the privately funded
    library into the presidential library system with the goal of consolidating
    all the records of the Nixon administration at the Yorba Linda based
    facility. To advance this objective the Foundation has hired the lobbying
    firm Cassidy & Associates, considered by some Washington insiders to be an
    influential and well-connected firm. Former President Gerald Ford has also
    been enlisted to assist in the effort.

    The Nixon Library and Birthplace Foundation retains the former president's
    pre- and post- White House records but not the seized records (tapes and
    papers) for which the government paid $18 million to the Nixon family in
    2000 after 20 years of litigation following the Watergate scandal. The
    balance of the Nixon collection that is currently retained by the National
    Archives and Records Administration (NARA) includes some 46 million pages,
    4,000 video tapes, more than 4,469 official White House sound recordings,
    and 950 "surreptitiously recorded" tapes. Spokespersons for Cassidy state
    that under the library's plan, preservation and access to the records would
    continue to be managed by NARA but that "it's in the everyone's interest to
    get all the records in one place, in the hands of the archivist [of the
    United States]."

    In order to transfer the records there are several obstacles that the
    foundation would have to (or have Members of Congress) address. First,
    under current law, the foundation would have to construct an archival
    repository facility that meets NARA archival standards. Second, the
    existing law guiding the care and management of the Nixon papers mandates
    that the records be retained in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area; that
    provision of law would have to be amended. Other issues that would also
    have to be addressed include allocating appropriations to effectuate the
    move, and providing the ongoing operating funds to staff and run the
    facility. In addition, a host of personnel-staffing related issues would
    have to be dealt with.

    Archivist of the United States John Carlin has publicly stated that NARA's
    top priority relating to the Nixon Papers is "processing the tapes and
    records and making them available to the public as fast as
    possible." Should the Nixon library plan move forward, the impact that the
    move and any potential legislation would have on records access likely to
    be a high concern to the historical/archival community. In addition,
    should the museum be integrated into the Library system, questions relating
    to what some historians refer to as the "one-sided" interpretive
    presentation of the Nixon story at the private museum. In particular,
    exhibits relating to the Watergate episode would have to be addressed.

    NCH contacts in the House report that the lobbying firm has already started
    to meet with members of Congress and their staff, including some members of
    the authorizing and appropriating committees that have jurisdiction over
    NARA activities. The National Coalition for History has requested a
    meeting with Cassidy and Associates to discuss the library's plans.

    Title VI of the Higher Education Act:
    On 21 October 2003 the House of Representatives passed Representative Peter
    Hoekstra's (R-MI) legislation, "The International Studies in Higher
    Education Act" (H.R. 3077), a bill that re-authorizes Title VI of the
    Higher Education Act of 1965 to enhance international studies. The
    legislation includes a provision to establish an international higher
    education advisory committee that according to Amy Newhall, Executive
    Director of the Middle Eastern Studies Association, targets Middle eastern
    studies programs and makes the board "an investigative body rather than an
    advisory group." According to Newhall, the measure "will establish a
    precedent for future legislation directed at any field, discipline, or
    professional school in any and all universities." John Hammer of the
    National Humanities Alliance states that this advisory committee "would
    have vastly more power than any other Department of Education advisory
    committee and its activities could be both political and
    intimidating." Humanities organizations are coordinating efforts to
    address this issue. Parallel legislation is expected to be addressed by
    the Senate early next year.

    California Missions Preservation Act:
    On 20 October 2003, by unanimous voice vote, the House of Representatives
    approved the California Missions Preservation Act (H.R. 1446), legislation
    designed to support the efforts of the California Missions Foundation to
    restore and repair California Spanish colonial-era missions, including
    their artworks and artifacts. The legislation authorizes a federal match
    of $10 million for various historic preservation projects. The measure has
    been sent to the Senate where companion legislation (S. 1306) has been
    introduced; the House bill is now pending action on the Senate Legislative

    National Women's History Museum:
    On 16 October 2003, Senator Susan Collins (R-ME), along with 17
    co-sponsors, introduced the "National Women's History Museum Act of 2003"
    (S. 1741), legislation designed to establish a museum and research
    institution in the District of Columbia "to research and present historic
    contributions that women have made to all aspects of human endeavor." The
    legislation states that the museum would be located adjacent to the Old
    Post Office Building at 11th and Pennsylvania Avenue NW. The bill was
    referred to the Committee on Governmental Affairs.

    National Museum of the American Latino:
    On 15 October 2003, Representative Xavier Becerra (D-CA) together with 28
    co-sponsors, introduced the "Commission to Establish the National Museum of
    the American Latino Act of 2003" (H.R. 3292), legislation to establish a
    23-member commission that would develop a plan of action for the creation
    of a national museum focusing on the history and contribution of the Latino
    population in the United States. Included on the commission would be an
    individual with "experience in the study and teaching of Latino culture and
    history at the post-secondary level." The bill was referred to the House
    Resources Committee for consideration.

    Item #1-- Digital Promise Initiative Report: On 23 October 2003, in
    response to legislation (P.L. 108-7) mandating a report to Congress
    creating the Digital Opportunity Investment Trust (DO IT), a proposal to
    transform learning and training for the 21 century has been released. The
    report provides a recommended structure and governance for DO IT, a
    detailed rationale for the initiative, and a roadmap for research and
    development. The initiative is spearheaded by Newton Minow, the former
    chair of the FCC, and Lawrence Grossman, the former President of NBC News
    and PBS. Their goal is the establishment of a new trust funded by the sale
    of broadcast spectrum that would generate up to $1 billion a year for
    digital education. The report represents thousands of hours of effort by
    some of America's best minds, celebrated scientists and experts who
    prepared the report. For the report, tap into:
    . For the newsletter that announces the
    availability of the report, tap into:

    Item #2 -- Ten Most Wanted List: In an effort to fight increased
    government secrecy, OMB Watch in concert with several other groups is
    calling for input from various disciplines for the for the "Ten Most Wanted
    Project 2004" list. OMB Watch is seeking to identify the ten or twenty
    government documents (or categories of documents) of 2003 that researchers
    would most like to see the government make available to the public. An
    example would be the 28 pages kept classified from the report by Congress
    on the September 11 attacks, or taxpayer-funded Congressional Research
    Service reports available to the public only through members of
    Congress. The organization will cull through the ideas submitted, make a
    list of the 20 or so best suggestions, and then ask the public to vote on
    which documents the public most wants the government to make
    available. The Ten Most Wanted Project 2004 is being prepared by OMB Watch
    and the Center for Democracy and Technology for is a new coalition of over 30
    organizations created to fight increased secrecy and promote open
    government. The Center for Democracy and Technology (
    works to promote democratic values and civil liberties in the digital
    age. OMB Watch ( advances social justice,
    government accountability and citizen participation in federal policy
    decisions. Please submit your nominations via email to:
    by 31 October 2003.

    Two postings this week: In "Historic Battles" (Christian Science Monitor;
    21 October 2003), staff writer April Austin focuses on the "conflict"
    between the disciplines of history and social studies. Tap into:

    In relation to this week's story on oral history and IRBs, in "Can E.T.
    Phone Home?: The Brave New World of University Surveillance" (Academe; 895,
    September-October 2003) author Cary Nelson looks into the role of
    Institutional Review Boards, efforts to broaden their purview, and the
    consequences for various disciplines. Tap into:

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE
    weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH
    Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others
    who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of
    these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
    at: .

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH
    firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at: and at the "network" prompt,
    scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    editor - 10/27/2003

    Following is an excerpt from an article by Felicia R. Lee that appeared in the NYT on Oct. 4, 2003. Accompanying the article were the pictures of several celebrities including Doris Kearns Goodwin, who was identified as follows: "Doris Kearns Goodwin, who admitted copying passages for a 1987 book."

    L. Dennis Kozlowski, the former chairman of Tyco International, is on trial, accused of looting his company and investors of $600 million. Schoolchildren are pirating music and films online. Renowned historians like Doris Kearns Goodwin and Stephen Ambrose have plagiarized colleagues' work.
    ''You have almost an acceptance that humankind cannot resist the pressure to cheat, whether it's Sammy Sosa in a slump or Kobe Bryant cheating on his wife,'' said Michael Josephson, president of the Josephson Institute of Ethics, a nonprofit organization in Los Angeles that works with schools and businesses to advocate ethical behavior.

    Mr. Josephson is among many Americans who have heard about Mr. Kozlowski's trial and the corked bat used by the Chicago Cubs slugger Sammy Sosa and may believe that America is in the midst of a new cheating epidemic. It is nearly impossible to turn on television or pick up a newspaper or magazine without hearing someone lament the current decline in morals. But is there any hard evidence that more people are more dishonest now than in the past?

    For the most part, no. A number of historians and ethicists say there is simply not enough data on cheating to draw conclusions; nor is there any way to make empirical comparisons about cheating over time. Rules, laws and mores constantly change in areas like finance, professional sports and politics.

    The Securities and Exchange Commission regulations intended to keep accounting honest, for instance, were not created until the 1930's. Random drug tests are relatively new to sports competition. As for sexual mores, surveys are notoriously unreliable and reflect changing moral standards.

    Even David Callahan, a political scientist with a forthcoming book titled ''The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead'' (Harcourt, 2004), concedes that ''by its nature cheating is intended to go undetected, and trends in unethical behavior can be hard to document.''

    If there is one place where the moral flagmen have a case, it is student cheating, because studies have documented its rise in recent years. And there is broad agreement that the Internet has certainly made it much easier to plunder other people's work. Yet even in this area educators, ethicists and lawmakers warn that the Internet has created a murky territory of outdated laws and shifting standards....

    Donald L. McCabe, a professor of management at Rutgers in Newark, has become known as a ''cheating guru'' for his widely reported surveys in the last 10 years of how and why high school and college students cheat. He has also looked at data going back to the 1960's.

    Not only is cheating significantly up since then, Mr. McCabe has found, but many students do not consider it a big deal, saying it was just a modern fact of life. His study this year of 16,000 undergraduates at 23 colleges and universities found that 38 percent had taken material from the Internet and passed it off as their own. Forty-four percent of all the students surveyed said it was no big deal. In a 2000 survey only 10 percent of students admitted to Internet cheating.

    Some ethicists argue that student cheating -- whether using the Internet to plagiarize or finding a rogue way to ace a classroom exam -- is the ''canary in the mine,'' about the extent of wider cheating now and in the future.

    ''There is no question that students point to things in the larger society as rationale and justification for their cheating, whether its Michael Milken, Doris Kearns Goodwin, Bill Clinton or Enron or their parents cheating on taxes,'' Mr. McCabe said.

    Faye Saxon - 10/27/2003

    I want to know the author of "Die CIA und de 11 September".
    Also, is there an english translation?

    editor - 10/22/2003


    I am writing you today to ask for your immediate assistance. As you are perhaps aware, last month the Subcommittee on Transportation, Treasury and General Government of the Senate Appropriations Committee approved the President's budget request for basic operations of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), but zeroed out all funding for the Electronic Records Archive (ERA) and allocated only $5 million for the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). The ERA is the National Archives' strategic response to the challenge of preserving, managing, and providing access to the government's electronic records; the NHPRC is a small agency that works to preserve the nation's documentary heritage.

    This last week, institutional representatives of the National Coalition for History met with congressional staff and discussed the FY 2004 funding needs for NARA. We made some headway, but nevertheless, there still is work that needs to be done if we are to see the NARA funds restored.

    At this time we need to have residents and constituents of Washington Senator Patty Murray contact her office. Please urge that she take action to restore funding for the ERA project and allocate "full-funding" $10 million for the NHPRC.

    Letters and/or e-mail communications should be addressed to: The Honorable Patty Murray, Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Transportation, Treasury and General Government, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate, 144 Dirksen Senate Office Building, Washington D.C. 20510). Please FAX your letter to both her subcommittee office -- (202) 228-0249 and to the Senator's principal constituent office (202) 224-0238. You also may telephone her Washington D.C. office at: 202) 224-2621 or contact that office via e-mail at: <>.

    We really do need to make sure that Senator Murray hears from constituents and Washington based history/archival/library associations.

    Please refer to the information provided below for additional details.

    Thank you in advance for your assistance.

    ************************** BACKGROUND INFORMATION: On 3 September 2003, the Subcommittee on Transportation, Treasury and General Government of the Senate Appropriations Committee approved the President's budget request for basic operations, but zeroed out all funding for the Electronic Records Archive (ERA) and allocated only $5 million for the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). The ERA is the National Archives' strategic response to the challenge of preserving, managing, and providing access to the Government's electronic records; the NHPRC is a small agency that works to preserve the nation's documentary heritage. The Committee did approve funding to purchase land for the new NARA facility in Anchorage, Alaska, and allocated some monies for a rehabilitation of the LBJ Plaza in Texas. Overall, the Senate mark represents a 12% cut in funding from the President's request for NARA.

    The President's FY 2004 request included $35.9 million for ERA project management, research and development. The House set aside $35,914,000 for the ERA as well as full funding -- $10 million -- for the NHPRC. In the Senate, however, following the recent shuffling of appropriations and oversight committees after the Department of Homeland Security was created, responsibility for NARA's budget was transferred to the appropriations committee that funds the Department of Transportation. Consequently, when the subcommittee was looking for an offset to give additional funds to AMTRAK, lawmakers who are more concerned with funding transportation projects than NARA initiatives, focused on the ERA as well as some programs associated with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). While Hill insiders are generally reluctant to predict what will happen with the ERA funding crisis, with the Senate figure of $5 million for the NHPRC, it seems likely that when the conferees meet, they may well split the difference between the two budget recommendations, meaning that the NHPRC may see $7 million in FY 2004.

    The central players in the Senate who can restore the ERA and NHPRC funding will be Senators Richard Shelby (R-AL) and Patty Murray (D-WA), both of whom are expected to serve as conferees when the Senate and House managers meet to reconcile the differences between the two appropriation measures. Constituents of Senator Murray and NARA supporters, such as beneficiaries of NHPRC funding in Washington state, are especially urged to contact their Senator in support of restoration of the ERA program and full-funding for the NHPRC.

    When discussing the ERA, please emphasize that it is not a new program, rather, it has been supported by two Presidents and Congress since 1998; that $36 million has already been invested in the program to date; that this is a critical need due to the volume and rapid obsolescence of electronic records today, let alone the future. Please mention that the access to Archival Databases, which provides Internet access to more than 50 million electronic records and since March has had more than 400,000 users. Finally, you may want to cite a recent National Academy of Science report that concluded that "it is critical to start developing new electronic records preservation capabilities quickly in order to continue to fulfill NARA's mandate to preserve federal records." ____________________________________________________________________________

    The National Coalition for History is a non-profit educational organization comprised of over 60 history and archival organizations. The history coalition advances historical and archival programs in government and throughout the nation. Please contact us at: or by writing to:

    NATIONAL COALITION FOR HISTORY 400 A Street S.E. Washington D.C. 20003 (202) 544-2422 Ext. #116 / (202) 544-8307 (fax) Website: __________________________________________________________________

    HF Hazelbaker - 10/20/2003

    Kind of late with that thread aren't you? You can't create equality and opportunity in one place be denying it elsewhere. If you gut Constitutional protections for some, you threaten them for all. If you rig the game for one group the points scored are questionable. If you fix outcomes you cripple talent. None of this is good in a healthy society.

    And that's all I have to say on this thread--I'm sure we'll meet again.

    HF Hazelbaker - 10/20/2003

    Mr/Ms Ryor has no knowledge of what compunctions/concerns I may have regarding the supensions of profeesors. If there are any instances of socialist/leftist students being supressed or censored by "flag waving" teachers they've been preternaturally quiet about it. However there are numbnerous examples of "burn the flag" professor intimidating, supressing, humiliating and penalizing centrist students who question their use of the classroom as a opportunity to riff on "Nation" editorials.
    Social issues are always discussed in a "critical manner". Mr/Ms Ryor apparently thinks the "crictical manner" consists only of left-over Marxism and the bleatings of the third rate historian/first rate propagandist, Howard Zinn. Any professor who thinks knee-jerk /left wing criticisms are his primary function has betrayed the standards of his profession. Valid criticism must be rational, fact-based and amenable to OPEN discussion--not preconceived conclusions.
    At any rate, I see no reason to continue what I had hoped would be a rational discussion with a rabid, left-wing zealot who, if he/she is on a college faculty illustrates everything that is wrong with higher education today.

    Jeff Finizia - 10/20/2003

    HF Hazelbaker wrote in July:
    We do not have a colorblind society. Those who are white can be excoriated and belittled at will.In the hallowed academe where Third World Marxism reigns, they are charged with all the ills of the world, and in the current growth-indistry "Whiteness Studies" (why aren't Black Studies called "Blackness Studies"?) they can be intimidated into doing the kangaroo court "privilege walk". Our Supreme Court has now decreed--in contravention of the 14th Amendment and the 1964 Civil Rights Act--that whites are no longer guaranteed equal protection under the law.

    I wonder if these folks who mourn the efforts to create equality and give minorities the only breaks in their lives--an education or a job are really concerned about civility or the purging and censoring of courageous professors who dare attack the military.

    W. Ryor - 10/19/2003

    It strikes me as somewhat hypocritical that the Mr or Ms Hazelbakers who claim to be patriots and gravely concerned about the degree of objectivity in the classroom, apparently have no compunction when antiwar professors are suspended. Also, they rarely express alarum whether a prowar professor, a proAmerican professor, a wave the flag professor, might suppress or censor a socialist student or a free thinking student that does not share the professors' ideology.

    Those professors who deal with social issues in a critical manner, are suspect. Those who don't are assumed to be objective and fair. And the body count continues in Iraq; a little incivility and emotion is needed from professors to denounce a nation that educates potential invaders and military arms of the state.

    Have a nice day. Dr Dean will be your president soon.

    HF Hazelbaker - 10/19/2003

    My point was that nowhere in the letter is there any recognition of the professional repsonsibilties of classroom teachers, and their obligation to present their subjects in as dispassionate and accurate way as possible. A simply restatement of that basic principle was certainly fitting in a letter arguing the rights of teachers and would have addressed some of the criticisms currently leveled at college teaching.
    Kirstein could easily have handled the cadet's request civily and professional while making his own disagreements known. If questions have arisen about his judgement and biases in dealing with students--even those 1000 miles away--he brought it on himself.

    W. Ryor - 10/19/2003

    Professors in this country are allowed to have "subjective political perspectives" even when criticizing the military. I also understand that the correspondence was to an e-mail to a cadet 1000s of miles removed from Kirstein's classroom, and was not in a classroom situation. Therefore, to make assumptions about a professor's teaching in an act unrelated to his or her teaching is absurd.

    HF Hazelbaker - 10/18/2003

    The AAUP chapter's statement would be more impressive--and heartening--if it included a recommitment to professional standards of civility , teaching and research. Particularly, it should recommit college teachers to respinding to student inquiries and povs with civility rather than damning them from a subjective political perspective as Kirstein did. It should also have enjoined its members to keep their politics out of the classroom as much as possible. The current spate of charges criticizing American higher education as overtly partisan stem from outbursts such as Kirstein unleashed on the student asking for help on a project.

    Robert Cook - 10/18/2003

    This article from "The Advertiser" needs to be understood within the context of the current, controversial reforms advocated by the Australian Federal Education Minister, Dr. Brendan Nelson.

    Dr. Nelson is proposing sweeping changes to the work rules for staff and faculty at Australia's public institutions of higher learning. In what he call his "industrial agenda", he has linked future funding to the universities to new work rule compliance.

    The most significant feature of his reforms concerns what in America we would call an "open shop"; that is, employment is not restricted to a particular trade union membership; as opposed to a "closed shop" in which employment is restricted to particular trade union membership.

    Dr. Nelson, along with other Australian conservatives, advocates an "open shop".

    Obviously, the heavily unionized workfoce in Australian higher education is resisting such an idea. This week most of the staff and faculties at the 38 Austrailian public colleges went on strike to protest this change in work rules.

    In general, unions favor "closed shops" because it increases their power as a bargaining unit. In general, employers favor an "open shop" because it decreases the power of the bargaining unit.

    This article, provided by the HNN staff, while certainly a feature of the current debat is not so much about "PC" as we understand the term in America, but rather it is about a political ploy with which one side attempts to either gain leverage or with which to obfuscate the core issues of what is otherwise a labor dispute.

    For those looking for a "quick read" on this issue, I suggest using the Australian version of Google News and use the search engine. Nelson's so-called reforms are a hot topic and your search will result in several good articles from Australian news sources.

    Robert Cook

    Editor - 10/17/2003

    October 17, 2003, Friday
    SECTION: Pg. 17
    HEADLINE: Vichy mental patients 'were not murdered'
    BYLINE: By Philip Delves Broughton
    A TWO-YEAR investigation into the deaths of 50,000 mental patients under France's Vichy regime has found they mostly starved to death, rather than being intentionally killed following the Nazi example.

    French historians have argued recently that the Vichy government deliberately created appalling conditions in its asylums as a form of "gentle genocide".

    They supported their arguments with horrific reports written by the doctors working in the asylums during the war, describing patients eating their own hands and books, causing stomach ruptures and death.

    The latest research by a team of academics in Lyons concluded that the malnutrition was similar to that experienced by all of France during the war. They argue that if there had been a secret plan to kill the mentally ill there would have been some record of it. In Germany, the murder of the mentally ill was kept top secret but there are still thousands of documents.

    editor - 10/16/2003

    The Herald (Glasgow)
    October 16, 2003
    SECTION: Pg. 10
    HEADLINE: New find backs Scots claim to evolution idea
    BYLINE: Damien Henderson
    A 200-year-old manuscript held in the National Library of Scotland sheds new light on the origins of Darwin's theory of evolution, it was claimed today.

    James Hutton, a geologist and a prominent figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, formulated a theory of natural selection in 1794 which, it is claimed, prefigures the one set out in The Origin of Species 65 years later.

    A chapter of Hutton's three-volume treatise, The Principles of Knowledge, claims that
    animals and plants pass on hereditary variations which make them more or less able
    to survive in specific environments.

    Historians have known of the existence of the chapter for some time, but the scale of the treatise, which runs to 2250 pages, has prevented a detailed examination of its arguments.

    However, in an article published in Nature today, Professor Paul Pearson, a geologist at Cardiff University, argues that Dr Hutton's theory should be regarded as the first account of natural selection.

    He said: "Hutton argued that, if environmental conditions changed, animals and plants could change to meet them.

    "The mechanism by which they did it was the same as natural selection. He didn't use the term, but the process is the same.

    "In every new generation there are natural variants which Hutton called 'seminal variation' and clearly distinguished from changes in soil and climate.

    "He also said that the changes in plants and animals had no particular direction, which is very much at the heart of what Darwin was saying."

    Theories of selection were commonplace before Charles Darwin wrote his seminal theory of evolution in 1859, but it was his contention that the process occurred naturally and was responsible for the "survival of the fittest" of the species.

    Unlike Darwin, Hutton did not believe that evolution occurred between species - or that mankind evolved from apes - preferring the established theory that each species was created by God.

    Hutton has already earned the reputation as the father of geology for arguing that the earth was much older than the 6000-year history posited in the Bible.

    The theory of "geological time" angered the church

    hierarchy when it was first heard, and went unrecognised until 60 years after his death in 1797.

    Hutton, a farmer who conducted experiments in plant and animal breeding, was a well known-figure in the Scottish Enlightenment whose intellectual circle contained such luminaries as Adam Smith, John Playfair and David Hume.

    It is unlikely that Darwin stole his ideas for the theory of evolution, Professor Pearson argues. But the earlier scientist's ideas were widely circulated in the Edinburgh intellectual hothouse where Darwin initially studied medicine.

    "Darwin attended dinners and clubs in which these ideas would have been discussed. It's possible that something he overheard as a student later resurfaced in his theories," Professor Pearson said.

    editor - 10/16/2003

    Untitled Document NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #40; 16 October 2003) by Bruce Craig (editor) < National Coalition for History (NCH) Website *****************

    1. Historians, Archivists, and Librarians Join Hands To Advocate for FY-2004 National Archives Budget 2. Fighting the Civil War -- Yet Again 3. Legislative Update: Bills Passed; Hearings Held; Bills Introduced 4. Bits and Bytes: Correction -- MacArthur Fellows; NARA Announces Temporary Closing; Energy Task Force Records Dispute -- An Update; Web Site of Interest 5. Articles of Interest: "It's a Grim Picture for Museum Lovers As Entry Fees Climb" (Los Angeles Times; 12 October 2003)

    1. HISTORIANS, ARCHIVISTS, AND LIBRARIANS JOIN HANDS TO ADVOCATE FOR FY-2004 NATIONAL ARCHIVES BUDGET On 14 October 2003, representatives of prominent history, archives, and library organizations met with congressional staff in over a dozen offices to advocate for restoration of funding for the Electronic Records Archives (ERA) initiative and for full-funding for the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). The event, coordinated by the National Coalition for History, put vital information regarding the threatened programs into the hands of key staff responsible for formulating and deciding the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) budget for FY 2004.

    Representatives of the American Library Association, American Association of Law Libraries, American Association for State and Local History, Association for Documentary Editing, American Historical Association, Consortium of Social Science Associations, Midwest Archives Conference, National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators, Society of American Archivists were among several groups that met with Hill staff and emphasized the importance of the $35.9 million ERA program (the amount recommended in the president's budget and concurred by the House) that the Senate zeroed out entirely to provide an offset to assist in the AMTRAK funding plight.

    Advocates called on both House and Senate members of Congress to restore the ERA at the level recommended in the president's budget. Advocates also provided background information to staff on the NHPRC, which is slotted to receive "full-funding" in the House ($10 million), but only half that much -- $5 million, the president's request -- in the Senate.

    Charlene Bickford, who represented the Association for Documentary Editing, participated in a number of the meetings. According to Bickford, "It was an excellent experience in terms of our ability to educate people on what the NHPRC and the Electronic Records Archives is all about. I was gratified that the people we met with were really interested in the issues we presented."

    Decisions regarding the FY 2004 funding levels for NARA will be made when House and Senate conferees meet later this fall to reconcile the differences between the House and Senate versions of the NARA budget. Because of the projected massive federal deficit owing largely to the costs associated with the war in Iraq, House and Senate conferees will be forced to make hard decisions. Nevertheless, Hill insiders remain optimistic that some if not all of the ERA funding will be restored and that the NHPRC will be funded at a level higher than it received last year ($6.43 million).

    2. FIGHTING THE CIVIL WAR -- YET AGAIN George Ewert, the director of the Museum of Mobile, Alabama, found himself in hot water after writing a critical review of the film "Gods and Generals," which was published in the Southern Poverty Laws Center's Quarterly. His review echoed the criticism that others have made of the film. But the Lee-Moses-Dixon Vindicator Camp #408 of the Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV) took exception to the review, wrote to the city council and mayor, and made an impassioned appeal to the city's governing authority demanding the director's dismissal.

    Apparently, the real issue focuses on the museum's Civil War exhibit. The veteran group wants to see the exhibit overhauled to de-emphasize the origins of the war (slavery) and refocus it on "southern virtue" --aspects of the overhaul opposed by Ewert. In response to the move to oust the director, the director's supporters launched a letter-writing campaign which included several prominent local and regional Civil War historians. One letter to the city council stated, "the proposed changes in that part of the museum [advanced by the SCV]...[and] criticisms of Ewert's review...have no support among serious scholars... [Supporters of the move to oust Ewert] are propagandists for a long discredited myth, and should not be allowed to dictate policy."

    At this writing Ewert's supporters appear to have carried the day and the director's position appears safe.


    LEGISLATIVE UPDATE: BILLS PASSED; HEARINGS CONDUCTED; LEGISLATION INTRODUCED Bills Passed: On 15 October 2003, the House of Representatives unanimously approved legislation (H.R. 1442; H. Rept. 108-295) sponsored by Representative Richard W. Pombo (R-CA), and co-sponsored by 85 of his colleagues, that authorizes the design and construction of a visitor's center for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington D.C. The center would serve as a focal point to educate visitors and honor the memory of Vietnam veterans. The legislation authorizes a non-profit group to raise the funds and specifically states that no federal funds may be used to pay for "any expense relating to the establishment of the center." Cost estimates for construction range in from $10 to $12 million. The National Park Service has expressed concerns that the design could prove to be a visible intrusion on the grounds of Constitutional Gardens.

    Hearings Conducted: On 16 October 2003, the House National Parks, Recreation, and Public Lands Subcommittee of the House Resources Committee conducted a legislative hearing on a number of pending bills designed to establish several new national heritage areas. Testimony was received from members of Congress and the public regarding potential establishment of the National Aviation Heritage Area (H.R. 280), the Oil Region National Heritage Area (H.R. 1862), and the proposal to establish the Upper Housatonic Valley National Heritage Area (H.R. 1798).

    Legislation Introduced: On 1 October 2003, Representative George Radanovich (R-CA) introduced legislation (H.R. 3223) to amend the National Historic Preservation Act in order to reauthorize and improve the operations of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. Among other provisions, the bill seeks to add additional members to the Advisory Council (including a governor member), increase the number of representatives needed to constitute a quorum, and grant the council a new authority to "solicit" donations. A separate section in the legislation is designed to improve the effectiveness of the grant assistance program. The bill was referred to the House Resources Committee for consideration.

    4. BITS AND BYTES Item #1-- Correction: MacArthur Fellows: An inadvertent omission in last week's posting about the MacArthur fellows....In addition to University of Georgia Associate Professor of History, Eve Troutt Powell, another historian and Associate Professor, Anders Winroth of Yale University was named a MacArthur Fellow. Winroth research traces the development of medieval canon law. The fellowships, commonly referred to as "genius awards," seek to recognize creativity and encourage talented individuals of all educational backgrounds and professions to pursue their own intellectual and professional inclinations. The award are made by the board of directors of the Chicago based John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.

    Item #2 -- NARA Announces Temporary Closing Researchers planning on using the National Archives (NARA) Washington, DC, research rooms please take note -- the research rooms in the main archives building in Washington, DC, will be closed for renovation from October 13 through October 26 to allow staff to prepare for the brand new National Archives Building Research Center scheduled to open on 27 October 2003. The new National Archives Building Research Center will include more records, finding aids, and staff assistance, as well as more amenities for researchers and visitors. A number of research services formerly housed on upper floors of the sixty-eight-year-old building, along with some new services, will be included in the new ground-floor National Archives Building Research Center. The new location of the Research Center will allow researchers to do much of their work on a single level rather than multiple floors of the building. NARA regrets any inconvenience this temporary closing may cause researchers.

    Item # 3 -- Energy Task Force Records Dispute -- An Update: It has been some time since we reported on the status of the ongoing effort by Judicial Watch and the Sierra Club to gain access to the disputed records relating to Vice-President Dick Cheney's meetings with non-governmental advisors in the course of drafting the 2001 Energy Task Force report. The case concerns the parameters of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, a long-standing open government statute. The latest development is that on 30 September 2003, the Bush Administration asked the Supreme Court to intervene. The government is claiming that applying the Advisory Committee Act to the Energy Task Force is an intolerable intrusion on executive branch procedure, and "would open the way for judicial supervision of internal Executive Branch deliberations." Thanks to the Federation of American Scientists, the government's petition to the Supreme Court is posted at: <>;.

    Item # 4 -- Web Site of Interest: The History Section of the American Library Association has designed a new web site helps students locate and evaluate primary sources on the web. The site includes practical information for students as well as links to many primary source sites. For the "Using Primary Sources on the Web" tap into: <>;.

    5. ARTICLES OF INTEREST One posting this week: In "It's a Grim Picture for Museum Lovers As Entry Fees Climb" (Los Angeles Times; 12 October 2003) reporter Jane Engle summarizes findings by the American Association of Museums that show that with museum costs skyrocketing, and sources of support declining, "many of America's estimated 16,000 art, history and other museums....have raised entrance fees -- perhaps by 50% or more on average since 1999." For the article tap into: <,1,6881219.column?coll=la-headlines-travel-manu al>.

    *********************************************************** The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page at: <>;.

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

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    bill maher - 10/16/2003

    Bright folks, these Germans. I am certainly impressed with, for example, Otto von Habsburg. Long a member of the European Parliament, he recently stated: "If we consider America's internal politics, then we find that it is split in two halves. On the one hand, the Defense Department, in which the key positions are held by Jews; the Pentegon is today a Jewish institution. On the other hand, the blacks are in the State Department: for instance, Colin Powell or especially Condoleezza Rice. It is an internal conflict between hawks and doves. Currently, the Anglo-Saxons, that's to say the white Americans, are playing a relatively minor role."

    Bright folks, these Germans. He should also write a book on 9/11. Like the one mentioned by Richard Gwyn, it would obviously become an instant success in Germany. But couldn't paper be saved by rounding up all the copies of The Turner Diaries and shipping them to Germany? It would clearly be enjoyed by all.

    John Bankston - 10/15/2003

    Dear Mayor Itoh:
    We all love our respective Countries, however, atomic bombs cause too much physical damage to humans, structural loss and is destructive environmentally. The danders of radiation is not taught widespread enough in Public schools throughout the world.
    For many reasons I was driven to tell my personal story about the dangers of radiation in the form of a book. To view the Epilogue C/O Scroll down C/O Search desk, enter Bankston in Author's line C/O search. To Order The book is a true story and is about my Marine Division during the occupational duties of Japan after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The younger generations do not understand how destructive these powerful bombs are. Hopefully the book meets your approval. Some parts may not. It was very dificult referring to some issues in the book. In general I discovered that most of the masses in Japan that I had the pleasure of meeting were hungry for the type of Government you live under now.
    As you will notice in a couple of chapters in the book my stay in your country was highly enjoyable.
    I have another idea, I would like to discuss in a different E-mail that would let the world know how devastating ionizing radiation is.
    Thank you.
    John Bankston

    editor - 10/15/2003

    The Advertiser
    October 15, 2003 Wednesday
    SECTION: NEWS; Pg. 2
    HEADLINE: 'Bizarre' degrees to be targeted
    BYLINE: By Political Reporter SAMANTHA MAIDEN in Canberra

    EDUCATION Minister Brendan Nelson wants Parliament to grant him the power to cut funding to "bizarre" university degrees for such things as surfing, aromatherapy and considering whether Jesus Christ was a homosexual.

    Despite fears the move is an attack on academic freedom, Dr Nelson said yesterday that taxpayers wanted more lawyers, veterinarians and teachers before they funded "silly" degrees.

    Legislation being debated by Parliament to allow universities to increase HECS fees by 30 per cent and boost full fee places also would grant Dr Nelson the power to cut funding to controversial tertiary courses.

    "We've recently seen, for example, controversy surrounding students doing PhDs on the sexuality of Jesus Christ and, in another case, on the divorce between Nicole Kidman and Tom Cruise," Dr Nelson said yesterday.

    "Australians might prefer to see extra places being put into teaching, or nursing, or vets, or dentists or training more historians than they do, for example, training people in the intricacies of surfboard riding, aromatherapy or understanding where Elvis Presley currently is living.

    "If a university is silly enough to offer a particular course and students want to do it, there would be some circumstances conceivably where people would expect the minister to say 'sorry, but the taxpayer is going to put his or her resources into teaching and nursing, rather than the paranormal or the whereabouts of Elvis Presley'."

    Dr Nelson's proposal has prompted warnings from universities and academics that the proposed powers could be used by radicals to impose "politically correct" demands on universities.

    Opposition education spokeswoman Jenny Macklin warned yesterday that the proposal was an "astounding attack on academic freedom".

    "Dr Nelson is giving himself carte blanche to cut public funding to university courses according to his whim," Ms Macklin said. "What is or is not in the nation's interest is entirely up to him."

    Dr Margaret Peters, a senior lecturer at the University of South Australia, who supervises the type of research likely to be targeted by Dr Nelson, warned that tertiary students should not be banned from freedom of thought.

    "I don't think we benefit when someone makes an official or unofficial list of approved things to study," she said.

    "Years ago, the Catholic Church put out a list of books that were approved to read. This isn't too far removed."

    Dr Peters, who qualified for a PhD in child's play, said she had supervised students in postgraduate studies from hip hop music to graffiti.

    "I think it would be a sad day if Xena and Wonder Woman didn't get a go," she said.


    Tom and Nicole Kidman's divorce - how Australian women reacted to the Hollywood couple's break up.
    PhD from Australian National University

    Neo-Spiritualism - Wonder Woman and Xena Warrior Princess.
    PhD from University of South Australia

    Tattoos - Writings in the Flesh: subjectivity, textuality, ethics and pleasure.
    Macquarie University

    Jesus Christ - does astrology reveal he was a homosexual?
    PhD from University of Queensland

    Blondes - The desirability of blondes through history.
    PhD from Griffith University

    editor - 10/15/2003

    The Toronto Star
    October 12, 2003 Sunday Ontario Edition
    HEADLINE: Downsizing American imperialism
    BYLINE: Richard Gwyn

    "The problem with American power is not that it is American. The problem is simply the power. It would be dangerous even for an archangel to wield so much power."

    Timothy Garton Ash, Oxford historian, New York Times, April 9, 2002.

    That's an exceptionally shrewd observation. About all that can be added to it is that at the same time that most people around the world are uneasy at, or are enraged by, American power, so are most Americans. Other than a political-military elite for whom imperial power is a ticket to fame and fortune, what most Americans would like most is to be left alone.

    The obvious price that Americans are paying for being a hyper-power, a global hegemony, a reborn Rome, is the daily loss of soldiers in Iraq and the $87 billion that Washington will spend there instead of at home on health care, education, roads and the rest.

    There is another severe price that Americans are paying.

    An ever-growing number of people around the world are giving up on America itself. They remain fascinated by and drawn to the American dream of affluence, freedom, and democracy. But the U.S. itself now disgusts them or frightens them - more so, in quite a few instances, than the suicide bombers.

    As one measure of this rejectionism, a blue-chip panel of experts assembled by President George W. Bush to advise on ways to improve the U.S. image in the Muslim world has just reported back: "Hostility towards America has reached shocking levels."

    More shocking, certainly more surprising, is that the Number 4 on Germany's best-seller lists - the author is a former federal cabinet minister - is a book, Die CIA und de 11 September, which argues, much as is widely believed in the Middle East, that the mass murders of 9/11 were perpetrated by the CIA and Israel's Mossad.

    A similar book topped the best-seller lists in France a few month back. In London, the wildly popular show, Jerry Springer: The Opera, depicts Americans as overweight, coarse, oversexed, vulgar, self-indulgent and stupid.

    Specific policy miscalculations - the doctrine of a right of "pre-emption" most obviously - and Bush's personality and style, which evoke scorn, particularly among European cultural elites, explains a part of this dislike that's now shading over to hatred. So does the absence of other ideological causes, which has made anti-Americanism a self-justifying cause all by itself.

    But maybe a major part of the phenomenon derives from Garton Ash's insight that American has too much power, for its own good or the world's good.

    editor - 10/15/2003

    October 12, 2003, Sunday
    SECTION: Pg. 29
    HEADLINE: Named: the baby boy who was Nazis' first euthanasia victim Germany 'confronts the truth' with memorial list headed by blind and deformed five-month-old
    GERMAN HISTORIANS have identified the family whose request to Adolf Hitler that their disabled son be "put to sleep" was the catalyst for the Nazi euthanasia programme.

    The five-month-old boy, who was given a lethal drug after Hitler sent his own doctor to examine him, has been named as Gerhard Kretschmar, the son of a farm hand.

    The case was to provide the rationale for a secret Nazi decree that led to "mercy killings" of almost 300,000 mentally and physically handicapped people. The Kretschmars wanted their son dead but most of the other children were forcibly taken from their parents to be killed.

    A few days after Gerhard died in 1939, 15 psychiatrists were summoned to Hitler's Chancellery and told that a secret euthanasia programme - dreamed of by Hitler for more than a decade - was to be put into effect. Until this month, the boy was referred to only as "Case K", the term used by Nazi doctors when the programme was launched and at the subsequent Nuremberg war-crimes trials.

    Now, Gerhard's name heads the first comprehensive list of victims of the euthanasia killings, unveiled in Berlin this month as a permanent and chilling reminder of one of Hitler's lesser-known extermination programmes.

    It was compiled over three years after painstaking research by German government archivists into 740 previously unknown files relating to the euthanasia programme. The files, originally taken from Hitler's Chancellery, were uncovered in archives of the Stasi, the East German secret police.

    It was during his trial at Nuremberg that Karl Brandt, Hitler's personal doctor, revealed that an unnamed infant had provided the Nazis with the excuse to embark on creating a master race. The baby's father, Richard Kretschmar, from the small Saxony town of Pomssen, near Leipzig, had written to Hitler's office in early 1939 asking for permission to kill his blind and deformed son.

    In his testimony, Dr Brandt said: "The father of a deformed child wrote to the Fuhrer with a request to be allowed to take the life of this child or this creature. Hitler ordered me to take care of this case. The child had been born blind, seemed to be idiotic, and a leg and parts of the arm were missing."

    The boy is believed to have been given luminal in the form of a dissolving tablet, causing unconsciousness and death after three to five days. The drug was later used on other victims of the euthanasia programme.

    Only a month after the baby's killing, in August 1939, Hitler's Interior Ministry issued the decree ordering the systematic annihilation of mentally and physically disabled children.

    The new report contains the most comprehensive analysis yet of Nazi records, including the hundreds of hospitals and clinics that took part in the Third Reich's programme to wipe out the lives of people considered "unworthy of living". It contains names and case details of 200,000 of the programme's estimated 275,000 victims.

    Germany's Culture Minister, Christina Weiss, said that the report had been drawn up to confront the truth and "restore some dignity to the victims".

    As was the case with many other victims, Gerhard Kretschmar's cause of death was recorded not as euthanasia but as "heart failure", according to documents at the church where he was buried.

    The euthanasia programme was code-named T4, after its street address in Berlin, and was responsible for the deaths of up to 8,000 children. By the beginning of 1940, six hospitals had been devoted to "processing" cases.

    However, the newly discovered records show that it eventually extended to 296 medical facilities in Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland, in which children and adults were drugged, gassed or starved.

    Ms Weiss said: "We know that these crimes were meant to be kept secret. The relatives received fake letters of condolence. The doctors in charge worked under false names. This list is an attempt to admit what happened and put the record straight."

    editor - 10/15/2003

    BY Jacob Stockinger
    The Capitol Times (Wisconsin)

    Q:Just as you seek to revise our notion of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church, your new book seems to want to revise our understanding of Thomas Jefferson as a national icon. What is the main thesis of your new book " 'Negro President': Jefferson and Slave Power"?

    The book is about the "three-fifths" clause in the Constitution. It required that black slaves counts as three-fifths of a person for purposes of determining a state's representation in Congress. That meant the South had an advantage that often provided the margin of victory.

    It entered into presidential elections only in 1800 when Thomas Jefferson, who was from the South, beat John Adams, who was from the North, in the House after tying him in the Electoral College because he had extra votes just from the owning of slaves. The North was very upset with this.

    If representation had been based on free people only, the South would have had only 43 percent of the first Congress. They wanted blacks counted as complete persons and the North didn't want them to count at all since they were slaves and couldn't vote. It was a negotiated bargain. The North said half, the South said three-quarters and so on until it finally got bargained down to three-fifths.

    This kept coming up over and over. When he wanted to expand America, Jefferson did so first by the Louisiana Purchase, which had many slaves and plantations in it.

    The North wanted to remove the clause, but Jefferson had to protect his Southern agrarian base, especially when he wanted to expand the country by acquiring Florida and Cuba. This struggle about slave power was behind a lot of Jefferson's activities.

    Q: How else did it figure our history?

    Jefferson, George Washington and James Madison schemed very hard to get the national capital put down in slave territory. It started out in New York City, then was moved to Philadelphia. But in Philadelphia you could only keep a slave for six months before freeing him, unless you sent him down further south into slave territory and then brought him back, and that caused a lot of trouble for slave owners.

    So they chose Alexandria, Va., part of today's Washington, D.C., as the capital because it was a slave city.

    Twelve of our presidents were slaveholders, including Ulysses S. Grant. That's an astonishing number, more than 25 percent. That would not have happened had the capital been kept in Philadelphia.

    This book is a whole aspect of slavery that was pervasive and that we have overlooked in the past. People say, "I never knew." But Jefferson would have lost if it hadn't been for slaves and that's why Massachusetts Representative Timothy Pickering dubbed him "the Negro President."

    Q: It seems there is a major irony involved in such use of slave power.

    There is. Blacks had a decisive influence, but it was used against them. They were used as hostages and had no power. Quite the opposite. In key votes in Congress, over and over the three-fifths clause made the difference. When the Southerners in Congress invoked the gag rule to say you can't discuss slavery, the three-fifths clause was actually used to prevent the freeing of blacks.

    What would have happened without the three-fifths clause?

    Hypothetical history is always suspect. But what would have happened if that had not been the case? The Constitution would not have been adopted and the Union would not have come into being. That's why the Northerners, who hated it from outset, went along with it. It was a question of having that plus a country, or of not having a country at all. And they said they would take the country.

    Q: How long did it last?

    It continued in effect right up until the 13th Amendment was passed after the Civil War. There were slaves in Washington right through the Civil War. Lincoln fought the Civil War in a slave city. The White House was served by slaves.

    Q: Why has this been so overlooked?

    There's been a great shirking from the issue of slavery. Abolitionists were declared radicals and it was a sore point with many people. To this day there are people who say the Civil War wasn't really fought about slavery, which is total nonsense. It was all about slavery.

    You have to put yourself in the mind of the Southerner. Slavery was on their mind all the time because they lived in a very dangerous situation. They knew slaves would rebel if they weren't put down and if outside agitators weren't kept out. It penetrated every aspect of their lives. But they didn't want to admit that at the time.

    Q: What kind of reception do you anticipate for the book?

    There has been a great reassessment of Jefferson going on for some time, not only for the Sally Hemmings incident but also his using agrarian issues as a protection for slavery. So it will be a better reception than it would have been a few years ago.

    I admire Jefferson and do not wish that Adams had won the presidency in 1800. You can analyze all this without making it a trash Jefferson thing. I admire Washington more than any other politician of the time, but he also had his flaws. All the founders have had their fluctuations, their ups and downs.

    People ask, "Why didn't the founders free their slaves?" Nobody freed their slaves who had a political career in front of them. There were people who freed them, but they were not in politics.

    When I was growing up, there was a myth that Jefferson had freed his slaves. It wasn't true. Jefferson said they can't be here because they would annihilate us. They had to be shipped elsewhere. There was great anguish and hysteria when Toussaint L'Ouverture led a successful slave rebellion in Haiti. They thought America could be next.

    Q: What is your next project?

    It's about Henry Adams as a historian. He wrote "In Search of Jefferson," a nine-volume history of Jefferson's administration that is pretty much neglected today in favor of his better known autobiography "The Education of Henry Adams."

    But I argue that these are real masterpieces of American history and 19th century prose. He has a complex and interesting view of Jefferson.

    Many people see them as an attack on Jefferson, but they're not. Jefferson was the first founder who had a national vision and tried to get away from elitist federal politics. On the other hand, he did make a lot of terrible mistakes.


    Barbara Cornett - 10/15/2003

    I'm not sure that it is a good idea to have a historian working in the area who has so much bias regarding his subject. Politics and political correctness seems to have won out over history. I'm sure no one showed up to complain because they felt powerless to fight the status quo and I feel that they have been wronged.

    For historians who are interested in southern history I would like to suggest that you check this local channel out of Knoxville, TN which has an excellent award winning series called "The Heartland Series".

    If you agree that this is an excellent source of history, perhaps you could share it with others.

    In watching this series you can hear geniune Appalachian accents of the Great Smokey Mountains and hear authentic stories and history from the families of the people who lived in the area before it became a national park.

    editor - 10/14/2003

    September 10, 2003

    To: Richard Yanikoski, President
    Judith Dwyer, President-Elect
    Christopher Chalokwu, Vice-President for Academic Affairs
    Dominick Hart, Dean, School of Arts and Sciences
    Genie McAvoy, President, Faculty Senate
    John Gutowski, Secretary/President Elect, Faculty Senate
    Carol Poston, Past President, Faculty Senate
    Arunas Dagys, Chair, Faculty Affairs Committee

    From: Saint Xavier University-AAUP Chapter Executive Committee:
    Richard Fritz, President
    Jayne Hileman, Treasurer
    Norman Boyer, At-Large Representative
    Michael Clark, At-Large Representative
    Olga Villela, At-Large Representative

    In the aftermath of the circumstances surrounding Professor Peter N. Kirstein's e-mail communication with an Air Force Academy cadet, the Executive Committee of the Saint Xavier University chapter of the American Association of University Professors makes the following
    recommendations. These recommendations are made in the spirit of shared governance and collaboration. Both the administration and the faculty will benefit by sharing the responsibility for due process in cases where formal sanctions or punishments may be contemplated.

    1) Faculty should not be censured or punished for their ideas or opinions. The AAUP 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure states: "When they speak or write as citizens, faculty should be free from institutional censorship or discipline." The SXU-AAUP Executive Committee stresses that external public pressures should not influence either due process or substantive actions taken against faculty in regard to free speech. AAUP guidelines further state: "In a democratic society freedom of speech is an indispensable right of the citizen" (AAUP "Redbook," Committee A Statement on Extramural Utterances). As Stanley Kurtz observes in the National Review Online (January 8, 2003): "The best remedy for speech that offends, is more speech." Free speech is indispensable to a free society. Faculty should not be removed from the classroom for extramural utterances and activities. Suspension, dismissal, or other punishments/sanctions should not be used to restrain faculty members in their exercise of academic freedom or other rights of American citizens. (see AAUP "Redbook," Recommended Institutional Regulations on Academic Freedom and Tenure, Section 5, Dismissal Procedures). "Extramural utterances rarely bear upon the faculty member's fitness for continuing service." (AAUP "Redbook," Committee A Statement on Extramural Utterances). Professors should not be judged on their classroom teaching based on extramural statements, opinions, or activities that are unrelated to their teaching assignment.

    2) Due process must precede any sanctions or punishments. Faculty members should be notified in advance of a disciplinary hearing. They should be informed in writing of the nature of the charges and of any sanctions being considered. Faculty members should also be notified in advance of the agenda and format of the hearing. (See AAUP "Redbook," Recommended Institutional Regulations on Academic Freedom and Tenure, Section 5, Dismissal Procedures).

    To ensure faculty oversight and participation in future cases involving the potential sanctioning of a faculty member, the SXU-AAUP Chapter Executive Committee recommends that the Saint Xavier Faculty Senate establish a faculty committee, duly elected by the general faculty, charged with the function of rendering confidential advice. This committee should have the right to conduct its own inquiry into whether additional proceedings and sanctions are appropriate. This committee can only function properly if: 1) there is adequate communication and a mutually respectful, constructive working relationship with the administration, and 2) it has appropriate initiating capacity and a full voice in the decision making process regarding sanctions. (See AAUP "Redbook," Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities). The principles of shared governance indicate that the Faculty Senate must seek formal, binding arrangements with the administration that require all parties to adhere to relevant AAUP guidelines.

    3) Post tenure review must not be used as a punitive process. Article V of the Saint Xavier University Faculty Bylaws requires: "The purpose of the [post-tenure] review is to enhance and improve the tenured faculty member's overall performance. The review process shall be formative and shall preserve academic freedom and tenure." The procedures specified in the Faculty Policies Section of the Faculty Handbook regarding post-tenure review must be respected at all times. It is not the prerogative of either the faculty member or the administration to alter, amend, or revise these procedures.

    4) As discussed in the opening paragraphs of AAUP's 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure, the economic security of the faculty member, along with academic freedom,"are indispensable to the success of an institution in fulfilling its obligations to its students and to society." The economic security of faculty members should never be threatened by contract addenda which single out an individual for his or her speech or activities. Contract addenda should never be contemplated or implemented as a means of restricting academic freedom or requiring intellectual orthodoxy or behavioral conformity.

    cc: Raymond Taylor, Chair, History Department
    Susan Beal, Faculty Affairs Committee
    Donald Cyze, Faculty Affairs Committee
    Randy Krohmer, Faculty Affairs Committee
    Tom McGannon, Faculty Affairs Committee
    Martha Morris, Faculty Affairs Committee
    Kay Thurn, Faculty Affairs Committee
    Jonathan Knight, Director, Dept. of Academic Freedom, Tenure, & Governance, AAUP National
    Pangratios Papacosta, President, AAUP-Illinois
    Peter N. Kirstein, Professor, History Department

    [Editor's Note: Mr. Kirstein is a member of the local chapter of AAUP but told HNN he recused himself from the proceedings related to his case.

    editor - 10/14/2003

    Click here for an article describing this controversy.

    Latest Update, Oct. 14, 2003 1:45 p.m. PST

    At today's city council meeting three of four people scheduled to appear to complain about museum director George Ewert failed to show up. Supporters of the director indicated to HNN that the "mayor and the council president took credit for this."

    The one person who did appear criticized the director for allegedly making disparaging remarks about the racist imagery of the Confederacy.

    Ewert's supporters indicated to HNN that his job now appears safe, thanks in part to numerous emails sent to the mayor and council following media exposure.

    Nathan Stoltzfus - 10/14/2003

    I have been in contact with Margarethe von Trotta occasionally since 1989 when I first wrote to her suggesting a film on Rosenstrasse. I included then a Dossier I had written for the German weekly Die Zeit and in following years sent her pre-publication manuscripts of my book Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany (Norton, 1996, co-winner of the Fraenkel prize (for reviews see

    Resistance of the Heart concludes that the continuous protest over the period or a week by women on the street demanding the release of their Jewish family members, caused the Gestapo to release the so-called “full” Jews (according to the Nuremberg Laws) married to gentiles. This concurs with long-accepted interpretations that the protest influenced the Gesatpo to release Jews at Rosenstrasse, from a dozen prominent historians publishing over time since the 1960s, from Raul Hilberg to Ian Kershaw (Perpetrators, Victims, Bystanders, 132; Hitler, vol. II, 963, n. 115). A suggestion that Goebbels released the Jews at Rosenstrasse because a women slept with him is indeed troubling, although it is silly to write that von Trotta’s film “has cast doubt on the significance of the rebels and their act of defiance.” The same paper, the Times (London) also wrote a strongly positive review of my book and it’s thesis about the protest (by Anne Karpf, December 12, 1996).

    With the appearance of von Trotta’s film, Professor Wolfgang Benz has thrust himself forward as the expert on Rosenstrasse, at the center of a controversy, Yet his publications, including those while the film was being made, show no analysis of Rosenstrasse, and took no clear stand on the impact of the protest. The book jacket of Benz’s 1989 book, Die Juden in Deutschland, boldly proclaims it to be “the first effort [Versuch] at a comprehensive [umfassend] social and cultural history of German Jews during the National Socialist rule.” With misleading implications, Benz dropped his treatment of intermarried Jews along with a few ambiguous sentences on Rosenstrasse into a chapter titled "Survival in the Underground, 1943-1945,”

    As I pointed out in “Protest and Silence: Resistance Histories in Post-War Germany and the Missing Case of Intermarried Germans” (Resisting the Shoah, Ruby Rohrlich, ed., Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1998) 98 percent of German Jews who survived Nazi Germany without going into the underground were married to gentiles. In my opinion, the question of why 98 percent of German Jews who survived officially registered with the Gestapo is the key social-political question posed by intermarried couples. To my knowledge, Benz did not publish or explain this striking statistic despite various publications on German Jews and the immediate postwar era. In the same book, Benz also placed the Gestapo’s arrest effort to make Berlin “free of Jews,” which led up to the Rosenstrasse protest, in a book chapter titled “Forced Labor.”

    Last month, Benz went so far as to declare that “Goebbels had nothing to do with Rosenstrasse and couldn’t have had any impact there anyway.” He did this in the popular press (see also the Sueddeutsche Zeitung, 9-18-03 as well as the Times article printed here). It is the popular press, but this hardly means no further explanation of such an explosive statement is required than that it comes from “Benz, the respected historian.” Taken together, the entries of Goebbels’ diary are the most important documentation historians have used to interpret Rosenstrasse, Why then does Benz, who himself has cited Goebbels’ diary when it suits his purposes, need to write Goebbels out of the story here, along with the women?

    His position now, he says, is supported by documentation newly uncovered by his student Wolf Gruner, who also consistently placed the Rosenstrasse in the context of “forced labor.” Gruner’s documentation is interpreted to support the older interpretation Benz has given Rosenstrasse (although in 1989 his stance was perhaps more ambiguous). According to their interpretation of this new documentation (resting on ignoring other documentation equally or more important), the Gestapo never intended to deport the intermarried Jews from Rosenstrasse, and so the protesters were irrelevant. The protesters are written out of the story now too, and identified by this interpretation in the words of the Times reporter as “accidental bystander[s].” In other words, they acted just like the vast majority of other Germans, and also do not disturb the long-standing postwar claims and interpretations by historians that ordinary Germans could do absolutely nothing of consequence to resist their government; civilian society remains largely unimportant for explanations of dictatorial power.

    . I am now in the process of publishing fuller responses to the claims that the protesting marriage partners at Rosenstrasse, as well as Goebbels, did not and could not have had any impact on the Gestapo’s treatment of intermarried Jews here. The argument that a document or two can resolve the question of what happened at Rosenstrasse, and that Goebbels, Propaganda Minister and Gauleiter of Greater Berlin, had no authority in the matter, may seem logical if one is to take documents and flow charts of authority at face value. Goebbels would hardly have checked his job description, however, before wielding his influence at Rosenstrasse. He had just prevailed in changing Hitler’s mind on the matter of Total War (he had made the case for conscripting women for more than a year), against the opposition of the mighty Committee of Three. In any case, as Kershaw writes, “Hitler invariably sided with his Gauleiter . . . The mighty Himmler encountered the same problem in his dealings with the Gauleiter [and this is not to mention the likes of Reichsminister Goebbels, Gauleiter of Greater Berlin] after he had been made Reich Minister of the Interior in 1943.” (The Nazi Dictatorship, 83,4).

    Benz never mentions my studies on Rosenstrasse. But why should he and his student Gruner not respond to my article in Geschichte und Gesellschaft “Third Reich History as if the People Mattered” (Fall, 2000). Here I already responded to Gruner, well before before the new clammer in the public media about newly found documentation. Rather than responding in turn, however, they have ignored answering my response to their harsh criticism in favor of what appears to me to be a caricature of my position.

    Even if, as Gruner suggests, the Gestapo had arrested those in mixed marriages by mistake, the RSHA --at that stage in its radicalization and at that time in the process of clearing out every last Jew from the Old Reich -- would have sent the intermarried Jews at Rosenstrasse off to the East, had there been no protest. . .

    The Gestapo was so arbitrary and beyond the letter of the law or regulations at that point that suggesting a letter of law or regulation could prevent the Gestapo from achieving its historic mission, appears naive. It seems more likely that the regime had been forced to accommodate the aggregate noncompliance of intermarried "Aryans" to play politics on the issue of intermarriage [following Goebbels’ rationalization that he would do the job of deporting them all the more thoroughly at a later point]. The noncompliance of these relatively few "Aryans"--in the context of social and religious traditions regarding marriage--opened up debilitating and distracting struggles among power centers of the Reich. In the eastern occupied territories, by the starkest of contrasts, intermarried Jews (along with intermarried non-Jews) were seized and killed, indicating that the exemption of intermarried Jews in Germany from the Final Solution was the result of popular opinion and complicated political considerations.

    Of course there is room for debate here, with positions cast in the broad context of NS history (just as in the response to David Irving’s challenge that Hitler was not responsible for the Holocaust because no document could be found proving this, is based in our broad understanding). It is not surprising that historians interpret Rosenstrasse in different ways, a step forward for our comprehension so long as each interpretation comes from an effort to understand history and the individual actors.

    Also because of the appearance of von Trotta's film on Rosenstrasse, this important history should be well discussed. In December 2001, for the first time in postwar German history, a surviving member of the Rosenstrasse uprising of 1943 sat together on a public panel with a surviving relative of the July 20 conspiracy. Together with a member of the White Rose they comprised a representation of resistance in Nazi Germany. This happened at the annual conference of the July 20 Study Group, whose theme was “Women and Resistance,” a topic at last assigned to this annual gathering of survivors, historians, and others, at the suggestion of the only woman serving on the academic advisory council. Rosenstrasse is by no means resistance in the traditional Widerstand sense; yet the published papers and discussion from this conference represent the first time Rosenstrasse has been included in an anthology of essays on the range of oppositional behavior in Nazi Germany (Jana Leichsenring, ed., Frauen und Widerstand (Münster, 2003). This year as well a forthcoming collection representing opposition in Nazi Germany also includes Rosenstrasse among the main incidents of resistance for the first time in the English language. (John Michalczyk, Confront! Resistance in Nazi Germany, New York, Peter Lang).

    Perhaps it is finally time for Benz’s research center – or some other organization—to really get to the heart of the matter by sponsoring a conference on Rosenstrasse, considering not just the event, but its relationship to the history of intermarried couples in the "Third Reich," its place in expressions of oppositional behavior, its meaning for the role of society, and/or its reception in postwar Germany.

    Bryan Coupal - 10/9/2003

    One man survived the Katyn Forest massacre- Eugenjusz Andrei Komorowski. Left for dead, he crawled out of a mass grave filled with his fellow officers. He tells his story in "Night Never Ending", puplished in 1974. Unforgetable.

    Keven M. - 10/9/2003

    The John Birch Society has more along this line at I believe.

    Edward S. Bernreuter - 10/9/2003

    The liberal FDR learned his lesson well from Wilson by also dragging us into Europe's never ending wars, against the wishes of the American people. Writer Lelong sees,correctly, that this policy of acquiesence to Stalin brought on the Cold War, Korea, and yes, Vietnam. Few know of the brutality inflicted on German prisoners, who were denied POW status, after the war by smiling Ike. They were kept for several years even though they were no threat to any one and were needed to rebuild the country. Thousands died of starvation and deprivation. A well kept secret. We also sent thousands of Russians captured by the Germans back to Stalin's tender mercies.

    michael fine - 10/9/2003


    Marion Lelong - 10/9/2003

    The British and American's submissive acceptance of Soviet murders in the Katyn Forest was apparently a prelude to Operation Keelhaul in which nearly a million Russians, including some who escaped just after World War I,were forcibly returned from Europe to the Soviet Union and a similar fate.

    editor - 10/9/2003

    Untitled Document NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #39; 9 October 2003)
    by Bruce Craig (editor) <
    National Coalition for History (NCH)

    1. Homeland Security History Office Authorized
    2. Report: Legislative Branch Appropriations
    3. Legislative Update: Coltsville Study; Manhattan Project Study; Harpers
    Ferry Boundary Expansion
    4. NEH Call for Nominations
    5. Bits and Bytes: Historian Named MacArthur Fellow; FBI Historian Appointed
    6. Articles of Interest: UNESCO speech of 30 September 2003 by First Lady
    Laura Bush

    On 1 October 2003, President George W. Bush signed legislation (P.L.
    108-90) -- Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2004 ( H.R.
    2555) -- that includes language authorizing the establishment of an Office
    of History (HO) for the recently created department.

    Language authorizing the HO was incorporated in the Senate committee report
    (S. Rept. 108-86) largely due to the leadership of Senator Robert C. Byrd
    (D-WV), a longtime supporter of history in the federal government and the
    Ranking Member of both the Senate Appropriations Homeland Security
    Subcommittee and the full Appropriations Committee. Byrd's office has
    assured the National Coalition for History that creation of the office is a
    priority and that his staff will be monitoring the department's actions as
    they implement the authorization. Creation of the office was deemed to be
    of such importance that the appropriations subcommittee included language
    at the end of their report recognizing that "there will be funding
    requirements" and that "establishment of such an office may require the
    submission of a reprogramming request as required under Section 605 of this

    While there was no similar language included in the House report (H. Rept,
    108-169) the subcommittee conference report (H. Rept 108-280) agreed to by
    House and Senate managers states that the language in the individual House
    and Senate reports, "should be complied with unless specifically addressed
    to the contrary in the conference report and statement of managers." Hill
    insiders report that when the matter was addressed by the conferees, House
    managers were supportive of the Senate report language to the extent that
    they even queried history organizations for information and estimates about
    likely costs associated with the creation of such an office.

    Language in the report recognizes the importance of history in Homeland
    Security Department decision making: "Knowledge of historical precedent,
    historical context, and institutional history is critical to effective
    decision making." To that end, once established, the HO is to "produce,
    oversee, and coordinate the production of a range of reference, policy, and
    historical background assessment papers....provide expert historical
    knowledge essential for informed decision making to maintain the
    institutional history of the Department....provide professional assistance
    to the historical and archival activities of the directorates and bureaus
    within the Department; and...produce such documentary collections as may be
    deemed necessary."

    The language authorizing the HO is the culmination of a fourteen-month
    bi-partisan effort by various members of Congress and the National
    Coalition for History. Support for the HO came from individual members of
    the President's Homeland Security Advisory Council, as well as both
    Republican and Democratic members of the House and Senate in the 107th and
    108th Congresses. In addition to the leadership provided by Senator Byrd,
    during the 107th Congress Congressman Stephen Horn of the House Committee
    on Government Reform early-on embraced the notion of a HO and spearheaded a
    bold yet in the end unsuccessful effort to advance a Committee Amendment
    designed to authorize the HO in the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (H.R.
    5005/S. 2452). The 2002 Act provided the legislative basis for the new

    The National Coalition for History has initiated contact with Homeland
    Security department officials to discuss implementation of the report language.

    On 30 September 2003, President Bush signed legislation (P.L.108-83), the
    Legislative Appropriations Act (H.R. 2657; H. Rept. 108-279), authorizing
    expenditures for the operations of Congress and their support institutions
    including the Library of Congress (LC) for FY 2004.

    In his testimony before Congress earlier this Spring, Librarian of Congress
    James Billington requested a total budget of $540 million for the
    institution. This reflects a net increase of $44.5 million (8.4 percent)
    over the FY 2003 enacted level. Congress, however, appropriated only $526
    million of the Librarian's request. Congress extracted savings by not
    approving all of Billington's staffing increase requests and by making some
    programmatic reductions.

    The funding levels for several special project offices is of greatest
    interest to historians and archivists. The American Folk life Center was
    funded at the president's requested level with the Veterans Oral History
    Project receiving the requested $589,000. The National Audio-Visual
    Conservation Center also received the funding requested -- $11
    million. Congressional earmarks continue for the Lincoln Bicentennial
    Commission and for the Louisiana Purchase Bicentennial, and a new $500,000
    earmark was appropriated for a Lincoln-Douglas debate exhibit at Knox
    College in Illinois.

    Appropriators also devoted considerable funds -- $47.8 million -- for the
    ongoing Capitol Visitor's Center project. Of that total, $35.8 million
    will be dedicated to operations. There also is $10 million set-aside for
    the construction of a particularly controversial tunnel connecting the
    Capitol Visitor Center and the Library of Congress. The legislation also
    establishes a Curatorial Advisory Board that is charged to provide advice
    and assistance to the Senate Commission on Art, a body charged to provide
    advice relating to the purchase and care of Senate and other Congressional

    Coltsville Study: On 3 October 2003, President George W. Bush signed
    legislation (P.L. 108- 94; S.233) introduced by Senator Christopher Dodd
    (D-CT) directing the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a special
    resource study of a site known as Coltsville, to evaluate its national
    significance and its "suitabilty and feasibility as a unit of the National
    Park System." Coltsville is a community in Hartford, Connecticut, where the
    famous arms producer -- the Colt Manufacturing Company founded by Samuel
    Colt -- flourished during the Industrial Revolution. The study area
    includes Colt's residence, "Armsmear" (a National Historic Landmark), as
    well as a concentration of related resources in the Connecticut River Valley.

    Manhattan Project Study: On 30 September 2003, legislation (S. 1637/H.R.
    3207), the "Manhattan Project National Historical Park Study Act of 2003"
    was introduced by Senator Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) in the Senate and by Rep.
    Doc Hastings (R-WA) in the House. The identical bills direct the Secretary
    of the Interior to conduct a study on the preservation and interpretation
    of historic sites related to the Manhattan Project for potential inclusion
    in the National Park System. Study areas include the Oak Ridge uranium
    enrichment facility, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and other sites
    associated with the multi-year top-secret effort to construct nuclear
    bombs. The bill was referred to the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural
    Resources and to the House Resources Committee for consideration.

    Harpers Ferry NHP: On 2 October at the Senate Committee on Energy and
    Natural Resources conducted a hearing on several pending bills including
    legislation (S. 1576) introduced by Senator Robert C. Byrd (D-WV) to revise
    the boundary of Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. A culmination of
    years of public hearings and consensus building, the bill seeks to
    authorize an expansion of the park boundary by up to 3,745 acres and
    authorizes the purchase of historic land from willing sellers. The land is
    part of the battlefield but was never incorporated into the park itself.
    The bill has strong support from the local community. The National Park
    Service (NPS) testified in favor of the bill, provided it be amended to
    delete some 191 acres held by six individuals; the government requested
    that Congress defer action on acquisition of these lands until 2006. The
    administration did support the transfer of approximately 800 acres from the
    U.S. Fish and Wild Life Service and the Appalachian National Scenic Trail,
    and the donation of the core 177 acres comprising the so-called "Boliver
    Battlefield" from the Civil War Preservation Trust. Witness testimony is
    available at: <>.

    The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) has issued a call for
    nominations for the 2004 Heroes of History Lecture. The lectureship, which
    is held annually each fall, is an important component of the NEH's "We the
    People" initiative, a program designed to strengthen the teaching, study,
    and understanding of American history and civics.

    The lecture, which is published nationally and presented to a large
    audience of scholars, educators, and young people, provides an opportunity
    for the public to learn about the lives and deeds of our nation's
    heroes. The lecture carries a $10,000 honorarium. Last May, historian
    Robert V. Remini delivered the inaugural lecture that focused on an
    extraordinary group of ordinary men, the members of the first United States

    Nominees for the lectureship should be United States citizens who have made
    significant contributions to public understanding of American history. They
    should also have the ability to speak to a broad audience in an appealing
    way. The deadline for nominations is 24 October 2003. The lecturer will
    be selected by the NEH Chairman with the advice of the National Council on
    the Humanities. A special committee of the National Council will consider
    nominees and recommend a list of finalists for consideration by the full
    National Council and the Chairman.

    To nominate a potential lecturer, please follow the directions at the NEH
    website: <>. Questions concerning the
    submission of nominations, may be directed to Andrew W. Hazlett, Special
    Assistant to the Chairman, at: or call 202-606-8355.

    Item #1-- Historian Named MacArthur Fellow: University of Georgia Associate
    Professor of History, Eve Troutt Powell, along with twenty-three others
    creative individuals has been named a MacArthur Fellow. The fellowships,
    commonly referred to as "genius awards" seek to recognize creativity and
    encourage talented individuals of all educational backgrounds and
    professions to pursue their own intellectual and professional
    inclinations. The fellows are provided a $500,000 award that they are free
    to use as they wish over a five year period. Unlike other fellowships there
    is no application process -- an anonymous selection committee makes it
    recommendations to the board of directors of the Chicago based John D. and
    Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, which considers the nominees and makes
    the foundation's annual selections.

    Item #2 -- FBI Historian Appointed: After nearly a decade of being without
    a professional staff historian, on 8 September 2003, the Federal Bureau of
    Investigation (FBI) announced the appointment of Dr. John F. Fox, Jr., as
    FBI Historian. Fox is only the second bureau historian in the FBI's
    history. Among his duties, Fox will oversee the development and
    administration of an FBI history program, deliver lectures to FBI
    audiences, host the FBI History Forum, answer queries and provide
    information about FBI history to Bureau employees, scholars, researchers
    and the public, and work in liaison with other government and public
    historians, museums, libraries, and other entities on matters concerning
    FBI history. He will also acquire, maintain, and index historical
    materials and research issues in FBI history that have an impact on current
    events for FBI policy makers. Fox joined the Bureau in 1999 as a paralegal
    specialist in the Freedom of Information/Privacy Acts Section. He received
    his Ph.D. in American history from the University of New Hampshire in
    2001. His dissertation was entitled, "'In Passion and in Hope' The
    Pilgrimage of an American Radical, Martha Dodd Stern and Family, 1933--1990."

    One posting this week: The full text of the speech delivered on 30
    September 2003 by First Lady Laura Bush (referenced in last week's NCH
    WASHINGTON UPDATE announcing that effective 1 October the United States
    would rejoin UNESCO. In her remarks, Mrs. Bush said that the group's work
    "is more urgent and more important than at any time in UNESCO's history."
    For the text of the speech, tap into:
    < >.

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE
    weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH
    Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others
    who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of
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    Lou - 10/9/2003

    "...when Stalin jested that they should settle the German problem once and for all by killing 50,000 German officers, Churchill merely protested sulkily.."
    The account I have read is that Churchill wanted the top
    50,000 nazis simply rounded up and executed and Stalin replied that Communists don't execute anyone without a trial.
    Perhaps Churchill could have pointed out the Katyn Forest Massacre? Perhaps this version was in jest too? In any event
    the Nuremburg Trials did turn out to be show trials.

    David Lassiter - 10/9/2003

    There is a wide spread acceptance on the part of many Americans of total war, i.e., it is acceptable to target civilian populations in retaliation for the military adventures of their respective governments. For example the atomic bombing of Japanese cities, even though the average citizen of Japan had little or nothing to say about their government's actions.

    However, these same Americans think that we should not be held responsible for our government's action, even while claiming to control it through democratic elections!

    There is a disconnect here that defies logic.

    sascha - 10/9/2003


    Walter F Kusluski - 10/9/2003

    My uncle who spent time in England during WW2 was of the opinion the English leaders were not worth the powder to "blow them to bloody buggery". He was correct!

    tom edmondson - 10/9/2003

    Since it's founding in 1959 by Robert Welch, the John Birch Society's American Opinion Bookstores have sold thousands of copies of "The Katyn Forrest Massacres" telling all the true stories.Go to the website and check what else is not new. Also check for the solution to 75% of our foreign affairs problems. Who said diplomats are people appointed to solve the probllems we wouldn't have if we didn't have diplomats.

    Peter Smith - 10/9/2003

    "How else could so many historians - Norman Davies aside - simply ignore the extraordinary Western collusion in covering up communist atrocities, and the profound impact this must have had on Kremlin thinking?"

    David Irving has not ignored the complicity of the Western Allies in the crime committed at Katyn. For his honesty, he has been pilloried and persecuted. Other historians have seen the punishment dished out, and have reacted accordingly.

    Joseph K. - 10/9/2003

    All these atrocities and those of this century which have taken millions of lives could have been avoided if men had listened to the warnings of Our Lady, for example, of Our Lady of Fatima in 1917. Her message was to pray, especially the Rosary and the 1st Five Saturdays, and do penance, otherwise Russia would spread her errors throughout the world. She wasn't listened to previously at Her appearance in La Salette, France. Finally, hardly anyone paid attention to Her appearance at Garabandal, Spain in 1962. Two major world wars and other lesser ones, abortion and contraceptives which have taken millions of unborn lives, etc., have been our physical chastisement. Our spiritual chastisement of worldwide apostasy is worse as many fall into Hell daily and millions more are on the road to Hell.

    Pat Buchanan - 10/9/2003

    Splendid article. If memory serves, at Nuremberg, the Soviets indicted the Germans for Katyn, and the Allies, who knew who did the massacre, simply declined to convict the Gremans -- with the real murderers sitting right there beside them.

    Fr. Robert Pearson - 10/9/2003

    All (almost) who aspire to political position (lust for power) are counter to the common good.

    william - 10/9/2003

    There has always been a moral bridge,across the Rubicon if you will, that marks a vital turning point in history. The United States united with the ogre that wantonly committed this horrible crime and deceived its citizens to the extent possible. One could say that God has not smiled on us since.

    H P Bradish - 10/9/2003

    How true your article is. Maybe you might follow up with an article about the Waffen SS and who they truly were. Hardly anyone knows about this first "European army" and how heroic they were. I learned my history from my father who fought the Waffen SS and he told me who they really were. He was called to be a witness at Nuremburg but said he knew he would never actually testify because the whole "trials" were like a script from a bad movie. He also told me what horrendous war crimes and murderous actions were committed against them. He recieved two purple hearts and told me he didn't know any Nazis. When one compares these soldiers to the likes of Wesley Clark, etc., it makes a person want to throw up.
    Also, a little reflection upon Kosovo might be in order. Like the acid mines, Racak, the claymore mine in the marketplace in Sarajevo, the mass graves (not), the real ethnic cleansing after NATO occupied Kosovo, Wesley Clark and Thaci and Ceku, the apaches destroyed on the ground, the monesteries and churches destroyed, etc. How anyone in their right mind believes we had no casualties and lost only two aircraft is, well, another B grade science fiction movie.
    H P Bradish, Texas

    Roderick T. Beaman - 10/9/2003

    Atrocities are only atrocities when committed by Nazi Germany. Thus people like Stephen Spielberg can sit down with Fidel Castro, the bloodiest butcher in the history of the western hemisphere, and fawn over the experience. Next to Stalin, Hitler was almost a minor leaguer.

    editor - 10/8/2003


    The Times (London)
    October 6, 2003, Monday
    SECTION: Overseas news; 14
    HEADLINE: Graves mark peak of Nazis' reach
    BYLINE: Tom Parfitt in Moscow

    The remains of 185 German soldiers who died at the "high-water mark of the Third Reich" have been discovered in southern Russia.

    The men were killed during fighting with the Soviet Red Army between October and December 1942. Among them are believed to be members of an Alpine unit that once climbed Mount Elbrus in the Russian Caucasus and planted a swastika on the summit as a Nazi public relations stunt.

    Their remains were found in Digara, a small town in the Caucasus region of North Ossetia, about 900 miles south of Moscow....

    Antony Beevor, the military historian and author of the bestselling book Stalingrad, said that the find at Digara was important because the bodies had been discovered at the deepest point of Nazi penetration.

    "The spot where these men were found is pretty much the high-water mark of the Third Reich," he said.

    Although German forces did seize oilfields 230 miles west at Maikop, they never reached Grozny or Baku, the Azeri capital.

    The street-by-street fight for Stalingrad consumed Hitler's attention, while his servicemen in the Caucasus were starved of support.

    Mr Beevor said that some of the dead soldiers found at Digara were "almost certainly" members of the 49th Mountain Division.

    In the happier days after their rapid advance in August 1942, men from this division, who sported an edelweiss emblem, climbed Mount Elbrus, planting a Nazi flag on the summit. Pictures of the climbers appeared in the German Army's Signal magazine.

    "It was a kind of photo opportunity," Mr Beevor said. "There was a great exuberance at the beginning of the campaign."

    However, after the advance faltered, fierce fighting followed as Soviet troops pushed more and more divisions into defence.

    The German forces were eventually forced into retreat in the Caucasus in December 1942 after heavy losses.

    The soldiers at Digara probably died in the final battles before that withdrawal, Mr Tatarov said.

    He said that local elders who saw the soldiers being buried by prisoners-of war had pointed out their individual, unmarked graves near the site of a hospital occupied by German troops.

    About 1.5 million Germans and 3 million Soviet citizens are still listed as missing from the Second World War, according to the Red Cross.

    editor - 10/8/2003

    October 06, 2003, Monday
    SECTION: Pg. 09
    HEADLINE: Wallpaper clue to Napoleon's death
    BYLINE: By Will Bennett Art Sales Correspondent
    A FRAGMENT of wallpaper to be auctioned this month might help prove the cause of Napoleon's death.

    Controversy has raged over how the French emperor met his death while in British custody on the South Atlantic island of St Helena in 1821. Some historians have argued that he died from cancer, others that the British poisoned him, while a third theory is that his death was accidentally hastened by toxic vapours from wallpaper dyed with arsenic.

    In 1995 a Swedish scientist found eight times the normal amount of arsenic in a strand of hair allegedly taken from Napoleon's head. On Oct 16 a piece of wallpaper less than 3in long, with a note claiming that it came from Napoleon's bedroom on St Helena, will be auctioned by Mullock Madeley in Church Stretton, Shropshire, and is expected to fetch up to pounds 1,000.

    "This could be a scientifically exciting discovery because it could provide another important clue as to how Napoleon died," said Richard Westwood-Brookes, Mullock Madeley's documents expert.

    Editor - 10/7/2003

    The Independent (London)
    October 4, 2003, Saturday
    BYLINE: PETER POPHAM IN ROME Busts of Mussolini (centre, extreme left and right) and Victor Emmanuel III in EUR offices Corrado Giambalvo/AP; Police officers on patrol in Rome's EUR district, which will host the EU leaders' summit Gregorio Borgia/AP
    THE LEADERS of Europe meet today close to a secret bunker designed by the Italian dictator Mussolini to enable him to survive wartime air raids.

    The bunker shown to the media for the first time is in the town of Esposizione Universale di Roma (EUR), which was conceived by Mussolini. It has spruced itself up for today's European summit at the Palazzo dei Congressi.

    At the Palazzo degli Uffici, the administrative heart of EUR, a heavy steel door in the basement leads to Il Duce's retreat. Unlike Hitler, he never had cause to use it. But the bunker, unknown even to Italian historians of the Second World War, is still in good condition.

    Professor Mauro Miccio, managing director of EUR, now a government- owned limited company, said he intended to open it to the public. Given the recent statement in The Spectator by Silvio Berlusconi, the Prime Minister, that Mussolini "never killed anybody" the assembled leaders will be happy to keep the generalissimo's name out of their talks.

    Yet they will meet at a place haunted by his spirit. EUR was conceived by Mussolini in the mid-1930s as the site for his planned World Fair of 1941-42, to display "the spiritual and material accomplishments of various nations". By nations he meant Italy. And it is one of the peculiarities of Italian Fascism, in contrast to Nazism and Bolshevism, that it worked with some of the country's best architects and artists.

    Fascism's monumental architectural style, Rationalism, was inspired by classical Rome and European Modernism. Mussolini's fateful decision to ally himself with Hitler in the Second World War meant that the expo never happened, and the site was not completed. But even as war began the most striking buildings were in place, including the domed Palazzo dei Congressi.

    In the 1950s work on EUR resumed and it is now the most modern commercial centre in the capital - the closest thing Rome possesses to a Canary Wharf or La Defense. The new owners hope to convince foreign businesses of its benefits.

    Yet the area's historical origins are stubbornly present. The exterior of the Palazzo degli Uffici is covered with an immense bas-relief that depicts Mussolini saluting while astride a horse. After his fall, the dictator's image was defaced. But during the rehabilitation of Fascism over the past decade the face was restored.

    In the basement of the same building are three immense bronze heads, at least four feet high, of a scowling Il Duce. If ever they are put back outside, it would be the clearest sign yet that he is back in business.

    John Nyren Buchanan - 10/5/2003

    This is a skewed example of the Murdock view of the world, says this intimate observer of DE since 1976.
    The "Historic Constellation" is vast , from the 90 men summarily executed in Koepernick in July 1933 to Hitler's intented plan to "eliminate" the Christian Churches after a successful war. How shall we put in the balance one person or group's suffering versus another? Nor was German suffering a taboo until ...
    Burleigh was right about resonses to Goldhage, although many felt obliged to welcome hin in Germany. Finkelstein and Birn have ansered his claims definitvely. On Munich , Burleigh repeats the old excuse for Munich which an adviser to Douglas-Home at Munich repudiated long ago. Beevor has already described over 1M rapes of Berlin woman by the occupying power in 1945; is this 'lesser crme' because they were not sent East , as POW's were, only to return ( some, who survived) in 1952. ? Does he really think the German victims in Sudentenland in 1945 "triggered off the whole damn thing"? Janner has already joined in the condemnation of the Chief Rabbi of the UK as anti-semitic for his criticism of Mr. Sharon. Who dares to both memorialize the complete list of WW2 holocaust and those who suffered by other means , whatever their ethnic or political origins , in the face of this kind of reasoning. And where are the German euthanaia victims in all this ? On 'the wrong side'? Reading history backwards , from narrow specialist training or agendas only discredits historical writing and gives way to the poisonous diatribes of ignorant and / malicious press and media typology. However impossible of achievement , "Wie es eigentlich gewesen" is still THE only honest goal of historical research and writing , whatever one thinks of von Ranke's own record.
    From a first hand historian's long acquaintanceship with so many victims of Hitler's madness . "In life they were beloved, and in death they were not divided."
    JNB / Cambridge, MA and Berlin, DE

    Charles Maier - 10/4/2003

    That Goebbels might have extracted a sexual favor from any woman he could is hardly news. That such a sexual encounter, if it took place, would have been the decisive reason for freeing the Jewish men seems implausible; his voraciousness already aroused enough disapproval. But even if this report were correct, it would be callous and unjust to devalue the courage and significance of the protest. The Rosenstrasse protest, so far as I know, was the only public act of collective solidarity against the persecution of the Jews. It would remain a rare bright spot in the history of the period even if it had proved unsuccessful. Readers can consult Nathan Stoltzfus's "Resistance of the Heart" for an English-language account.

    editor - 10/3/2003

    Sunday Times (London)
    September 28, 2003, Sunday
    SECTION: Overseas news; News; 24
    HEADLINE: Allies blamed for German suffering
    BYLINE: Peter Conradi

    FOR Johannes Rau, the German president, it was the perfect opportunity to reflect on the appalling suffering of his 12m fellow countrymen who were expelled from their homes in Poland and elsewhere in eastern Europe after the second world war.

    As his audience, many of whom experienced the horrors first hand, listened rapt, he recounted a litany of rape and death about which he said Germans had kept quiet for too long. The head of state went much further, however, in remarks reflecting a new determination by Germans to present themselves as the victims as well as perpetrators of Nazism.

    In a speech that has gone largely unreported in Germany since he delivered it earlier this month in Berlin, Rau, 72, who is due to retire next May, criticised Britain for appeasing Adolf Hitler in the 1930s.

    Although he did not mention Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister, by name Rau condemned those who had "extended their hand" to Hitler at a meeting in Munich in September 1938 -at which Germany was handed the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia, preparing the way for the annexation of the whole country.

    Rau also decried those who "in central and eastern Europe, first, working together with the Germans, deprived the Jews of their rights" and then afterwards deprived the Germans of their rights too. He pointed in particular at the Allied summits in 1945 at Yalta and Potsdam that agreed to give swathes of former German territory to its eastern neighbours -forcing a German exodus he compared with the ethnic cleansing in the Balkans in the 1990s.

    The suffering of those who were expelled -known as the Vertriebenen -was part of a "historic constellation" that included the Holocaust, the president claimed.

    "Hitler's criminal policies do not exonerate anyone who answered terrible wrongs with terrible wrongs," Rau told his approving audience at the annual meeting of the Bund der Vertriebenen (Expellees Association). "The pan-European catastrophe can only really be understood in its entire context."

    Rau's comments coincided with a debate in Germany about plans for a centre in Berlin to commemorate the suffering of the Vertriebenen which has alarmed Germany's eastern neighbours. The cover of Wprost, a bestselling Polish magazine, last week depicted Erika Steinbach, 60, the leader of the association, in SS uniform straddling the chancellor, Gerhard Schroder.

    A spokesman for Rau, a member of Schroder's ruling Social Democrat party, insisted that the president was not trying to deny Hitler's prime responsibility for the Holocaust.

    "The people in Germany know what the cause of the war was," he said. "But even if the question of guilt is clear, it does not mean that one should not look at which other mistakes were made in Europe."

    Rau's attempt to link the fate of the Vertriebenen with that of the Jews, however, appears to mark a further stage in what Antony Beevor, the second world war historian, has criticised as attempts by the Germans to create a new Opferkultur, or victim culture. The fate of the Vertriebenen "may have been unfair and bloody but to a certain degree, who triggered off the whole damn thing?" Beevor said yesterday.

    Discussion of the issue was taboo for decades, not least for fear the then communist regimes of Poland and Czechoslovakia would use it to denounce attempts by the "revanchist" West German government to reopen debate over "lost lands".

    The situation was transformed by the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Reunified Germany promised not to try to change its eastern borders, but its leaders began to take a fresh look at the past.

    The process gathered pace as political power passed to a new post-war generation - exemplified by Schroder's defeat of Helmut Kohl in 1998.

    Many German commentators reacted angrily to the 1996 book Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust, in which Daniel Goldhagen, an American academic, pinned the blame for Nazi atrocities on the population as a whole.

    A new front on the theme of German suffering was opened at the beginning of last year with Crabwalk, a book by Gunter Grass, the Nobel laureate, about the sinking by a Russian submarine of the German liner Wilhelm Gustloff, with more than 9,000 refugees on board, in January 1945. Jorg Friedrich's bestselling book Der Brand, about the allied bombing of Dresden, is written in a similar vein.

    Michael Burleigh, author of The Third Reich: A New History, said Rau's comments reflected growing exasperation among Germans at the "accusatory" tone of books such as Goldhagen's. "The Germans want to say, 'Terrible things happened to us too'," he explained.

    It was nevertheless "ludicrous", said Burleigh, for the president to condemn Britain for giving in to Hitler at Munich. "There's a massive difference between trying to come to some reasonable accommodation of what can be seen to be people's legitimate demands and actually waging a massive war of aggression," he said.

    Lord Janner, president of the parliamentary committee against anti-semitism, said Rau was right to claim Chamberlain's surrender to Hitler at Munich began a "trail of human misery" that also caused great hardship for the Germans. But it was "completely inappropriate" to compare the murder of 6m Jews to the suffering of Germans expelled from their homes.

    editor - 10/3/2003

    Ottawa Citizen
    September 28, 2003 Sunday Final Edition
    SECTION: News; Pg. A10
    HEADLINE: Mussolini wanted Hitler punished by Vatican
    SOURCE: The Associated Press
    BYLINE: Tom Rachman

    ROME -- Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini once privately suggested the Vatican consider excommunicating Adolf Hitler, a historian said yesterday, citing a document recently disclosed by the Holy See.

    Experts were surprised by the document, but noted that Mussolini's remark came in April 1938, the year before he sealed a wartime alliance with the Nazi leader.

    Professor Emma Fattorini pointed out that Hitler had invaded Austria shortly before Mussolini's reported remark. The Italian dictator was worried about his own borders, she said.

    She speculated that Mussolini's aim was "to weaken Hitler and have more power himself, to do it in a way that the Church would stop Hitler a bit."

    The Vatican document describes an April 10, 1938, meeting between the go-between from the Holy See to Mussolini, the Rev. Pietro Tacchi Venturi, and Pope Pius XI. Tacchi Venturi told the pope about his private talks with Mussolini three days earlier.

    According to the document, Mussolini had advised the Vatican envoy "that it would be worthwhile with Hitler to be more forceful, without half-measures; not right away, not immediately, but waiting for the most opportune moment to adopt more forceful measures, for example, excommunication."

    Hitler was born into a Catholic family, but did not practice the faith.

    editor - 10/2/2003

    The Times (London)
    September 27, 2003, Saturday
    SECTION: Overseas news; 20
    HEADLINE: Film casts doubt on role of women who defied Hitler
    BYLINE: Roger Boyes
    Thousands of Germans thought their single protest forced a Nazi climbdown. Now Roger Boyes hears another story.

    GISELA MIESSNER, full of anger and swirling memories, is ready to talk. The doughty 78-year-old Berliner is one of the last surviving participants in an extraordinary revolt against Nazi power: the Rosenstrasse protest, in which thousands of ordinary German women forced Hitler to back down and release their Jewish husbands and fathers.

    Now, as controversy flares over the 1943 rebellion, Frau Miessner is distressed to learn that her bravery may have counted for nothing.

    A new film has cast doubt on the significance of the rebels and their act of defiance. Rosenstrasse, which won honours at the Venice Film Festival, contends that Joseph Goebbels, Hitler's propaganda minister, allowed the men to walk free only after one of the Rosenstrasse women, an aristocratic piano-player married to a Jewish violinist, agreed to a one-night stand with him. "I just don't believe it!" Frau Miessner says, displaying the raw energy that gave her the strength to face down the machineguns of the SS. Yet the question lingers: is she a newly discovered wartime heroine or an accidental bystander, a historical footnote?

    Frau Miessner was a Mischling -the Nazi word, loosely translated as mongrel, denoting a child of German-Jewish and German-Aryan parents. There were some 35,000 mixed marriages in the early 1930s, but, from 1935, new marriages between Germans and Jews were forbidden.

    Many couples buckled under the pressure and divorced. Those who stayed together were stripped of their assets. But the Jews in these marriages were spared deportation to the concentration camps; instead, they were forced to work in munitions factories. They survived thanks to the partial immunity granted by a German wife in a society that made a cult out of German womanhood.

    The situation changed in February 1943. The Germans had been crushed in Stalingrad and morale was low. Goebbels decided to prepare a birthday present for Hitler, to cheer him up: a Berlin entirely free of Jews. The previously shielded Jewish husbands were herded into the Jewish community charity offices in Rosenstrasse, the Street of Roses. Destination: unknown.

    "My father, Joseph Mannheim, was among them," Frau Miessner says. "He was Jewish, my mother Erna was Christian. We used to celebrate both the Jewish and Christian holidays."

    Joseph had been a successful grain trader. The Nazis closed his family business, put him to work in a factory, stamped a letter J in his passport and made him wear the yellow star. Gisela, who had been a bright grammar school girl, went to work as a skivvy.

    "In school, I had to sit alone on the Jews' Bench and then, after the pogroms of 1938, they simply threw me out of school altogether," she said. On February 27, 1943, her father disappeared. The previous evening Gisela had become engaged to her boyfriend, a soldier in Potsdam, and she had hoped to break the news. Instead, with her mother, she went to police headquarters, the Gestapo and the hospitals.

    They tracked Joseph Mannheim to the Street of Roses.

    Gisela's face crumples when she remembers bringing a parcel with clean underwear to the detention centre. "I was 17, freshly in love, and my fiance said: 'Look, I'm part of the family now, your father is mine and we'll go there together'." The parcel was accepted, a sign that her father was being held and still alive.

    Gisela and her mother joined a knot of women standing in the street across from the detention centre. Police guarded the entrance. Sometimes a prisoner would stick his face to the window. It was frosty, but the women remained. The rumour mill began. The vigil of a dozen women became 100, then 300, then more than 1,000.

    Women came and went through the day and the total number could have reached 6,000.

    "My mother worked in the mornings and then came straight to the street," Frau Miessner says. "Then I would come with my younger sister."

    The crowd grew more surly by the day, shouting out the names of their husbands and fathers, then chanting: "Give us back our men!" An SS unit was brought in and they pointed machineguns at the women, who stood their ground. A carload of SS men sped down the street, shooting in the air: then the imprisoned men went wild, too, scrambling for the windows to see if their wives and daughters had been shot.

    Nine days after the protest began, the Nazis relented. The unshaven, unwashed prisoners filed out of the house and the protesters melted away.

    Yet it is this moment of liberation that is now at the heart of the controversy.

    If the film, directed by Margareta von Trotta, is an accurate portrayal of the events, the street protest was an irrelevance.

    The film has proved popular with audiences, but academics urge caution. Among the fiercest critics is Wolfgang Benz, the respected historian. Goebbels, he said, had nothing to do with the decision to free the prisoners; it was not in his jurisdiction. In any case, the prisoners were never destined for the gas chambers.

    They were being held with the aim of being used as a reserve labour unit, to fill the gap left by other deported Jews.

    There had been no change of policy: Hitler was still ready to give a measure of protection to Jews with German wives. "That does not reduce the astonishing courage of the women," Professor Benz says.

    So, where does that leave Frau Miessner? If the prisoners were to be freed anyway, or if a sexual sacrifice played a role, then her commitment, those frightening days and nights, served no real purpose.

    "I really don't believe that," she says. "This was after Stalingrad and we frightened the regime, they were worried that the mood would turn." The film has a happy end. Gisela's life has been less straightforward. Her father, though freed, had to work in the Jewish hospital and, in the final days of the war, dug trenches.

    He was wounded and died a week after the end of the war. "It broke my mother and so I had to look after her and my sister," she says. Her fiance died on the Russian front.

    Historical accounts of the Second World War have mostly ignored the Rosenstrasse episode. East Germans prefer to emphasise communist resistance to Hitler; West Germans were embarrassed by the moral questions opened up by the female protest.

    Why did not more members of the civilian population revolt? Only now has Rosenstrasse returned to centre-stage, and scratched open a few wounds.

    editor - 10/2/2003


    German president Johannes Rau stated Britain, after appeasing Hitler in the 1930s, should share the Second World War guilt of his country. He spoke this month at the meeting of the Bund der Vertriebenen (Expellees Association) and said: “Hitler’s criminal policies do not exonerate anyone who answered terrible wrongs with terrible wrongs… The pan-European catastrophe can only really be understood in its entire context.” He criticised the Yalta agreement in 1945 which forced Germans out of the eastern territories. (Sept 28th)

    Editor - 10/2/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #38; 1 October 2003)
    by Bruce Craig (editor) <
    National Coalition for History (NCH)

    1. Congress Fails Yet Again to Meet Budget Deadline
    2. $10 Million in the Pipeline for Support of Post-Secondary History
    3. NEH Appropriation Now Heads Toward Conference
    4. US Rejoins UNESCO
    5. Fordham Institute Issues History Standards Report
    6. Bits and Bytes: IMLS Museum Grants Awarded; DOE Grant of Interest; $1
    Million for Cold War History and Preservation; Korea Conference
    7. Articles of Interest: No posting this week

    In spite of the fervent hopes the Republican leadership, Congress failed
    yet again to meet targets to wrap-up the annual appropriation
    process. This week, the Senate (as did the House last week), passed the
    first of what is expected to be several stopgap measures to keep the
    federal government running beyond 1 October when fiscal year 2004
    begins. President Bush, having signed a "continuing resolution" (CR), has
    made it possible for money to continue to flow at FY 2003 levels, thus
    keeping the federal government operating for another month. If Congress
    does not finish its appropriation work by then, another CR will need to be

    Lawmakers are supposed to clear all 13 spending bills required to fund
    government agency operations by September 30 each year. It rarely
    happens. Last year a bitter deadlock kept the appropriation process on the
    Congressional agenda until mid-February. This year Republicans had
    predicted smooth sailing but spiraling federal deficits and the ongoing
    debate over funding the war in Iraq complicated the appropriations debate.

    So far only three of the spending bills have been passed. Some lawmakers
    predict that most of the remaining measures will end up being lumped into
    an "omnibus" bill that would be passed by both houses shortly before
    Congress adjourns for the year.

    Legislation is in preparation that appropriates $10 million for a new
    program supporting history education in colleges and universities. The
    funds will likely be forthcoming as a result of the current effort to amend
    Title VII of the Higher Education Act of 1965 by the House Education and
    the Workforce Committee.

    The National Coalition for History has learned that language is slotted to
    be added to the "Graduate Opportunities in Higher Education Act of 2003"
    (H.R. 3076) introduced by Congressman Pete Hoekstra (R-MI). The language
    in the bill will establish academic programs including graduate and
    undergraduate courses, seminars, and lectures, support of research and
    development of teaching materials for faculty development, and academic
    programs that support the teaching of "traditional American history."

    Several other history related bills remain in limbo, including legislation
    introduced by Senator Lamar Alexander (S. 504), Senator Judd Gregg (S.
    1515), and Congressman Tom Petri (H.R. 2336). All of these bills focus on
    reforming history education in the nation's elementary, secondary, and/or
    post-secondary level. Senator Alexander's bill, once thought to be headed
    for rapid enactment having passed the Senate with lightning speed, remains
    bogged down in the House. Alexander's strategy to tap into the National
    Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) "We the People" has also met with stiff
    opposition from the humanities and history-related community (see related
    story below).

    Several weeks ago we reported that funding for the National Endowment for
    the Humanities (NEH) "We the People" history-based outreach program was
    threatened by Senator Lamar Alexander's (R-TN) bold effort to sidetrack the
    agency's budget for his own history measure (see "Funding for the NEH "We
    the People" Initiative Threatened," NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE, Vol. 9, #34; 4
    September 2003). We now have a brief update.

    On 23 September 2003, the Senate passed the FY-2004 appropriations bill for
    Interior and Related Agencies (S. 1391/S. Rept. 108-89). The recommended
    budget for the NEH was pegged at $142 million -- unchanged from the
    recommendation by the Senate Appropriations Committee. The National
    Endowment for the Arts (NEA) was also left unchanged at $117.5 million. An
    effort by the humanities community to gain an additional $10 million for
    each of the NEH and NEA failed to materialize.

    Hill insiders report that while the conference bringing together managers
    from the House and Senate to reconcile aspects of each houses' conflicting
    measures has not been scheduled (and likely will not take place until late
    October or early November), behind the scenes negotiations have already
    started. Because the NEH budget is set at $142 million in both House and
    Senate-passed bills, negotiations will focus on the distribution of funds
    for the "We the People" (WTP) initiative.

    As readers will recall, the House allocated $15 million for the initiative
    as proposed in the President's budget while the Senate passed language that
    is more expansive but ambiguous. The Senate report reads: "...$15,000,000
    is provided for grants and administration of an American history and civics
    initiative. While the administration has included a request for funds to
    implement its $25,000,000 'We the People' American history initiative,
    Congress is currently considering similar legislation that would complement
    the administration's proposal. The Committee has attempted to fund the
    administration's request to the best of its ability given current budget
    constraints, but expects that design of the final program would incorporate
    Congressional priorities, should such legislation be enacted into law."

    At this writing, neither the Senate-passed Alexander bill (S. 504) nor an
    amended version (H.R. 1078) offered by Representative Roger Wicker (R-MS)
    has passed the House. Hill insiders, however, report that either bill may
    be "brought up any day." Over the last couple of weeks, a concerted
    effort has been made by the humanities and history coalition
    representatives who have met and discussed the WTP initiative with
    Congressional staff in an effort to resolve problems in the legislation and
    its funding.

    Decisions about the NEH "We the People" appropriation are likely to be made
    later this fall when the conferees meet. Right now exactly who will be
    appointed as conferees is unknown though representatives Charles Taylor
    (R-NC), who chairs the subcommittee of jurisdiction, and Norm Dicks (D-WA),
    as the ranking minority member of that committee, as well as Senator Conrad
    Burns (R-MT), chair of the Senate subcommittee, and Byron Dorgan (D-ND), as
    the ranking minority member, are sure to play central roles. The chairs
    and ranking members of the full committees -- Ted Stevens (R-AK) and Robert
    Byrd (D-WV) in the Senate, and Charles Young (R-FL) and David Obey (D-WI)
    in the House -- also may play important roles. Some insiders believe that
    given recent history, the final settlement may well be decided by
    Representative Taylor and Senator Burns alone.

    Even though it is unclear what will ultimately happen with the funding for
    the "We the People" initiative (some Hill insiders predict an ultimate
    funding level of $15 million), the fact remains that the NEH is getting an
    increase just short of $17 million, one of the largest increases in its
    history. Some of these funds will likely trickle down to a variety of
    history-related programs.

    After a nineteen year absence, the United States has returned as the 190th
    member of the United Nation's Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
    Organization (UNESCO). First Lady Laura Bush, who is currently traveling in
    Europe, made a whirlwind stop in Paris on 29 September 2003, where the
    UNESCO world headquarters is located. There she made some brief remarks
    that ushered the US back into that international body that she claimed "has
    been reformed."

    Mrs. Bush, who is a former teacher and librarian and UNESCO's honorary
    ambassador for the U.N. Decade of Literacy, stated that "America will
    participate fully in its a full, active and enthusiastic
    participant." The administration hopes that UNESCO can assist in making
    education accessible to all the world's children and be used as a weapon
    against terrorism. American participation will add about $60 million to
    UNESCO's current annual budget of $544 million.

    The United States withdrew from UNESCO in 1984 during the Reagan
    administration. President Reagan pulled American support from the
    organization because of the organization's overt support of abortion and
    other programs considered to be "anti-family" in developing countries. The
    Reagan administration also criticized UNESCO as being anti-religious,
    overly bureaucratic, poorly managed, corrupt, costly, wasteful, and imbued
    with anti-American, anti-Western, anti-capitalist bias often directed
    against American foreign policy.

    President Bush announced his intention to have the US rejoin the
    organization just over a year ago, during a speech before the U.N. General
    Assembly. The timing of his remarks came at a critical time when his
    administration was seeking allies in the emerging war against Iraq. At the
    time, most Hill observers considered that the Bush announcement was
    calculated to offset criticism and send a message to America's
    international critics that the Bush administration was not intent on a
    unilateral foreign policy that ignored traditional allies and international
    treaties. In making his announcement Bush went against the wishes of some
    members of his own party, particularly conservative members of the House of

    The Thomas B. Fordham Institute, a private foundation that supports
    research, publications, and action projects in elementary and secondary
    education reform, has issued a new report, "Effective State Standards for
    U.S. History: A 2003 Report Card." The report, written by historian
    Shelden M. Stern, includes a state-by-state analysis and evaluation of K-12
    education standards in American history based on three criteria:
    comprehensive historical content, sequential development, and balance.

    The report, like other studies recently issued from a variety of
    right-of-center "think-tanks" makes extensive use of anecdotal evidence in
    the text. However, a scoring criteria for evaluation was constructed with
    the assistance of a panel of scholar-advisors. Some critics question the
    logic and consistency of application of the scoring criteria. The report
    concludes that, in general, state history standards "are a parade of
    mediocrity" -- that only six states earn "outstanding grades," while
    standards in the vast majority of states were either "weak" or "ineffective."

    The report re-emphasizes a finding that is nearly universally advocated by
    members of the historical profession regardless of their political leaning:
    that "jurisdictions that are seriously committed to raising student
    achievement in history should require...for new teachers...a bachelor's
    degree in history...and, for retention and promotion, a master's degree in
    history ...Degrees in education should no longer be acceptable."

    Links to the report may be found on the Institute webpage at:

    Item #1 -- IMLS Museum Grants Awarded: The Institute of Museum and Library
    Services, the primary
    federal funding agency for the nation's museums and libraries, has awarded
    over $15 million to 169 outstanding museums across the country to use
    collections, resources, and technology for public outreach. These Learning
    Opportunity grants are designed to encourage museums to use their
    collections, expertise, and technology to create public value and
    strengthen learning in schools, at home, and in partnership with other
    community organizations. For a list of grant recipients organized by
    state, tap into: <>.
    To learn more about the Institute, please tap into: <>.

    Item #2 --DOE Grant of Interest: A recent Federal Register notice (18
    September 2003) inviting applications was posted by the U.S. Department of
    Education (September 26, 2003) and includes an announcement about funds
    available from the Fund for the Improvement of Post-secondary Education
    Comprehensive Program (CFDA#s 84.116A, 84.116B). The purpose of the $9
    million award program is to provide grants or enter into cooperative
    agreements to improve post-secondary education opportunities. The range of
    awards is expected to be in the $50-$275,000 range with the average award
    being $156,000. Institutions of higher education or combinations of those
    institutions and other public and private nonprofit institutions and
    agencies are eligible to apply. The deadline for transmittal of
    pre-applications is 3 November 2003; deadline for transmittal of final
    applications is 22 March 2004. Additional information is available online

    Item #3 -- $1 Million for Cold War History and Preservation: On 16
    September the Senate passed the Energy and Water Development Appropriations
    Act of 2004 (H.R. 2754) -- legislation that includes the following
    provision: "That the Secretary of Energy may use $1million of available
    funds to preserve historical sites associated with, and other aspects of
    the history of, the Manhattan Project." All of the money will be granted
    to the Atomic Heritage Foundation ( to
    continue work on the Foundation's ongoing Congressionally sanctioned report
    on how best to preserve the history of the Manhattan Project. The
    Foundation is also authorized to sub-contract with other entities for
    bricks and mortar preservation of historic sites, to assist in the 60
    anniversary celebration of the Los Alamos laboratory, and for other related

    Item #4 -- Korea Conference: The Truman Presidential Museum and Library in
    conjunction with several Missouri universities and the Harry S. Truman
    Library Institute for National and International Affairs is sponsoring a
    conference entitled, "Conflict and Consequence: A Conference on the Korean
    War and Its Unsettled Legacy" on 23 October 2003 at the Truman Library in
    Independence, Missouri. Distinguished presenters from the United States
    and Korea will participate. For agenda details and registration
    information, tap into: <>.

    No posting this week.

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE
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    Jana - 10/1/2003

    Hi there. I´m working on a college project and already searched a lot for Hirohito´s surrender speech. Can any of you help me out? I need it for radio, already searched at Kazaa and wasn´t sucessfull. Waiting for your help, Jana (Brazil).

    c21lim - 9/30/2003

    i'm very much interested at the new museum that designed by mr. i m. pei. i wonder if u could provide me further info, eg : the direct contact to this museum ?

    tq & have a nice day..

    editor - 9/29/2003


    Is Atlantis off the coast of Cyprus?

    An American researcher believes he has found the site of the fabled ancient civilisation of Atlantis. Explorer and mythologist Robert Sarmast believes the island lies off the south coast of present-day Cyprus. Using sonar technology, ocean mapping techniques and ancient texts he has now published maps to show where the underwater archaeology is situated. The legend of the civilisation originated in ancient Egypt and Greece and was described by the philosopher Plato in his dialogues the Timaeus. It was wealthy and powerful but eventually defeated and overwhelmed by a massive flood. The research has cost $500,000 and has been funded by the Heritage Standard Corporation; there are now plans to search the ocean floor. Mr Sarmast, who has published his findings in Discovery of Atlantis - The Startling Case for the Island of Cyprus, said: "We are set to make the biggest archaeological discovery of all time… Within his dialogues, Plato provides factual clues as to what Atlantis was like. I have matched all but two of the 45 clues with the area around Cyprus.” Others believe Plato’s writings are allegorical. Archaeologist Dr Despo Pilides, at the Cypriot Department of Antiquities, said: "Serious archaeologists tend to place the search for Atlantis within the realm of fantasy." (Sept 28th)

    editor - 9/26/2003

    The forced eviction of thousands of American Indians from their homes in the 1830s was marked by a commemorative ride by 100,000 motorcyclists this week. The ride paid tribute to 13,000 Cherokee who had to travel 1,000 miles in a trek under Chief J. Ross which became known as the 'Trail of Tears' to Oklahoma and Alabama. 4,000 died along the way when the Native Americans in the US Southeast were forcibly moved out of their homelands by the Indian Removal Act. In Oklahoma the Cherokee became one of the Five Civilized Tribes moved west by the passage of the Act, implemented in 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. It called for all Indian tribes east of the Mississippi to be resettled in the western territories; 60,000 were moved in all. The ride has grown from eight bikers in 1994 to 100,000 this year, setting off from Tennessee to Oklahoma. Ride organiser Bill Cason said any money raised would pay to establish heritage sites and be distributed to American Indians in Tennessee and Alabama who were seeking college scholarships. Mr Cason stated: "Our main thing is education… They even take it out of history books and we'd like for them to put it back in." Carroll Crowe, the Eastern Cherokee deputy chief, said: "If you look back through the history books, there is probably not a paragraph of any history about any Native American, as far as significant history about the actual Trail of Tears, putting all Cherokee in stockades.” (Sept 21st)

    editor - 9/26/2003

    The Independent (London)
    September 26, 2003, Friday
    HIGHLIGHT: Cats Falk: Her body was found in a submerged car

    GERMAN PROSECUTORS have arrested an alleged member of an East German secret police death squad which is believed to have assassinated dozens of enemies of the former Communist regime during the Cold War.

    The arrest of the suspect, named only as Juergen G, aged 53, is the first of its kind since East Germany's collapse in 1989, and could lead to the unmasking of scores of other members of the former regime's clandestine unit.

    Federal prosecutors said in a statement yesterday that Juergen G, who was arrested on Monday, was being held on suspicion of carrying out a series of contract killings between 1976 and 1987 for East Germany's notorious Stasi secret police. A Stasi dossier containing the names of thousands of East and West Germans believed to have spied for East Germany during the Cold War is thought to have helped to lead prosecutors to the suspect.

    The dossier, called the Rosenholz file, was held by the CIA and handed back to Germany in June this year after protracted negotiations between Washington and Berlin. A Russian KGB agent smuggled the Rosenholz file out of the Stasi headquarters in east Berlin during the chaos that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. The document arrived in CIA hands in what is regarded as one of the agency's most spectacular intelligence coups.

    Federal prosecutors believe the Stasi assassination squad was responsible for killing those regarded by the regime as traitors or as a threat to the East German state. The unit was believed to have been set up at the height of the Cold War by the Stasi commander Erich Mielke.

    Karl-Wilhelm Fricke, a German historian, said: "There have been dozens of clues pointing to the existence of such units which operated on the so-called invisible front'. They suggest that they were not only trained to kill the regime's opponents, but actually did so."

    Mr Fricke said that proving the existence of a Stasi assassination squad had been hampered until now because of a lack of records and the fact that many documents were destroyed by the Stasi in 1989 and 1990 during the collapse of the regime.

    The German media have linked a number of suspicious deaths to the Stasi. They include those of Lutz Eigendorf, an East German footballer who defected to the West and was killed in a mysterious car accident in 1983. Eigendorf's Alfa Romeo hit a tree on a straight road. Tests showed he had alcohol in his blood, but witnesses said he had not had a drink before getting into his car.

    Another case involved Cats Falk, a Swedish newspaper reporter who vanished in November 1984 after investigating links between western weapons manufacturers and the East German regime. Her body was dragged from a car submerged in a Stockholm canal six months later.

    editor - 9/26/2003

    Public release date: 22-Sep-2003
    [ Print This Article | Close This Window ]

    Contact: Joel Schwarz
    University of Washington

    Bones from French cave show Neanderthals, Cro-Magnon hunted same prey
    A 50,000-year record of mammals consumed by early humans in southwestern France indicates there was no major difference in the prey hunted by Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon, according to a new study.
    The paper, published in the online Journal of Archaeological Science, counters the idea proposed by some scientists that Cro-Magnon, who were physically similar to modern man, supplanted Neanderthals because they were more skilled hunters as a result of some evolutionary physical or mental advantage.

    "This study suggests Cro-Magnon were not superior in getting food from the landscape," said lead author Donald Grayson, a University of Washington professor of archaeology. "We could detect no difference in diet, the animals they were hunting and the way they were hunting across this period of time, aside from those caused by climate change.

    "So the takeover by Cro-Magnon does not seem to be related to hunting capability. There is no significant difference in large mammal use from Neanderthals to Cro-Magnon in this part of the world. The idea that Neanderthals were big, dumb brutes is hard for some people to drop. Cro-Magnon created the first cave art, but late Neanderthals made body ornaments, so the depth of cognitive difference between the two just is not clear."

    The study also resurrects a nearly 50-year-old theory first proposed by Finnish paleontologist Björn Kurtén that modern humans played a role in the extinction of giant cave bears in Europe. Cro-Magnon may have been the original "apartment hunters" and displaced the bears by competing with them for the same caves the animals used for winter den sites.

    Grayson and his colleague, Francoise Delpech, a French paleontologist at the Institut de Prehistoire et de Geologie du Quanternaire at the University of Bordeaux, examined the fossil record left in Grotte XVI, a cave above the Ceou River, near its confluence with the Dordogne River. The cave has a rich, dated archaeological sequence that extends from about 65,000 to about 12,000 years ago, spanning the time when Neanderthals flourished and died off and when Cro-Magnon moved into the region. Neanderthals disappeared from southwestern France around 35,000 years ago, although they survived longer in southern Spain and central Europe.

    The researchers were most interested in the transition from the Middle to Upper Paleolithic, or Middle to Late Stone Age.

    Neanderthals occupied Grotte XVI as far back as 65,000 years ago, perhaps longer. Between 40,000 and 35,000 years ago, people began making stone tools in France, including at Grotte XVI, that were more like those later fashioned by Cro-Magnon. However, human remains found with these tools at several sites, were Neanderthal, not Cro-Magnon. Similar tools but no human remains from this time period were found in Grotte XVI and people assumed to be Cro-Magnon did not occupy the cave until about 30,000 years ago.

    The researchers examined more than 7,200 bones and teeth from large hoofed mammals that had been recovered from the cave. The animals – ungulates such as reindeer, red deer, roe deer, horses and chamois were the most common prey – were the mainstay of humans in this part of the world, according to Grayson.

    He and Delpech found a remarkable dietary similarity over time. Throughout the 50,000-year record, each bone and tooth assemblage, regardless of the time period or the size of the sample involved, contained eight or nine species of ungulates, indicating that Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon both hunted a wide variety of game.

    The only difference the researchers found was in the relative abundance of species, particularly reindeer, uncovered at the various levels in Grotte XVI. At the oldest dated level in the cave, reindeer remains accounted for 26 percent of the total. Red deer were the most common prey at this time, accounting for nearly 34 percent of the bones and teeth. However, as summer temperatures began to drop in Southwestern France, the reindeer numbers increased and became the prey of choice. By around 30,000 years ago, when Cro-Magnon moved into the region, reindeer accounted for 52 percent of the bones and teeth. And by around 12,500 years ago, during the last ice age, reindeer remains accounted for 94 percent of bones and teeth found in Grotte XVI.

    Grayson and Delpech also looked at the cut marks left on bones to analyze how humans were butchering their food. They found little difference except, surprisingly, at the uppermost level, which corresponds to the last ice age.

    "It is possible that because it was so cold, people were hard up for food," Grayson said. "The bones were very heavily butchered, which might be a sign of food stress. However, if this had occurred earlier during Neanderthal times, people would have said this is a sure sign that Neanderthals did not have the fine hand-eye coordination to do fine butchering."

    In examining the Grotte XVI record, the researchers also found a sharp drop in the number of cave bears from Neanderthal to Cro-Magnon times.

    "Cave bears and humans may have been competing for the same living space and this may have led to their extinction," Grayson said. He added that it is not clear if the decline and eventual extinction of the bears was driven by an increase in the number of humans or increased human residence times in caves, or both.

    "If we can understand the extinction of any animal from the past, such as the cave bear, it gives us a piece of evidence showing the importance of habitat to animals. The cave bear is one of the icons of the late Pleistocene Epoch, similar to the saber tooth cats and mammoths in North America. If further study supports Kurtén's argument, we finally may be in a position to confirm a human role in the extinction of a large Pleistocene mammal on a Northern Hemisphere continent."

    For more information, contact Grayson at (206) 543-5587 or grayson at or Delpech at 033-05-56-84-8890 or

    editor - 9/25/2003

    Excerpt from:

    September 23, 2003, Tuesday
    SECTION: Pg. 16
    HEADLINE: Outcry as Germans recreate war siege in Russia

    BYLINE: By Julius Strauss in St Petersburg

    A GERMAN war film being shot in St Petersburg about the dying days of the Third Reich has caused an outcry in a city where memories of the Nazi siege are still fresh.

    The Downfall traces Hitler's final days and the Red Army's onslaught on Berlin, but St Petersburgers have been incensed by the production team's comments that some of the city resembles the shattered German capital in 1945.

    Christine Rothe, the film's executive producer, said a five-month search for an appropriate location took them all over Europe. "We tried Berlin, but it's too modern, because it was totally destroyed at the end of the war. We tried in Prague, Poland, Riga, Romania."

    Shabby parts of St Petersburg proved just right. But the inhabitants are intensely proud of their city and quick to defend it.

    The perceived slight is particularly galling as the Russian government has just spent more than pounds 600 million on a facelift to spruce up Peter the Great's city for its 300th anniversary.

    Leading the protests against the Germans' presence are veterans' associations which represent survivors of the siege of Leningrad, as the city was known in Soviet times.

    The siege was one of the most brutal of the Second World War. More than 800,000 men, women and children starved to death or were killed by shelling and fires when the Nazis blockaded the city for 900 days.

    For those who lived through the war, the film has reopened a wound that has festered for more than 50 years.

    "Why do they only come now?" said Valentina Marfyonok, chairman of one of the veterans' groups. "They should have come here in 1945 and taken a look then."

    Zinaida Strautman, the secretary of the Veterans of the Siege of Leningrad of Vasilievsky Island, said: "My mother was 32 when the siege started. She was a Stakhanov worker and received an extra ration. Even then we nearly starved. We used to boil pine needles to make tea."

    In her office, the paint peeling off the walls and tears running down her face, she added: "We went through so much because of the Germans and then they come and make this film here. It's like they are gloating." Yuri Mochalo, a 75-year-old veteran, said: "The Germans can never apologise enough for what they did here. A lot of Germans died but not enough to pay for their guilt." Other veterans, though, were more forgiving.

    Leonid Golubyev, a 67-year-old veteran who was a child during the siege, said: "I can't be angry with the Germans. That's all faded. And it is certainly not their fault that nobody fixes our buildings."

    editor - 9/25/2003

    Excerpt from:

    The Independent (London)
    September 22, 2003, Monday
    SECTION: NEWS; Pg. 3
    BYLINE: DAVID KEYS ARCHAEOLOGY CORRESPONDENT The 1644 Battle of Marston Moor, as depicted by the military artist J Barker; Treasure hunters use metal detectors to scan a field at Marston Moor during a charity rally this weekend Charles Knight/UNP; Find: Part of a war horse's bridle Charles Knight/UNP

    Britain's famous battlefields - with names as evocative as Bosworth Field, Culloden and Hastings - are as much a part of the historical canvas of the nation as Stonehenge and the Tower of London.

    But many of these important sites are now under threat, according to archaeologists, from a new menace: metal detectors. The invasion of amateur treasure hunters is becoming such a problem that attempts to discover the truth about some of the most famous battles in British history are being jeopardised.

    At least 10 important battlefields have been damaged by uncontrolled metal detecting and the unrecorded removal of thousands of objects, the Battlefield Trust - a Heritage Lottery Fund supported charity - said yesterday.

    They include medieval England's largest battle (Towton, 1461), Edward IV's great Wars of the Roses victory at Tewkesbury (1471), the Civil War battles of Newark and Newbury, and Henry V's first great battle (Shrewsbury in 1403) - one of the first mass deployments of longbows.

    The largest single metal-detecting operation on a British battlefield took place on the weekend of 13 September at an English Civil War battle site - Marston Moor in Yorkshire. At least 300 people with metal detectors discovered many objects, including dozens, possibly hundreds, of lead shot and other objects from the battle itself, the brass top of one gunpowder flask, the lead spout of another, four spur buckles, part of a halberd or pike, numerous pistol balls and two pieces of decorated bridle equipment. A dozen coins in circulation at the time of the battle were also unearthed.

    The problem was that there was no co-ordinated strategy for trying to ensure that battlefield finds were fully reported and recorded. The two hard-pressed officials present from the Government's antiquities recording quango - the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) - were overwhelmed by dozens of finds from all periods, from Roman times to the 17th Century. Out of about 140 items officially reported to the officials, fewer than 10 were understood to be relevant to the battle.

    The Marston Moor operation was a legal, family- oriented event on private land which was only recently identified as part of the battlefield. The rally raised more than pounds 5,000 for charity.

    But British archaeologists are furious. "What happened at Marston Moor was inexcusable," said the Battlefields Trust archaeologist Glenn Foard. "Metal detecting of this sort on nationally important battlefields destroys vital archaeological evidence of exactly how battles were fought."

    Now English Heritage is planning to work with the PAS to provide more support. "English Heritage will seek to work much more closely with the Portable Antiquities Scheme to develop better recording methodologies and practices," said English Heritage's top battlefield expert, Paul Stamper.

    editor - 9/25/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #37; 25 September 2003) by Bruce Craig (editor) < National Coalition for History (NCH) Website *****************

    FLASH! Teaching American History Grants Awards Announced 1. Legislative Update: LSTA Signed Into Law By President 2. New Bush Executive Order Now In Effect 3. Report: Meeting of State Department History Advisory Committee 4. Outsourcing -- Senate Hands White House a Victory 5. Bits and Bytes: Highlights of SAA's 2003 Annual Meeting Posted; Archives Week 2003; 6. Articles of Interest: "The Senate Tries an Odd Experiment" (New York Times 24 August 2003); "Clinton 'History' Doesn't Repeat Itself in China" (New York Times 24 September 2003)

    *************************************************** FLASH! -- TEACHING AMERICAN HISTORY GRANT AWARDS ANNOUNCED On 22 September 2003, Department of Education Secretary Rod Paige announced nearly $100 million in Teaching American History (TAH) grants to 114 school districts in 38 states. Paige also announced a new cooperative venture with The History Channel to help make students more aware of the importance of civic holidays. For additional information about the TAH grant recipients, tap into the DOE "Teaching American History" webpage at: <>. *****************************

    1. LEGISLATIVE UPDATE: LSTA SIGNED INTO LAW BY PRESIDENT On 25 September 2003, President Bush signed into law legislation (H.R. 13), the Museum and Library Services Act (H.R. 13), that passed the House in its final version on 16 September. The House version reflects the Senate amendments that passed the upper chamber on 1 August 2003.

    The new law reauthorizes the Museum and Library Services Act to the year 2009. It increases the base amount of the formula distribution to states in LSTA, sets the authorization level for library programs for FY 2004 at $232 million, and for museum programs at $38,600,000, and makes some changes in the way museum and library programs are administered. For example, there is new language focusing on library and museum projects determined to be "obscene" ( defined in accordance with recent Supreme Court decisions -- "taking into consideration general standards of decency and respect for the diverse beliefs and values of the American public") that may not receive federal funding. On a practical basis, it will be difficult for the agency to review specific questionable state library programs because they are funded with block grants. Museum programs, however, because they are ultimately approved by the Chair, may receive scrutiny.

    Within the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), the "National Museum Services Board" is replaced with a "National Museum and Library Services Board" which is established to "advise the Director" on the operations of the Institute. The Board is to be comprised of officials of the IMLS, and is to include ten members appointed by the President (by and with the advice and consent of the Senate), as well as representatives of the library and museum community -- all of whom shall serve a five year term.

    Title II focuses on library services and technology. Minimum allotments for each state is set at $340,000 (smaller amounts are established for various territories). The new formula for grants are expected to assist in the effort to make larger grants available to smaller states. Among other purposes, grants to states are to expand services for learning and access to information and education resources including through electronic means.

    Title III, newly titled as the Museum Services Act (MSA), focuses on the delivery of museum services. The MSA seeks to encourage and support museum in carrying out their public service role in "connecting the whole of society to the cultural, artistic, historical, natural, and scientific understandings that constitute our heritage." Funds supporting museum activities are authorized on a federal cost-share basis with (except in special circumstances) the Federal government share not exceeding 50 percent. Technical assistance grants are authorized as are special grants for Native Americans.

    Miscellaneous provisions in the act include: providing higher funding levels (up to $8 billion from $5 billion) for administration of the Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Act (thus increasing maximum coverage for a single exhibition to $600 million from $500 million); changing the name of the Capital Children's Museum in Washington D.C. to the National Children's Museum; and making other minor technical amendments to the MSA.


    NEW BUSH EXECUTIVE ORDER NOW IN EFFECT On 22 September 2003, President Bush's Executive Order (EO) 13292 on national security classification and declassification, which was issued last March, came into force. The EO was framed as an amendment to President Clinton's 1995 Executive Order 12958 rather than a wholesale replacement of it. Most national security records analysts maintain the new EO preserves the basic structure of its predecessor order.

    The new Bush EO continues the principle of automatic declassification, while on a practical basis defers its effective date for full federal agency compliance by a few years. According to the implementing directive published today, "No later than December 31, 2006, all classified records that are more than 25 years old and have been determined to have permanent historical value will be automatically declassified whether or not the records have been reviewed."

    According to Steven Aftergood of the Federation of American Scientists, "The idea of declassifying a record without review is a radical innovation that challenges the deepest instincts of security bureaucrats. But it offers the only practical hope of making the huge backlog of classified historical records publicly available. Still, it remains a hope, not yet a fact."

    According to William Leonard, Director of the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO), the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) agency that issued the directive and oversees its implementation, "As much as we've been talking about automatic declassification for the last several years, we have yet to automatically declassify a single document. But now we are on a path to make that happen."

    Despite the stated goals of the EO, there remains serious questions whether any federal government agency will ever declassify documents automatically without careful scrutiny. NARA, the Department of Energy, and the Department of State, as examples, have all instituted policies implementing various Congressionally directed mandatory review and/or re-review procedures (i.e. Kyl/Lott legislation) of which the net effect has been to slow the rate of declassification. The Department of Energy, for example, has implemented internal review procedures designed to "double-check" the work of declassification contractors. Inside sources report that "a lack of trust of the government trained and supervised declassification contractors" continues to impede declassification efforts.

    To the frustration of some Hill oversight committee staff as well as historians and researchers, the Department of State has implemented high-level electronic records review procedures that permits bureau and agency officials to conceivably delay the long-awaited first release of electronic records, including State department cables created in the mid-1970s. These electronic documents have already been reviewed, declassified, and cleared for release by professional historians and staff declassifiers.

    The ISOO Directive No. 1 on classified national security information, was published in the Federal Register on 22 September 22 (Volume 68, Number 183 -- Rules and Regulations, page 55167-55186 and may be found at: <> or at: <>

    3. REPORT: MEETING OF STATE DEPARTMENT HISTORY ADVISORY COMMITTEE On 15 September 2003 the Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation of the Department of State met in open session at the department's Washington D.C. offices. Minutes of the 4-5 June 2003 meeting ( were approved and new member Geoffrey Watson of the Catholic University School of Law representing the Society of International Law was introduced.

    Department of State History Office (HO) Chief Historian and Committee Executive Secretary Marc Susser gave his report. Susser announced that since the beginning of the year, nearly a dozen individuals had been added to the HO staff; that work was proceeding well on the joint documentary project with the History and Archives Department of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs on the era of detent and that a Spring 2005 conference with the Russians was being planned. Susser also reported on the HO participation during the recent Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations meeting.

    FRUS General Editor Ted Keefer reported that 23 historians now staffed the FRUS division and that 54 FRUS volumes were planned, 20 were either completed on in the process of declassification but that 16 had yet to be started. Keefer stated that while only three FRUS volumes were scheduled to be released in FY 2003, that FY 2004 would be a "blockbuster year" in terms of numbers of volumes released.

    The Committee devoted considerable time on the various undertakings by the Department to declassify and release to the public the department's 25 year-old records. Once again it was reported that "dates had slipped" (originally targeted for an August release date) for the transfer and release of the first batch of electronic records from State to NARA largely because an internal "management review" was continuing. Observers in the audience sensed frustration on the part of members of the Committee at this news and other similar reports relating to new and continuing "internal review procedures" by the Department of State, Energy, and NARA that have resulted in delays in releasing materials to the public (see related story above "New Bush Executive Order in Effect"). Brian Dowling of the Office of Information Programs and Services gave his usual detailed report on the status of various departmental declassification activities.

    During closed sessions the Committee was briefed on and discussed a variety of topics relating to declassification including the implementation of various Executive Orders, Kyl/Lott review, implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Department and the CIA, and ongoing efforts to meet the 30-year publication target for retrospective volumes in the FRUS series.

    In separate communications with members of the Committee and HO staff, the National Coalition for History has requested that the FRUS status report that previously was available to the public during open session meetings of the Committee once again be made available to the public either in hard copy or (better yet) on the HO web page. The request is under consideration by the HO.

    4. OUTSOURCING -- SENATE HANDS WHITE HOUSE A VICTORY The Bush administration plan to farm out more than 400,000 federal civil-service jobs -- ranging from archivists and historians to maintenance workers and national park fee collectors -- and privatize federal jobs deemed "commercial" in nature was handed a victory 23 September when lawmakers defeated an attempt in the Senate to curtail the President's program. An amendment, authored by Senator Harry M. Reid (D-NV), would have blocked new "competitive sourcing" studies in the Interior and Agriculture departments. The amendment was defeated by a largely partisan vote of 51 to 44.

    A provision similar to Reid's proposed amendment remains in the House version of the Interior appropriation bill and thus still poses a serious threat to the "competitive sourcing" initiative. The Office of Management and Budget and other proponents of the outsourcing plan, including the libertarian think tank the Cato Institute, as well as plan opponents, including representatives of government employee unions will be closely watching lawmaker's efforts to include language in the Interior conference report focusing on the controversial program.

    In a related development, National Park Service Director and booster of the outsourcing plan, Fran Maniella, has publicly stated that attempts to downsize the government through competitive outsourcing will most likely set back her bureau's efforts to hire more minorities.

    5. BITS AND BYTES Item #1 -- Highlights of SAA's 2003 Annual Meeting Posted: On 18-24 August 2003, more than 1,200 archivists, allied professionals, and students attended the Society of American Archivists' 67th annual meeting in Los Angeles. Philip Bantin and Ian E. Wilson joined 142 current members and were named SAA Fellows, the highest honor bestowed on individuals by SAA. The SAA also honored more than a dozen other individuals and organizations including Debra Nolan who received the SAA Council Exemplary Service Award. For highlights of the meeting, to order session audio tapes, or to learn more about honorees, visit the SAA webpage at: <>.

    Item #2 -- Archives Week 2003: A number of archival organizations across the nation have designated an "Archives Week" during the month of October. Such designations help raise awareness of state and community documentary heritage as well as historical record issues through a variety of public programming. Preservation workshops, family history fairs, and award events are among the types of activities that seek to capture the public's attention with respect to archival materials. The Council of State Historic Records Coordinators collects and posts information on Archives Week activities throughout the nation. For information, tap into: <>.

    6. ARTICLES OF INTEREST Two articles this week. First in a brief editorial, "The Senate Tries an Odd Experiment" (New York Times 24 August 2003) the Times editorial staff comments on an odd event in the U.S. Senate -- an actual "debate" a major issue of the day. Tap into: <>.

    In "Clinton 'History' Doesn't Repeat Itself in China" (New York Times 24 September 2003) reporter Joseph Kahn discusses changes made in the Chinese edition of Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton's best-selling book "Living History." "Nearly everything Mrs. Clinton had to say about China...has been shortened or selectively excerpted to remove commentary deemed offensive by Beijing." For the article tap into: <>.

    *********************************************************** The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page at: <>.

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at: and at the "network" prompt, scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit". **************************************************************

    editor - 9/23/2003


    New bust of Caesar found

    A white marble bust of Julius Caesar, only the sixth contemporary portrait of its kind, has been discovered on a Mediterranean island. The figure, extremely well preserved despite being 2000 years old, was found by archaeology students on Pantelleria, situated between Sicily and Africa and known by the Romans as Cossyra. It was discovered in an underground cistern which had been dug into the rock and was with the bust of an unidentified woman, possibly Antonia the Younger, the mother of the Emperor Claudius. Caesar granted Roman citizenship to the islanders of Cossyra who could have hidden the busts when the Emperor Nero came to power. The excavations were headed by Thomas Schaefer, archaeology professor at Tubingen University in Germany. He said the bust is “in superb condition and puts the most famous figure in Ancient Rome in a new light.” He added there was “absolutely no question that this is Julius Caesar himself. We have compared the bust to the few others of Caesar that exist, and the features are the same.” The other existing busts of Caesar are housed in the Vatican, Turin archaeological museum, Berlin museum, at Woburn Abbey and privately in Florence. The busts, which have been photographed by the fashion photographer Fabrizio Ferri, will be displayed in Pantelleria. (Sept 20th)

    editor - 9/23/2003

    Ottawa Citizen
    September 19, 2003 Friday Final Edition
    SECTION: News; Pg. A3
    HEADLINE: Famed polar explorer's secret son: Besides his daring exploits, Roald Amundsen fathered a child with an Inuit lover, a family in Nunavut claims. Randy Boswell reports.
    SOURCE: The Ottawa Citizen
    BYLINE: Randy Boswell
    He's been hailed as the world's greatest polar explorer, the first man to set foot on the South Pole and the first sailor to navigate the Northwest Passage through Canada's ice-choked Arctic Ocean.

    But 100 years after Roald Amundsen gained global fame for his daring exploits on land and at sea, a family from the remote Nunavut village of Gjoa Haven says the Norwegian adventurer's legacy includes a secret son born to his Inuit lover and more than a dozen descendants who are finally ready to proclaim their connection to history.

    "One year before my father passed away, about 15 years ago now, he told us that Amundsen was his father," says Paul Ikuallaq, a 46-year-old professional guide and community leader in the hamlet of 600 about 2,000 kilometres north of Winnipeg. "If it was known my father was from another race, not an Inuit person, he would have been shunned and my grandmother would have been shunned. So they kept the secret for a long time."

    Mr. Ikuallaq has spoken of his ancestry before. But the significance of the claim became clear only two weeks ago when Norway's ambassador to Canada met with Mr. Ikuallaq and several of his siblings in Gjoa Haven and heard their story.

    "This is something that will trigger great interest in Norway -- Amundsen is a national hero," says the ambassador, Ingvard Havnen, who had flown to Nunavut to attend a centennial celebration of Amundsen's Arctic odyssey.

    "According to the accounts from his voyage, there was definitely a lot of interaction with the Inuit and also descriptions of the beautiful Inuit women which they met up there. So one really shouldn't rule it out."

    Mr. Havnen spoke at length with Mr. Ikuallaq, the youngest of six siblings and the only one fluent in English. The ambassador, a former journalist, posed for pictures with the family and sought their permission to discuss the story with media in Canada and Norway.

    "This was a sensitive issue at one time, but what struck me is how they have now come forward and are very proud of their history and this connection."

    Amundsen's crossing of the Northwest Passage between 1903 and 1906 -- an achievement that had eluded other European explorers for centuries -- coincided with the end of Swedish rule over Norway, says Mr. Havnen, and the epic tale of his trek quickly became central to shaping a new national identity.

    Along with six crewmen aboard a small sail-and-motor sloop called the Gjoa, Amundsen was forced to wait out the winters of 1903-04 and 1904-05 iced in at a natural harbour on King William Island, which he fittingly named Gjoa Haven. About 200 Inuit, most of whom had never encountered white men, were also camped near the site, establishing friendly relations with the Norwegian explorers and teaching them how to survive Canada's harsh Arctic climate.

    Amundsen finally reached the Pacific Ocean in 1906 to complete the historic passage, and went on to even greater triumphs in Antarctica. But the world still knew little about his personal life when he died in a plane crash in 1928 at the age of 55. The legendary explorer had never married, had no known children, and had even claimed in his published writings that he strictly forbade his crewmen from having sex with Inuit women during the Gjoa's three-year journey through the Northwest Passage.

    "To all savages, the civilized white man has some of the attributes of the gods. His deadly and mysterious weapons, his devices for producing instant fire and light, his wealth of equipment and variety of food seem to these untutored minds to stamp him with divine origins," Amundsen wrote in his 1927 autobiography My Life As An Explorer. "But the moment the white man yields to his baser passions, and takes liberties with the savage's women, he falls in their eyes to the level of mere man and puts himself at their mercy. I therefore took the first opportunity to have a serious talk with my companions and urged them not to yield to this kind of temptation."

    Yet historians have questioned Amundsen's "sanitized" memoirs, and rumours of likely liaisons with Inuit women have been fuelled by his own regular musings about their sexual attractiveness in his journals.

    Amundsen, who was in his early 30s during the Gjoa expedition, described one 22-year-old Inuit woman as "exceptionally good looking" and "attractive and smart," but lamented that she had a husband who was a brute.

    "That such a woman should have fallen into the hands of such a scamp was a very great pity," he noted. "She was always very quiet, rarely laughed, but had an extremely winning smile. Her handsome eyes with their deep, sad look, made her very engaging. She really possessed what I very seldom found in other good-looking representatives of the fair sex among the Nechilli Eskimo: grace."

    He wrote that he initially found Inuit women unattractive, but "my taste altered later" and "I afterwards thought some of them were quite good looking." One 20-year-old Inuit woman named Magito -- "who had set many a white man's heart on fire" -- he labelled the "Belle of the Eskimos."

    P.N.Hellmann - 9/23/2003

    Our Country was founded on the Christian Judea Ethic.

    Remembering that there are always exceptions • People who are in the public school system are being taught not Educated..

    If they where educated they wouldn't put up with the shit the government & corporate media puts out. They would get out and VOTE.

    People get exactly what they deserve.

    Richard Dyke - 9/22/2003

    I am surprised that this article has not spawned any unhappy commentary. It is truly unfortunate when a professor can not speak his mind, however harshly, about the weaknesses of academic programs. I have long thought that "distance learning" has a very major internal weakness, which is that the teacher does not really know who is at the other end of the "distance." Passwords are easily passed--a very easy and undetectable way to cheat. Although students must eventually appear in a classroom setting to be tested, this does not ensure that it was they who actually did the day-to-day work. In all of my work life, I have never "gone after" anyone, no matter how difficult a personality, on the basis of "I did not appreciate their criticisms."

    gadthsher - 9/22/2003


    editor - 9/18/2003


    Administrators at Simon Fraser University unfairly restricted David Noble's academic freedom when they rejected a proposal to hire the professor, known for his harsh criticisms of distance education, according to a report issued by the Canadian Association of University Teachers.

    In January 2001, a Simon Fraser faculty search committee nominated Mr. Noble, a history professor at York University, to fill a humanities chair. But university officials nixed the suggestion, and Mr. Noble argued that he was blacklisted for his outspokenness against the integration of technology into academe.

    In a strongly-worded report issued earlier this month, the association's committee on academic freedom and tenure agreed with Mr. Noble. The committee chastised Simon Fraser for trying to quash Mr. Noble's right to criticize the institution, and for failing to follow its own policy for reviewing appointment proposals.

    Simon Fraser administrators "imposed unreasonable requirements that concerned [Mr. Noble's] style of engaging with academics and institutions he criticized," wrote the authors of the report. They recommended that the university review some of its appointment policies and offer the position -- which remains unfilled -- to Mr. Noble.

    The results of the inquiry were initially released only to Mr. Noble and representatives of Simon Fraser, who were reviewing the recommendations with the teachers' union. But Simon Fraser broke off the discussions when Mr. Noble decided to sue the university and the report was leaked to the media.

    "It was rather unfortunate the way this happened," said David Robinson, the associate executive director of the teachers' organization.

    "The university disagrees with the findings of the report," said Kathryn Aberle, Simon Fraser's director of media and public relations. Ms. Aberle said she could not comment further because of the pending legal action. But she pointed to an independent review commissioned in 2001 by Simon Fraser that found the university's appointments process to be working properly.

    Mr. Noble could not be reached for comment. In a statement appended to the report, he called the findings "an important contribution to the cause of academic freedom in Canada as an illustration of how the commercialization of universities compromises academic integrity."

    editor - 9/17/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #36; 17 September 2003)
    by Bruce Craig (editor) ): "Where Did Social Studies Go Wrong?" and
    "Terrorists, Despots and Democracy: What Our Children Need to Know."

    AEI resident scholar Frederick Hess chaired the panel and introduced the
    participants that included: U.S. Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN); William J.
    Bennett (Empower America); Lucian Ellington (University of Tennessee at
    Chattanooga); James Leming (Saginaw State University); and Rick Theisen
    (National Council for the Social Studies).

    It cannot be said that any of the panelists lacked a specific point of view
    or were bashful in presenting their thoughts on the issue the AEI was
    seeking to explore: that "in most U.S. schools, the serious study of
    history and civics has been replaced by a nebulous, content-light, and
    morally shaky social studies curriculum." AEI hoped that the panel of
    experts would "discuss how the teaching of social studies went wrong and
    what could be done to set it right." As it turned out, in spite of a panel
    heavily weighted with those who are self-described as "social studies
    contrarians," many found their underlying assumptions and conclusions
    challenged by other panelists and by some members of the audience.

    Though there was spirited disagreement between the panelists on many
    points, most members of the audience came away from the discussion nodding
    in agreement on three salient points: that based on recent National
    Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores in which a majority of
    high school students failed to perform at the "basic" level of proficiency
    (denoting their lack of mastery of prerequisite knowledge and skills in
    history at a specific grade level), there is a problem in the teaching of
    American history nationwide. Second, that because of pressures from both
    the liberal left and conservative right -- where each camp (through their
    respective "bias and sensitivity committees") insist on certain things
    being systematically omitted from a text in order to avoid offending
    parents and/or school boards -- the end result is the publication of
    history textbooks are failing to meet the needs of teachers let alone their
    students. Third, that history teachers in particular need to have a strong
    content-centered training and that they should not be certified or allowed
    to teach unless they possess a major or minor in history.

    During their presentations, several of the panelists focused their comments
    on when and why did social studies go awry. Some such as James Leming and
    Lucien Ellington traced the "problem" to the Progressive era -- when
    schools of education and the "mandarins of social studies" in academia
    turned away from the teaching of basic history, geography, government, and
    civics because they believed "there are no lessons from the past" and
    instead began to focus on a "progressive agenda" designed to make teachers
    and students social activists. Other speakers such as Rick Theisen
    attributed problems to a more recent origin, including President Bush's "No
    Child Left Behind" initiative. By focusing on students' proficiency in
    reading and math, states and school districts, already deterred by the
    contentious nature of social studies in particular, are placing less
    emphasis or in some cases have omitted social studies altogether. In a
    nutshell -- that which is not tested, is not taught.

    In his comments, Senator Lamar Alexander explained his rationale for his
    "American History and Civics Education Act of 2003 (S. 504) -- legislation
    that seeks to ground students in American history and civics. Alexander
    stated that unlike many other nations, America does not have a commonality
    of religion or ethnicity, but rather the nation has a common set of shared
    cultural values including freedom, liberty, equality before the law,
    democratic traditions, and what he termed (but neglected to define) "a
    value-based American identity."

    Comments by Lucien Ellington and James Leming focused on "academic
    theorists," and on global and multi-cultural/diversity education which
    according to Ellington "is at best wasting [students] time, at worst giving
    them a distorted view of society." Former president of the National
    Council for the Social Studies, Rick Theisen, countered by stating that
    little is accomplished by the issuing of "negative and sarcastic reports
    such as Fordham's "Where Did Social Studies Go Wrong" study that he
    characterized as "advocacy journalism" written by "ideological extremists"
    who are "out of touch with the reality of classrooms." Theisen agreed,
    however, that there is a need for a national dialogue on how to improve the
    training of classroom teachers and how best to improve their teaching.

    Former Secretary of Education William J. Bennett wrapped up the series of
    presentations by making a plea for greater intellectual diversity in
    viewpoints in the marketplace of ideas. He also advocated stronger parental
    involvement in monitoring what teachers teach and students' learn.

    On 17 September the National Archives (NARA) unveiled the first phase of
    its major renovations with the re-dedication of the Rotunda and unveiling
    the newly encased Charters of Freedom. Beginning 18 September visitors
    will be able to view all four pages of the U.S. Constitution, as well as
    the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights, all of which will
    be on permanent display.

    The Rotunda was closed 5 July 2001 for renovations. At that time the
    nation's founding documents were carefully removed from old encasements and
    given preservation treatment. They have been in storage awaiting new
    state-of-the-art display cases (including a new fiber-optic lighting
    system) while renovations were being completed.

    The renovation of the Rotunda also included restoration of several 1936
    murals by artist Barry Faulkner depicting the founding fathers. Over the
    years the murals had been deteriorating due to grime and moisture. The
    Faulkner murals are about 35-feet long and weigh about 340 pounds. The
    murals were cleaned and today look as fresh as they did sixty-seven years

    With the return of the founding documents NARA also launches the first
    phase of what it being termed the "National Archives Experience" -- a
    multimedia, interactive permanent exhibit that when completed will take
    visitors "inside the stacks" of the National Archives to learn the story of
    America. According to NARA, the new program seeks to motivate visitors "to
    care more deeply about democracy, learn about their individual stories, and
    make use of the patriotic spirit that lives on because of records." All
    components of the new program will not be in place until 2005.

    Later this fall, however, the new National Archives Building Research
    Center is scheduled to open to the public. This facility will consolidate
    many of the agency's research services now located on upper floors of the
    Main Archives building. The objective is to make research easier,
    speedier, and more efficient.

    It has been several months since we last updated readers on the ongoing
    efforts to recover artifacts looted by ransacking mobs in mid April when
    U.S. forces entered Baghdad in the waning days of the war against the
    government of Saddam Hussein. This last week, U.S. Central Command
    reported that more than 10,000 items from the Iraq National Museum remain
    missing though 3,411 artifacts have been recovered through raids, searches,
    and a "no questions asked" amnesty program. Military spokespersons also
    reported that there still is no complete inventory of precisely what
    remains missing.

    According to Marine Col. Matthew Bogdanos who heads the Central Command
    investigation in the looting and theft of artifacts, it now appears clear
    that thieves "with inside knowledge of the museum" broke into storerooms
    and carried off more than 10,000 pieces of jewelry, cylinder seals, and
    other small but valuable artifacts. The majority of these artifacts remain
    missing. Also missing are a number of larger items including the Akkadian
    Bassetki Statue, a 330 pound copper casting dating back some 2,300
    years. According to Bogdanos, "tracking down the missing pieces will
    likely take will require the cooperative efforts of all nations."

    For the United States Department of Defense news transcript of the
    briefing, tap into:

    Bills introduced: In the last couple of weeks several bills of interest
    have been introduced:
    Battle of Camden Study Act: Introduced 10 September by Rep. John M. Spratt
    Jr. (D-SC), legislation (H.R. 3074) to authorize the Secretary of the
    Interior to study the suitability and feasibility of designating the site
    of the Battle of Camden in South Carolina as a unit of the National Park
    Service; referred to the House Resources Committee for

    Harpers Ferry NHP Boundary Revision Act: Introduced 3 September by Senators
    Robert C. Byrd (D-WV) and John D. Rockefeller (D-WV), legislation (S. 1576)
    to revise the boundary of Harpers Ferry National Historical Park by adding
    some 3,745 acres, the vast majority of which has been purchased by
    non-profit groups for donation to the park; referred to the Senate Energy
    and natural Resources Committee for action.

    Hearings Conducted: On 16 September, the House Subcommittee on National
    Parks, Recreation and Public Lands conducted a hearing on several bills
    including: legislation (H.R. 280) to establish the National Aviation
    Heritage Area in Ohio; a bill (H.R. 646) to expand the boundaries of Fort
    Donelson National Battlefield; a bill (H.R. 1594) to establish the Arabia
    Mountain National Heritage Area in Georgia, and a bill (H.R. 1862) to
    establish the Oil Region National Heritage Area in Pennsylvania.

    Item #1 -- New NCH "Subscribing Supporter": The Board of the National
    Coalition for History welcomes The Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute
    -- a non-profit organization affiliated with the Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Presidential Library as the NCH's newest "Subscribing Supporter" -- a
    membership category recently established by the NCH Board to enable
    governmental entities and those organizations supporting governmental
    institutions to subscribe to the NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE and other NCH
    education/information services without being concerned that any part of
    their contribution is supporting the Coalition's lobbying
    efforts. The Institute serves as the non-profit funding arm of the
    nation's first presidential library, the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential
    Library and Museum, where the organization's support helps sustain the many
    programs and resources of the FDR Library. Other non-profit and
    governmental organizations that wish to subscribe to or support the
    activities of the NCH, please contact the director at for additional information.

    Item #2 -- GAO Issues Report on Ashcroft FOIA Order: The General
    Accounting Office has issued a report that concludes that the new, more
    restrictive Freedom of Information Act policy announced by Attorney General
    Ashcroft in October 2001 has had only a limited impact in practice on the
    processing of FOIA requests. "Of the FOIA officers surveyed, 48 percent
    reported that they did not notice a change with regard to the likelihood of
    their agency making discretionary disclosures. About one third of the FOIA
    officers reported a decreased likelihood [of disclosure]." Thanks to the
    Federation of American Scientists, the report, "Freedom of Information Act
    Agency Views on Changes Resulting from New Administration Policy," is
    posted at: .

    One article this week. Following up on the release of the Shanker
    Institute report on "Education for Democracy," announced in last week's NCH
    WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol 9, # 35; 11 September 2003), the Christian Science
    Monitor's Elizabeth Armstrong in "US History Classes Teach Horns, But Not
    Halos, Report Says" (16 September 2003) summarizes some of the major
    findings of the controversial report. Tap into:

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE
    weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH
    Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others
    who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of
    these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
    at: .

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH
    firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at and at the "network" prompt,
    scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    Sally Quinn - 9/17/2003

    17 September.

    Berlusconi travelled to Rome's largest synagogue today to beg forgiveness from Rabbi Amos Luzzatto, the head of the Italian Jewish community. At the end of Berlusconi's visit, Rabbi Luzzato demanded that Berlusconi apologize to the people of Italy as well.

    editor - 9/17/2003


    An adjunct professor of sociology at the University of Oregon has filed a $1.1-million lawsuit against the authors of a newspaper column that claimed that he had bashed Israel and Jews in one of his classes.

    The professor, Douglas Card, filed the lawsuit last week after spending nearly a year trying to persuade the authors of the column, Daniel Pipes and Jonathan Schanzer, to print a retraction. Mr. Card also wanted the article removed from Campus Watch, a Web site that is sponsored by the Middle East Forum, a pro-Israel research organization that Mr. Pipes directs.

    In the column, which ran in the New York Post in June 2002, Mr. Pipes and Mr. Schanzer wrote that the professor had called Israel "a terrorist state" and said that Israelis were "baby-killers." The column also cited an unidentified student who accused Mr. Card of bashing Israel and Jews "at every opportunity."

    The accusations are false, according to Mr. Card, who said he was not contacted before the column was published. "There was no truth to it at all," said the professor. "To be accused of vile anti-Semitism is as opposite to who I am as anything could be."

    editor - 9/16/2003

    From HISTORY TODAY 9-16-03:

    Egypt, not Greece, invented counting system

    Researchers have revealed the ancient Greeks copied an earlier Egyptian counting system, used by many of the greatest philosophers of all time. It was previously thought the Greeks developed the system of alphabetic numerals in Asia Minor (Turkey). New investigations by Dr Stephen Chrisomalis of McGill University in Montreal, demonstrated links between the symbols used by the pioneering Greeks and demotic numerals developed in Egypt from the 8th century BC. Dr Chrisomalis’s theory is that trading in the ancient world from 600BC led Greek merchants to utilise the popular Egyptian system. Dr Chrisomalis stated: "We know there was an enormous amount of contact between the Greeks and Egyptians at this time.” The alphabetic numeral system, using letters to signify digits, was used by the philosopher and scientist Aristotle, the mathematician and inventor Euclid and physicist Archimedes. It declined in popularity until the 4th century BC and then it was well established until the mid-15th century when the Byzantine Empire collapsed. The findings will be displayed in the journal Antiquity. (Sept 16th)

    odm6 - 9/16/2003

    There was at one time an American University in Beirut which was quite highly regarded for the quality of instruction. I don't know if or how well it is still functioning in the aftermath of the civil war there.

    Editor - 9/12/2003

    LONDON (Reuters) - Archaeologists have stumbled across the first underwater evidence of Stone Age settlements in Britain.

    A team from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne in northeast England say they found flint artifacts including tools and arrowheads off the coast near Tynemouth during a training session to prepare them for dive searches elsewhere.

    They say the items pinpoint two sites dating as far back as 10,000 years ago which would once have been on dry land but were gradually submerged as sea levels rose after the end of the last Ice Age. Dr. Penny Spikins, the archaeologist leading the team, said she had originally applied for funding to search for this type of site in Scotland and had been amazed to find the items lying undisturbed on the sea bed near such a built-up area.

    "It was a totally stunning find really because although we'd prepared ourselves to be looking for these type of sites... we hadn't really started the project when we already came across these types of artifacts," she told Reuters.

    "These sites are set to provide us with a unique opportunity to begin to understand early Mesolithic coastal occupation," Spikins said.

    According to the team, one site dates back to the late Mesolithic period 8,500 to 5,000 years ago while the other, found further out to sea, is thought to be early Mesolithic -- 8,500 to 10,000 years ago.

    Mesolithic people were hunter-gatherers and lived in the Middle Stone Age which began around 10,000 years ago.

    editor - 9/12/2003

    The Guardian (London)
    September 12, 2003
    SECTION: Guardian Foreign Pages, Pg. 16
    HEADLINE: Monet worries Archaeological oversight puts renovation at risk
    BYLINE: Jon Henley in Paris

    For one of France's best-known artistic treasures, nothing could be too good: state-of-the-art air conditioning, improved natural lighting, easier access and - best of all - a whole new underground floor complete with exhibition space, shops, study facilities and toilets.

    Sadly, the ambitious and costly renovation of the Orangerie, celebrated home of Monet's giant Waterlilies, has been unceremoniously halted.

    Someone evidently forgot to tell the architect that the museum stands on top of another, much older monument, a 16th-century wall erected around the Tuileries palace and gardens by King Charles IX.

    "It's the most astounding oversight," said Alexandre Gady, a Paris historian. "Everyone knows about this wall: it dates from 1566 and is on every map of Paris up until the 19th century. The Orangerie was built above it in 1852. How could they have even thought of excavating?"

    Workmen made the embarrassing discovery last week, prompting an emergency visit from the archi tects of the city's historic monuments commission - who stopped the digging - and a large number of very red faces at the French culture ministry, which is footing the euros 24m (pounds 17m) bill for the project and oversaw the plans.

    "Something has gone badly wrong," a ministry spokeswoman said yesterday. "As things stand, all I can say at present is that it will clearly be impossible to carry out the renovation and extension work to the Orangerie as planned while leaving the wall intact."

    Perhaps the best-known of France's impressionists, Monet conceived his series of eight huge Nympheas specially for the Orangerie's oval rooms in 1921, and they were presented to the nation as a "spiritual testament" six years later. Until the museum was closed for the rebuilding last year, it was drawing some 500,000 visitors a year.

    Originally built to house the Tuileries gardens' orange trees in winter, the building gained a second storey in the 1960s following the acquisition of the Walter and Guillaume collection of 144 works by Cezanne, Renoir, Rousseau, Matisse, Picasso, Derain and Modigliani.

    The upper floor deprived Monet's masterpieces of the natural light from which they were designed to benefit and created a cumbersome warren of stairs and corridors, eventually prompting the decision to excavate instead a new lower ground floor to house the rest of the museum's collection in a specially-designed gallery.

    Great care has been taken to protect the vast waterlily panels during the building work by enclosing them in temperature-controlled reinforced glass cases and installing anti-vibration equipment. But before the work started no one, it seems, thought to check what lay underneath the Orangerie itself.

    "It will be up to the minister to decide what to do next," the spokeswoman said. "Either the wall is so important that we have to completely rethink the whole Orangerie project, or we have to work out some way of integrating it into the design." Either way, she added, the planned grand reopening this time next year now looks doubtful.

    editor - 9/12/2003

    South China Morning Post
    September 9, 2003
    SECTION: News; Pg. 1
    HEADLINE: In Suzhou, preserving the past means erasing the old In Suzhou, preserving the past means erasing parts of the old

    Bill Savadove in Suzhou

    A piece of land crowded with Qing Dynasty-era buildings has become a battleground in Suzhou, pitting planners of the city's new museum against a retired official who claims preservationists are destroying the relics they should be protecting.

    Next month, the city in Jiangsu plans to start work on a 330 million yuan (HK $ 310 million) museum, designed by famed architect I.M. Pei, at the southern edge of the Humble Administrator's Garden. The United Nations has designated the garden a World Heritage site.

    Huang Wei, a former official of the bureau that manages the city's classical gardens, argues the century-old buildings on the planned museum site have historic value. They are an integral part of the garden and the former residence of a key figure in the Taiping Rebellion, he says.

    But museum officials say the buildings - now homes - date from a later period and aren't part of the two historic sites under protection by the state.

    The dispute has drawn national media attention and is threatening to delay work on the museum.

    The disputed site is next to the old museum, now housed in the mansion of Zhong Wang, who was one of the "kings" of the Taiping uprising from 1851 to 1864 which sought to overthrow the Qing dynasty.

    Next to the mansion is the Humble Administrator's Garden, which dates to 1509.

    Looking down on the peaked roofs of the buildings slated for destruction, Mr Huang says: "You can't find buildings like this in Suzhou any more. Although this isn't a key state-protected cultural relic or a World Heritage site, it's part of the whole."

    Mr Huang, 63, who retired in 2000 after 40 years of civil service, says it is his duty to speak out on the issue.

    For the deputy director of the Suzhou Museum, Qian Gonglin, the new building represents years of efforts and the fulfilment of his father's dream to protect the museum's collection in a modern facility.

    "I have real feelings for the museum. I want to protect our history and culture," Mr Qian says.

    Both sides claim history is on their side in the dispute.

    Mr Huang pulls out crumpled copies of maps to prove his case, while Mr Qian reads aloud documents of ownership written in classical Chinese.

    The two sides agree on the need for a new museum and the beauty of the design by I.M. Pei. The planned 10,000-square-metre, L-shaped museum blends in with the style of the old buildings that will surround it.

    But the dispute over the site has turned bitter. Mr Huang says officials misinformed higher-level leaders.

    He wants the city to pick a new site, move people out of the old buildings now being used as homes and restore them.

    Museum officials question Mr Huang's qualifications as a historian and accuse him of Cultural Revolution-style tactics after he distributed 500 copies of a letter headed: "Save the Humble Administrator's Garden!"

    The Suzhou government approved the final site last year after a three-year study involving five other sites.

    Museum officials say they want to reclaim the area to clear an unsightly hospital put up in the 1980s and create a cultural centre, linking the old and the new, in the heart of Suzhou.

    "The location of a museum should represent the city," Mr Qian says.

    He dismisses claims the buildings on the planned site were part of the garden or the residence, since the land has changed hands many times.

    A rich salt merchant bought the land in 1877, and he and his relatives put up many of the buildings.

    Thousands of tourists visit the Humble Administrator's Garden every day to see what a UN agency has described as a masterpiece of the "profound metaphysical importance of natural beauty in Chinese culture".

    Standing on the garden's Floating Green Tower pavilion, one can just glimpse the Zhong Wang residence through a canopy of trees.

    Four of Suzhou's gardens became World Heritage sites in 1997 and five were added in 2000.

    The Beijing office of the UN Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, which designates World Heritage sites, is now seeking more information about the dispute.

    The son of I.M. Pei, who helped design the museum, says his father had taken into account concerns about the sensitive location.

    "The effort there is to design something in the spirit and character of the setting and surroundings," says Sandi Pei, principal of New York-based Pei Partnership Architects.

    When the museum is finished in 2005 it will have one underground level and two above ground surrounding a pond and garden.

    On the future site of the new museum, resident Lu Suixian gazes up into the eaves of her old house and wonders about the value of the intricate carved wooden panel depicting two cranes.

    The city has promised to salvage some relics, but not entire buildings.

    "This should really be protected," Ms Lu says.

    editor - 9/12/2003

    The San Diego Union-Tribune
    September 7, 2003, Sunday
    HEADLINE: This old house goes back to 1150

    LONDON -- An English manor house thought to be more than 850 years old has been named as the oldest continuously occupied home in Britain.

    Salford Manor House in Somerset, southwest England, boasts a Norman window and 13th-century ecclesiastical paintings and shares key architectural features with Hereford cathedral.

    "You can smell the history in this place," said James Wynn, the current owner. "It's fantastic. I knew it was old and I knew it was a contender," he said.

    The search for Britain's oldest home was undertaken by architectural historian John Goodall for Country Life magazine.

    Royal palaces -- such as the 1,000-year-old Westminster Palace -- castles and monastic buildings were excluded. Homes were considered continuously occupied if they had never fallen totally into ruin.

    "The principal qualification was that the home in question should preserve physical evidence of its great age," said Goodall.

    Salford Manor is thought to have been built some time before 1150 on an estate owned by the Earl of Gloucester.

    It contains a Norman window in the main bedroom, Tudor fireplaces and doors, and paintings in the spare bedroom of St Francis of Assisi and Mary and Jesus.

    It also shares key architectural features with Hereford cathedral, built before 1150, and Bristol cathedral, built between 1118 and 1148.

    Wynn, who bought the manor five years ago, lives there with his wife and two daughters.

    Josh Greenland - 9/12/2003

    This article runs the risk of downplaying Mussolini's murders. Many more than 6000 were killed, and Jews may not have been the most numerous victim group. The Fascists oppressed Slovenes, Austrians in Italy and Africans in Ethiopia, and I'm sure there are death tolls for all three groups. The Fascists also had extremely violent goon squads (the Squadristi) who went around Italy maiming and killing people, and an intelligence service that abducted and murdered regime opponents.

    Sally Quinn - 9/12/2003

    The U.S. Army should refute Berlusconi on this immediately. So should all US WWII historians. Il Duce certainly killed his own son-in-law and foreign minister, Count Galleazzo Ciano. Bertoldi's book, Salò : vita e morte della Repubblica sociale italiana supplies the gruesome details of Il Duce's killings.

    editor - 9/11/2003

    Untitled Document NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #35; 11 September 2003)
    by Bruce Craig (editor) <
    National Coalition for History (NCH)

    1. Senate Committee Acts on NARA Budget - Zeroes Out ERA
    2. House Acts on NARA Budget -- Fully Funds NHPRC, Revises A-76 Regulations
    3. Wilson Center Hosts Cold War Conference
    4. New Laws Enacted: McLoughlin House Preserved; Smithsonian Facilities
    Authorization Act
    5. Bits and Bytes: Shanker Institute Releases Report; Annual FOIA Report
    Issued; History Travel Study Released; Women's History Site Conference;
    ISCAP By-laws Updated; Nazi Stolen Art Database Now Online
    6. Articles of Interest: "Everyday History Saved on Tape" (Christian
    Science Monitor; 10 September 2003)

    Not very good news to report on the Senate appropriations subcommittee mark
    for the FY 2004 budget for the National Archives and Records Administration
    (NARA). On 3 September 2003, the Subcommittee on Transportation, Treasury
    and General Government of the Senate Appropriations Committee approved the
    President's budget request for basic operations, but zeroed out all funding
    for the Electronic Records Archive (ERA) and allocated only $5 million for
    the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). The
    ERA is the National Archives' strategic response to the challenge of
    preserving, managing, and providing access to the Government's electronic
    records; the NHPRC is a small agency that works to preserve the nation's
    documentary heritage. The Committee did approve funding to purchase land
    for the new NARA facility in Anchorage, Alaska, and allocated some monies
    for a rehabilitation of the LBJ Plaza in Texas. Overall, the Senate mark
    represents a 12% cut in funding from the President's request for NARA.

    The President's FY 2004 request included $35.9 million for ERA project
    management, research and development. The House set aside $35,914,000 for
    the ERA as well as full funding -- $10 million -- for the NHPRC (see
    related story below). In the Senate, however, following the recent
    shuffling of appropriations and oversight committees after the Department
    of Homeland Security was created, responsibility for NARA's budget was
    transferred to the appropriations committee that funds the Department of
    Transportation. Consequently, when the subcommittee was looking for an
    offset to give additional funds to AMTRAK, lawmakers who are more concerned
    with funding transportation projects than NARA initiatives, focused on the
    ERA as well as some programs associated with the Internal Revenue Service
    (IRS). While Hill insiders are generally reluctant to predict what will
    happen with the ERA funding crisis, with the Senate figure of $5 million
    for the NHPRC, it seems likely that when the conferees meet, they may well
    split the difference between the two budget recommendations, meaning that
    the NHPRC may see $7 million in FY 2004.

    Hill insiders are counting on NARA's Congressional supporters, particularly
    those in the House, to play a crucial role in restoring the funding to the
    ERA and NHPRC when the bill (HR 2989) goes to conference. To assist in the
    education of Senate committee staff, in coming weeks the National Coalition
    for History in partnership with several supporting history/archival related
    organizations, will be paying visits to key congressional aides on the
    Senate appropriations committee.

    ACTION ITEM! The central players in the Senate who can restore the ERA and
    NHPRC funding will be Senators Richard Shelby (R-AL) and Patty Murray
    (D-WA) both of whom are expected to serve as conferees when the Senate and
    House managers meet to reconcile the differences between the two
    appropriation measures. Constituents of these two senators as well NARA
    supporters such as beneficiaries of NHPRC funding in Alabama and Washington
    state are especially urged to contact their Senator in support of
    restoration of the ERA program and full-funding for the NHPRC.

    When discussing the ERA, please emphasize that it is not a new program,
    rather, it has been supported by two Presidents and Congress since 1998;
    that $36 million has already been invested in the program to date; that
    this is a critical need due to the volume and rapid obsolescence of
    electronic records today, let alone the future. Please mention that the
    access to Archival Databases, which provides Internet access to more than
    50 million electronic records and since March has had more than 400,000
    users. Finally. you may want to cite a recent National Academy of Science
    report that concluded that "it is critical to start developing new
    electronic records preservation capabilities quickly in order to continue
    to fulfill NARA's mandate to preserve federal records."

    In contrast to the funding recommendations for NARA by the Senate (see
    related story above) on 9 September, by a vote of 381 to 39, the House of
    Representatives approved a $89.3 billion Transportation/Treasury
    appropriation bill (HR 351/HR 2989; H. Rept 108-258) that includes funding
    for the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The measure
    provides a $307.563 million operational budget for NARA, an increase of
    $38.738 million from the agency's final FY 2003 appropriation. In the
    funding package there is $35.914 million for the Electronic Records Archive
    (ERA) and $10 million for the NHPRC, an increase of $3.542 million that
    would fully fund the NHPRC to its authorized level for the first time in
    the Commission's history.

    In considering the bill, by a vote of 220 to 198, the House also adopted an
    amendment that requires federal agencies to scrap newly revised Bush
    administration Office of Management and Budget A-76 competitive sourcing
    regulations that governs competitions between federal and private workers
    and directs the OMB to return to an older set of rules. Critics have
    charged that the new A-76 outsourcing regulations tilted the playing field
    very much in favor of privatization against federal employees. The
    amendment charges the OMB to come up with a system that is "balanced and

    Earlier in the year, federal historians in the Department of Defense
    successfully managed to stall off the administration's plans to outsource
    DOD history positions. Efforts to halt the privatization effort in the
    National Park Service where history, cultural resource, and archeology
    positions were at risk has also garnered considerable Congressional
    criticism and media attention. While federal employee unions applauded the
    House action, Bush administration OMB officials issued a terse statement
    that "Now is the wrong time to short-circuit implementation of this
    principle." The language in the House bill is expected to be addressed by
    conferees when the differing Senate and House versions of the
    appropriations bills are addressed later this fall.

    On 8-9 September 2003, the Woodrow Wilson Center's Cold War International
    History Project hosted a pioneering international conference on Cold War
    commemorative efforts. The meeting brought together about 100 scholars,
    cultural resource professionals, preservationists, representatives
    of non-profit and governmental entities and other professionals from the
    U.S. and abroad.

    The principle objective of the conference was to foster a longer-term
    dialogue among scholars and those charged with interpreting the physical
    legacy of the Cold War in the United States and elsewhere in the world. A
    secondary objective was to provide a intellectual framework for an
    anticipated National Historical Landmark Cold War theme study that will be
    prepared under the auspices of the National Park Service should legislation
    (S. 452 and H.R. 114) be enacted later this year. The Cold War theme study
    is set to move in the Senate and the House is also expected to act on the
    measure this session.

    The conference was co-sponsored by the Association of Air Force Missileers,
    the Cold War Museum, the German Historical Institute (Washington, D.C.),
    the Harry S. Truman Library, the Kennan Institute; in cooperation with the
    Norwegian Aviation Museum, the Eisenhower Foundation and Eisenhower
    Presidential Library, and the National Coalition for History. Financial
    support was provided by the Boeing Company and the John D. and Catherine T.
    MacArthur Foundation.

    Participants heard from over thirty-five panelists who focused on such
    topics as trends in Cold War scholarship, preservation, and interpretation
    of Defense and Energy departments and other Cold War properties, approaches
    to Cold War museum exhibitions, and international museum projects. The
    conference concluded with an insiders tour of the International Spy Museum.
    The conference revealed several unique commemorative issues and challenges
    that will confront preservationists ranging from how best to preserve
    unpleasant memories in a nation's psyche to challenges in funding cold war
    sites that are at risk. For additional information about the conference
    program, visit the CWIHP website at:

    On 29 July 2003, President George W. Bush signed legislation (P.L. 108-63;
    HR 733) authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to acquire the McLoughlin
    House in Oregon City, Oregon for inclusion in Fort Vancouver National
    Historic Site. The historic house stands as a reminder of the
    contributions of Dr. John McLoughlin in the development of the Oregon

    McLoughlin, who served as agent for the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort
    Vancouver, in 1845 resigned in disgust for the Bay Company's policy toward
    American settlers and built an elegant home for his family in Oregon
    City. The legislation enables the National Park Service to purchase the
    house and adjacent lands from willing sellers and administer it as part of
    the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site which is already administered as
    part of the National Park System.

    On 15 August 2003, President Bush signed legislation (P.L. 108-72; HR 2195)
    that provides additional space and resources for national collections held
    by the Smithsonian Institution in Suitland, Maryland. The authorization
    enables the Smithsonian Board of Regents to plan, design, construct, and
    equip additional special use storage and laboratory space at the museum
    support facility in order to accommodate the care, preservation,
    conservation, deposit and study of national collections held in trust by
    the Institution.

    The new public law also authorizes the use of funds for improvements to the
    Patent Office Building in Washington D.C. and communicates a "sense of
    Congress" commending the National Museum of American History for
    "establishing Jazz Appreciation Month."

    Item #1 -- Shanker Institute Releases Report: The Albert Shanker Institute,
    a nonpartisan public policy organization established by the American
    Federation of Teachers, has issued a new report that calls for improvement
    in the teaching of history, civics, and democracy in the nation's
    elementary and secondary schools. "Education for Democracy" is the latest
    of a series of reports issued by various think tanks of reflecting both
    conservative and liberal perspectives that contend that history and civics
    are being lost in the Bush administration's "No Child Left Behind"
    initiative because it places greater emphasis on reading and math. The
    report calls for an expanded course of study in history, civics, and the
    humanities, providing all students with a full, "warts-and-all"
    understanding of American history as well as the history of other
    nations. Among the highlights of the report is its support for
    improvement of state history and civics standards by developing a common
    core of learning; adoption of a strong curriculum for middle and high
    school that requires at least two to three years of U.S. history; and the
    need to undertake "a broader, deeper study of the humanities, particularly
    literature, ideas and biography." The report is critical of some classroom
    teacher practices, textbooks, and other education materials that tend to
    focus on America's "darker story." For the report, tap into:

    Item #2 -- Annual FOIA Report Issued: According to the "Summary of Annual
    FOIA Reports for Fiscal Year 2002" issued by the Department of Justice
    Office of Information and Privacy, the number of Freedom of Information Act
    and Privacy Act requests to federal government agencies reached a record
    high in 2002. Among the report's findings are that the total number of
    requests increased by seven percent over the previous year to a new high of
    2,402,938. The Department of Veterans Affairs received the most
    requests. Personal privacy was the most frequently cited single
    exemption. Over $300 million in FOIA-related costs were reported by
    agencies in 2002. For the report, tap into:

    Item #3 -- History Travel Study Released: A new study from the Travel
    Industry Association of America (TIA) and Smithsonian Magazine demonstrates
    that 81 percent of U.S. adults who traveled in the past year, are
    considered "historical/cultural travelers." These individuals visited
    historical sites or participated in cultural activities – up 13 percent
    from last year. According to a TIA spokesperson, "The sheer volume of
    travelers interested in arts and history, as well as their spending habits,
    their travel patterns and demographics leaves no doubt that history and
    culture continue to be a significant and growing part of the U.S. travel
    experience." "The Historic/Cultural Traveler 2003 Edition" also documents
    that travelers making historic/cultural trips on average spend more money
    ($623 v. $457) than do other travelers. Their trips tend to be longer
    (seven nights or longer) and they are also more likely than the general
    population to extend their stay to experience history and culture at their
    destination. To purchase the report, tap into:

    Item #4 -- Women's History Site Conference: The National Collaborative for
    Women's History Sites which supports and promotes the preservation and
    interpretation of sites and locales that bear witness to women's
    participation in American life will have its annual meeting in Washington
    DC Friday October 24-Sunday October 26. The conference includes Kate
    Stevenson of the National Trust for Historic Preservation as Keynote
    speaker and Marie Rust, National Park Service, Regional Director for the
    Northeast Region, as Closing speaker. Fran Mainella, Director of the
    National Park Service, has been invited. Sessions on Preserving and
    Presenting History Nationwide, on Innovative Funding Strategies and
    Generating Income, on Marketing Our Sites and the Women's History Sites
    Research Project will be given as well as Andrea Lewis of the Holocaust
    Museum on Sharing Difficult Stories and a bus tour Sunday. For more
    information, please visit the website: or call (856)

    Item #5 -- ISCAP By-laws Updated: The Interagency Security Classification
    Appeals Panel (ISCAP) has a revised set of by-laws. The changes were
    precipitated by the amendments to Executive Order 12958, "Classified
    National Security Information. The revised By-laws may be found at:

    Item #6 -- Nazi Stolen Art Database Now Online: The American Association
    of Museums has organized an Internet registry of holdings in U.S. art
    museums that could have been appropriated by the Nazi's before and during
    World War II. According to AAM president Edward H. Able Jr. "Our goal is to
    assure our many publics that American museums are committed to only having
    in their collections objects to which they have clear legal title,
    untainted by controversy or illegal, unjust appropriation." The website --
    Nazi-Era Provenance Internet Portal -- contains research findings on works
    of art from 66 museums including some of the nation's largest
    institutions. To access the webpage, tap into: <>.

    One article this week. In "Everyday History Saved on Tape" (Christian
    Science Monitor; 10 September 2003) reporter Gregory Lamb focuses on how,
    using 21st-century technology, organizations are capturing the stories of
    ordinary people. Tap into:

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE
    weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH
    Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others
    who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of
    these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
    at: <>.

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH
    firstname lastname, institution. To unsubscribe send an e-mail message to: according to the following model: SIGNOFF H-NCH.

    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at: and at the "network" prompt,
    scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    editor - 9/11/2003

    Berlusconi’s quoted defending Mussolini
    Italian leader tells newspaper
    WWII dictator didn’t kill anyone
    ROME, Sept. 11 — Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi was quoted Thursday as saying that Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini never killed anyone and only sent people away on vacations in internal exile, a claim that distressed Jewish leaders. Berlusconi’s party was quick to say that the quotation had not been confirmed. The newspaper that published the comments said they were as close as possible to those transcribed from a tape-recorded interview.
    THE REMARKS appeared in La Voce di Rimini, following an August interview with two journalists — for London’s The Spectator and for the Italian paper.
    The comment reportedly came during a discussion of Saddam Hussein’s dictatorship, which brought up Italy’s experience with a tyrannical leader. Mussolini ruled Italy from 1922 until his ouster in 1943.
    “Mussolini never killed anyone. Mussolini used to send people on vacation in internal exile,” Berlusconi was quoted as saying.
    Berlusconi’s Forza Italia party spokesman Sandro Bondi said “these lines must be confirmed,” the Ap.Biscom news agency reported. He added that “the Fascist regime, as we all know, was a dictatorial and authoritarian regime.
    “But as is universally accepted by all historians on the right and on the left, it cannot be in any way compared to Nazism or communism, which practiced systematic genocide against their own people and other peoples.”
    Amos Luzzatto, president of the Italian Jewish community, expressed “sadness” over the reported remarks.
    “The Fascist regime did not make extermination camps for the Jews, but certainly it contributed to creating them,” he told the AGI news agency. “If killing someone only means hitting an adversary and killing him, then not even Hitler killed anyone. But in that way, we can say that there are no murderers in the world.”

    Widespread persecution of Italian Jews began in 1938 when Mussolini’s regime issued racial laws. In 1943, German troops occupied northern and central Italy, and almost 7,000 Jews were deported, 5,910 of whom were killed.
    The Italian Jewish community now numbers about 30,000, mainly in Rome and Milan.
    Historian Dennis Mack Smith, who wrote the biography “Mussolini,” said the Italian dictator was not a killer on the scale of Hitler or Stalin, but certainly had been a brutal leader.

    Supun Debehapuwe - 9/9/2003

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    editor - 9/5/2003

    The Guardian (London)
    September 3, 2003
    SECTION: Guardian Home Pages, Pg. 6
    HEADLINE: Runes rock experts: 2,000-year-old carvings dated back to ... 1995
    Blundering archaeologists were red-faced yesterday after "ancient carvings" found on a giant rock turned out to have been made just eight years ago.

    The engravings of two intertwined serpents, a dragon and runic symbols on a two-tonne lump of flat-faced granite were spotted in July by holidaymakers on a beach.

    Local historians were immediately alerted to the find on one of the rocks imported from Norway in the 1980s to make sea defences at Gorleston near Great Yarmouth, Norfolk.

    Excited archaeologists from Norfolk county council decided that they could date back 2,000 years.

    Last week a crane was used to remove the rock for safekeeping and it was transported by truck to council storage.

    But the mystery was solved after the Great Yarmouth Mercury local newspaper reported the "potentially very important discovery". Jobless construction worker Barry Luxton, 50, saw the report and a photograph of the rock and recognised it as one that he had engraved.

    He contacted the council to reveal how he had spent three days engraving the designs with a hammer and chisel while he was living in Gorleston.

    He had hoped that the stone might be moved a mile down the beach to Hopton for a druid celebration. But he never got round to organising the removal and within months his artwork was covered up by the shifting sands and shingle. His engraving only reappeared when it was exposed by high tides and stormy weather.

    County archaeologist Bryan Ayers said: "We have to investigate these things in case they turn out to be genuine - but it seemed too good to be true even at the time."

    editor - 9/5/2003


    Was Hitler cured by the Allies?

    A historian of microbiology claims Adolf Hitler survived the July 20th 1944 assassination attempt after being treated with penicillin from the Allies. Milton Wainwright, of the University of Sheffield, believes the Fuhrer’s wounds did not become infected because a reliable form of the drug was used, which was only produced by the Allies at that time. His personal doctor, Theo Morrell, treated Hitler after he survived the attempt by Count von Stauffenberg to plant a bomb in a briefcase during a staff meeting. A heavy table took much of the impact of the blast although Hitler was badly injured and was burned, bleeding and had many splinters. Morrell’s diary records treating Hitler with the antibiotic, which was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming. Wainwright says the German and Czech efforts to make the drug were “no good”. He continues: “My research shows that Morrell, in a very dodgy position as Hitler’s doctor, would only have used pure stuff.” Wainwright, who reveals the research in Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, believes the sources of the penicillin could have been from captured Allied airmen or through neutral countries, sent from the Allies in diplomatic bags for humanitarian reasons. It is thought this was obtained by the Nazis but Wainwright concedes: “We can never be certain it saved Hitler’s life” although he cites the case of SS-General Reinhard Heydrich, who died from septicaemia in 1942 after an assassination attempt. (Sept 5th)

    editor - 9/5/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #34; 4 September 2003)
    by Bruce Craig (editor)
    National Coalition for History (NCH)

    1. Congress -- It's Back to Work!
    2. Funding for the NEH "We the People" Initiative Threatened
    3. Bill Introduced to Strengthen Post-Secondary Programs in "Traditional
    American History" and Western Civilization
    4. Bill Introduced in Senate to Revoke the Bush Order on Presidential Records
    5. CIA Historical Review Panel Issues Statement
    6. Bits and Bytes: American Historical Review Electronic Discussion; NHPRC
    Call for Host Institutions; September 11 as History: Collecting Today for
    Tomorrow Symposium; Proposed UNESCO Convention on the Preservation of
    Intangible Heritage; Call for Nominations -- Endangered Battlefields
    7. Articles of Interest: No posting this week

    Following a month-long vacation, the President and members of Congress
    returned to Washington D.C. this week to tackle an ambitious foreign and
    domestic agenda. Of primary concern to the history and archival communities
    is the Congressional wrap-up work expected on some thirteen spending bills
    that ideally need to be approved and put in place by the start of the new
    federal government fiscal year that begins 1 October. Thus far, the House
    has passed eleven measures and the Senate has passed four; none have been
    conferenced. First on the Senate's action list is the $137 billion Labor,
    Education, and Health and Human Services departments measure that includes
    funding for the "Teaching American History" program pegged by that
    chamber's Appropriations Committee at $120 million.

    In coming weeks and months, partisan bickering is expected to be fierce,
    especially in the conference committees, where the Republican leadership
    will try to hold the line on spending while Democrats and disenchanted
    members of the President's own party attempt to allocate more funds for
    education, healthcare, and other domestic programs. Other issues, including
    energy sufficiency (especially in light of the August power blackout in the
    Northeast and Midwest), prescription drug benefits for seniors, as well as
    the war in Iraq and on terrorism may well displace appropriations on the
    center-stage. Time will tell whether the Republican vow not to repeat last
    year's disaster when the FY 2003 appropriations process did not conclude
    until February can come to fruition.

    History and archival advocates will be focusing their attention on putting
    pressure on the Senate to agree to the $10 million "full funding"
    recommendation for the National Historical Publications and Records
    Commission (NHPRC) that was approved in the House version of the
    Transportation, Treasury and Postal appropriation bill shortly before the
    August recess. Humanities supporters will be concentrating efforts on the
    National Endowment for the Humanities' (NEH) "We the People" history
    program that is currently threatened by Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN) who
    is attempting to use his "American History and Civics Education Act of
    2003" to divert all but $7 million of the administration endorsed $25
    million "We the People" program to fund his history initiative (see related
    story below).

    Senator Lamar Alexander's (R-TN) "American History and Civics Education Act
    of 2003" (S. 504), a bill that establishes academies for teachers and
    students of American history and civics as well as a national clearinghouse
    of teachers, continues to move forward but now appears to be on a collision
    course with the National Endowment for the Humanities' (NEH) "We the
    People" (WTP) initiative. Originally, Alexander envisioned that his bill
    would be administered by the NEH though separately funded and thus would
    follow a parallel and complementary track to the NEH WTP
    initiative. Alexander's bill now threatens to absorb much of the funding
    included in both the House and Senate FY-2004 Interior appropriations bills
    for NEH's history initiative.

    President Bush's FY-2004 budget request included $25 million in new NEH
    funding for the WTP program. The House-passed version of the FY-2004
    Interior department appropriation allocated $15 million for WTP; the
    parallel Senate Appropriations bill (not yet passed) also includes $15
    million for teaching American history and civics but with somewhat
    ambiguous language calling for a distribution of funds between NEH's WTP
    program and the Alexander bill. While Alexander's bill passed the Senate,
    neither it nor the House companion legislation (HR 1078) introduced by
    Representative Roger Wicker (R-MS) has benefited from a House
    hearing. Hill insiders report that Alexander shows little interest in
    seeing his bill modified through a House hearing or subjected to critical
    scrutiny by the professional history community, which embraces the broad
    objective of the bill but considers aspects of the measure as flawed and

    In his maiden speech on the Senate floor in February 2002, freshman Senator
    Alexander introduced S. 504 which was designed to improve the teaching of
    American history and civics. The bill was modeled after a program that
    Alexander had initiated as governor of Tennessee a decade or so
    back. Among other things, the Senator sought to authorize $25 million in
    the first year funding. This raised the eyebrows of humanities watchers as
    this was the same amount of funding as the Bush budget had requested for
    NEH's We the People initiative.

    More than willing to embrace the ideas of the former Department of
    Education secretary (Alexander was Secretary of Education from 1991-93
    during the first Bush administration), the Republican leadership in the
    Senate endorsed the bill, secured the bipartisan support of Senate
    colleagues, and rushed the proposal through a hearing that was hastily
    conducted by the Senate Committee on Health, Labor, Education, and Pensions
    (HELP) and chaired by Mr. Alexander. Historian David McCullough and
    Senator Robert Byrd testified in support of the bill and spoke in favor of
    its broad objectives, but, diplomats to the core, neither addressed the
    legislation's more problematic provisions. NEH Chair Cole testified as
    well, but spoke very neutrally because the White House had not yet taken a
    position on the Alexander legislation. No historical organizations were
    invited to testify nor did Alexander's staff express any desire to meet
    with representatives of the professional historical community after the

    When the bill reached the floor of the Senate that body authorized
    expenditures of up to $25 million per year for fiscal years 2004 to 2005,
    including $14 million/year to fund up to 12 locally-based academies for
    students, and $7 million/year for up to 12 academies for teachers of
    American history and civics. It also sought to authorize $4 million to
    establish a national alliance of teachers of American history and civics
    thus duplicating the mission of several existing history-based
    organizations, including the National Council for History Education.

    The National Humanities Alliance as well as history organizations and other
    traditional supporters of NEH have now formally voiced several concerns
    about the provisions of S. 504 and the precedent it would establish within
    the agency, including: (1) the specific and narrow descriptions of the
    "traditional" history to be taught; (2) the fact that the proposed teacher
    academies imperfectly duplicates aspects of the Senator Byrd's "Teaching
    American History" grant program currently administered by the DOE; (3) the
    efficiency of funding summer academies for students, versus additional
    academies for teachers, which have a much greater multiplier effect in
    reaching students over several years; (4) the creation of a vaguely-defined
    private organization funded by taxpayers that would seem to duplicate
    existing organizations; and finally (5) that the legislation constitutes
    the first authorization (albeit partial) of the NEH in 10 years and is a
    major public policy initiative that is being conducted without adequate
    hearings or other opportunity for public debate.

    In addition to the perceived flaws in the Alexander bill, of great concern
    to virtually the entire humanities community is the proposed funding scheme
    for the Alexander bill that diverts NEH funds from a vital and important
    "We the People" program to one of marginal significance.

    Contrary to the Alexander bill, the WTP program was thoughtfully
    conceived. Early in his chairmanship at the National Endowment for the
    Humanities, Bruce Cole, in consultation with history and humanities
    professionals from a diverse spectrum of the political landscape as well as
    high level Bush administration officials, developed the "We the People"
    program to be an initiative aimed at improving the teaching of American
    history to American students on all levels. The initiative came in
    response to various studies conducted by several organizations including
    the American Council of Trustees and Alumni whose findings raised concerns
    of policymakers and, to a certain extent, the general public, about
    students' lack of knowledge about American history.

    As originally envisioned the initiative was to work as a parallel
    program -- one with a slightly different emphasis than the Department of
    Education "Teaching American History" initiative championed by Senator
    Robert C. Byrd (D-WV) -- and WTP required no separate funding. Byrd's
    program was targeted to improving the teaching of history at the local
    secondary school level while the NEH program would earmark funds for a more
    highly visible secondary school history program at the national
    level. Most importantly, WTP funding was to cut across all program areas
    within the NEH. In a September 2002 Rose Garden ceremony, President Bush
    announced the initiative, which with the White House's blessing, was
    expanded to include the teaching of civics and national service. Bush
    indicated that he would request additional funds for the initiative in the
    FY-2004 budget to be introduced in February 2003.

    The WTP initiative found strong support within the humanities community as
    an expanded effort within NEH to strengthen American history and civics
    education. Historians and other scholars, teachers, state humanities
    council leaders, librarians, museums professionals, and others rallied to
    the support of the comprehensive approach of the Administration's "We the
    People" initiative, since it would fund projects to strengthen K-12
    education, museum and preservation programs, academic research and
    scholarship, and state council outreach to the public. Humanities
    organizations considered that the broad approach envisioned in the WTP
    program was critical to achieving increased knowledge and awareness of
    American history and civics for students, teachers, parents and Americans
    at all levels of learning throughout the country.

    As soon as his bill passed the Senate, however, hill insiders report that
    Senator Alexander acted to change the game plan. Although Alexander is
    said to have assured the NEH in March that he would not seek to divert WTP
    funding, once his bill cleared the Senate floor he began to press for a
    diversion of all or most of the WTP funds away from the WTP program to his
    initiative. Although S. 504 and H.R. 1078 each have impressive bipartisan
    support (47 co-sponsors in the Senate and 220 co-sponsors in the House) it
    is doubtful that members of Congress would have signed onto the bill had
    they known that the Senator's legislation was to be an alternative to the
    NEH WTP program.

    Hill insiders now report that in a revised "discussion draft" of the
    Alexander bill is circulating that would modify the Senate passed measure
    and solidify Alexander's funding scheme. The plan, apparently, is to pass
    the revised legislation in the House and then have the Senate recede to the
    House in conference. Of great concern to history and humanities
    organizations is that with the legislation on the fast-track that there may
    not provide opportunity for public input, refinement of the Alexander
    measure, or clarification of programmatic objectives in light of fiscal

    Recently, the National Humanities Alliance, in collaboration with the
    American Association of Museums, the Association of American Universities,
    the Federation of State Humanities Councils, and the National Association
    of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, sent a letter urging
    interior conference negotiators on the FY-2004 Interior appropriations bill
    "to seek an outcome that accommodates the breadth and flexibility of the
    NEH "We the People" initiative, while also addressing the important
    elements of the proposed Alexander/Wicker legislation." The letters have
    been sent to members of the Interior appropriations subcommittee members of
    both houses of Congress (the conferees on the FY-2004 bill) and other
    members of congress including the authorizing committees. The National
    Coalition for History, on behalf of its member organizations, also sent
    letters to the Education Committee calling for a Congressional
    hearings. Letters were also sent letters to Appropriations committee
    members urging conferees to appropriate the full $25 million for the "We
    the People" program as originally requested by the administration, for a
    total FY-2004 budget of $152 million.

    On 31 July 2003, Senator Judd Gregg (R-NH), who has long taken an interest
    in the teaching of American history, introduced legislation -- the "Higher
    Education for Freedom Act" (S. 1515) -- which seeks "to establish and
    strengthen post-secondary programs and courses in the subjects of
    traditional American history, free institutions, and Western civilization."
    Gregg's bill is the first Congressional measure in recent years designed to
    encourage the teaching of United States history and Western Civilization in
    American colleges and universities.

    Senator Gregg notes that most colleges and universities no longer require
    United States history or systematic study of Western civilization as a
    prerequisite to graduation. The Senator believes that "without a common
    civic memory...the people in the United States risk losing much of what it
    means to be an American, as well as the ability to fulfill the fundamental
    responsibilities of citizens in a democracy." His bill seeks to address
    this void.

    Gregg's bill places emphasis on "content mastery" by making grants to
    academic and non-profit institutions to promote and sustain post-secondary
    academic centers, institutions and programs targeted to undergraduates and
    graduates; to secondary school teachers in need of additional training; and
    to post-secondary faculty who wish to enhance subject matter expertise in
    what is characterized in the legislation as "traditional American history"
    (i.e. "the significant constitutional, political, intellectual, economic,
    and foreign policy trends and issues that have shaped the course of
    American history...") The bill authorizes $140 million for fiscal year 2004
    and "such sums as may be necessary for each of the succeeding 5 fiscal
    years." The bill was referred to the Senate Committee on Health,
    Education, Labor and Pensions for consideration.

    On 31 July, Senators Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) and Bob Graham (D-FL) introduced
    legislation (S. 1517) designed to revoke President Bush's November 2001
    Executive Order 13233 that imposed new restrictions on public access to
    presidential records from past administrations.

    According to Bingaman, "The Bush order greatly restricts access to
    Presidential papers by forcing all requests for documents, no matter how
    innocuous, to be approved by both the former President and current White
    House. In this way the order goes against the letter and the spirit of the
    Presidential Records Act."

    The new bill, though not identical, corresponds to similar legislation (HR
    1493) introduced 27 March 2003 by Rep. Doug Ose in the House, that also
    would rescind the Bush order and restore the procedures established by
    President Reagan in 1989 in his Executive Order 12667. For a copy of the
    Bingaman/Graham measure, tap into:

    A lawsuit brought by historians and others challenging the order is still
    pending in federal court. Oral arguments are expected to be heard later
    this year.

    Last month the CIA Historical Review Panel (HRP) -- a group of historians
    and political scientists convened by the Director of Central Intelligence
    to provide advice on declassification policy -- released its latest
    statement. The statement provides a skeletal account of the topics
    addressed by the Panel that according to Steven Aftergood of the Federation
    of American Scientists "is interesting, but finally disappointing."

    According to Aftergood, "The HRP's fatal flaw is that it has acquiesced in
    the Agency position that CIA declassification policy is too sensitive to be
    fully aired in public. As a result, the Panel has itself become another
    obstacle to the correction of obsolete secrecy policies."

    "Because the HRP's advice to the DCI must be completely frank and candid,
    we are not reporting Panel recommendations," the Panel stated, as if its
    members were incapable of being frank and candid about their policy
    positions except on a confidential basis.

    Aftergood believes that if the Panel members' frank and candid
    recommendations had led to any significant changes in declassification
    policy over the last several years, their concession to Agency secrecy
    might be justified in practice if not in principle. But there is little
    evidence of that. Instead, "they have merely deprived themselves of the
    leverage and insight that public participation could offer."

    For a copy of the latest HRP statement, tap into:

    Item #1 -- American Historical Review Electronic Discussion: In a June
    2003 "American Historical Review" article "Can We Save the Present for the
    Future," historian Roy Rosenzweig argues that in the future students trying
    to understand our time will likely face a very troubling and indeed ironic
    prospect that the archival record of our era may be too scarce or too
    abundant. In either case, the basic scholarly mission of historians will
    be challenged in fundamental ways. In the article, which can be found in
    the print or electronic version of the AHA, Rosenzweig contends that
    historians today have a professional and ethical obligation to address this
    issue now. From September 1-15 the journal will host a moderated
    electronic discussion of Rosenzweig's essay on the AHR web site at:
    . Participants can send questions or
    comments of up to 700 words. Guidelines will be posted on the discussion
    sign-in page. After the discussion has concluded, the exchanges will
    become a permanent part of the electronic version of the
    article. Questions about the discussion can sent to:

    Item #2 -- NHPRC Fellowship in Historical Documentary Editing for 2004-05:
    Call for Host Institutions: The National Historical Publications and
    Records Commission (NHPRC) will be offering one fellowship in historical
    documentary editing in the 2004-05 academic year. The Commission is now
    accepting applications from NHPRC sponsored documentary editing projects
    interested in serving as hosts for the NHPRC Fellow in Historical
    Documentary Editing and encourages any interested editing project to
    contact the Commission staff to discuss their applications. Applications
    must be post marked no later than 1 October 2003. The host institution
    will be selected by 1 December 2003. The NHPRC Fellowship in Historical
    Documentary Editing is designed to give fellows hands-on experience in
    historical documentary editing including documentary collection, document
    selection, transcription, annotation, proofreading , and indexing. The
    fellow's stipend is set at $40,000, with a benefit payment of $10,000. The
    host project is awarded $1500 to cover the cost of interviewing prospective
    fellows and to use for the fellow's professional travel during the
    fellowship year. . The Commission staff will work with applicants to
    assure that their proposals include the range of opportunities desired by
    the Commission. The application and related forms are available on the
    NHPRC web-site at:

    If preferred, interested institutions may contact Michael T. Meier of the
    Commission Staff at (202) 501-5610 ext. 252 or by e-mail:>.

    Item# 3 -- September 11 as History: Collecting Today for Tomorrow
    Symposium: On 10 September, the Library of Congress, the Center for
    History and New Media at George Mason University, and the American Social
    History Project/Center for Media and Learning at the Graduate Center, CUNY
    will present a day-long symposium at the Jefferson building of the Library
    of Congress in Washington D.C. to mark the formal acceptance of the
    September 11 Digital Archive ( into the Library's
    collections. The archive contains more than 130,000 written accounts,
    e-mails, audio recordings, video clips, photographs, websites and other
    materials that document the attacks of September 11. In panel presentations
    entitled "How Historians Will Write the History of September 11," and "The
    Internet and Collecting the History of the Present," as well as in other
    sessions, historians, librarians, and archivists will discuss some of the
    issues related to the archiving of September 11 history and the use of
    digital materials in the writing of history. Georgetown University
    historian Michael Kazen will also make a presentation, "12/12 and 9/11Tales
    of Power and Tales of Experience in Contemporary History." Those interested
    in attending may register online at (At main LC
    webpage click "MORE Complete News & Events"; at next page under subtitle
    "Upcoming events" click 9/11 Symposium September 10") or call (202) 707-2833.

    Item #4 -- Proposed UNESCO Convention on the Preservation of Intangible
    Heritage: Following up on our story "United States Set to Rejoin UNESCO"
    (NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE Vol. 9 # 31; 17 July 2003) readers may now access
    the "Preliminary Draft International Convention for the Safeguarding of the
    Intangible Cultural Heritage" and report by the Director-General on the
    situation calling for standard-setting and on the possible scope of such
    standard-setting at:

    Item #5 -- Call for Nominations--Endangered Battlefields: The Civil War
    Preservation Trust (CWPT), the nations largest nonprofit battlefield
    preservation organization, is accepting nominations for its Americas Most
    Endangered Battlefields Report. The report identifies the ten most
    threatened Civil War sites in the United States and what can be done to
    save these precious links to our nations past. The Most Endangered
    Battlefields Report is part of CWPTs ongoing effort to preserve and protect
    America's remaining Civil War battlefields. The 2004 Most Endangered
    Battlefields Report is scheduled to be released this coming February at the
    National Press Club in Washington, D.C. Any Civil War battlefield is
    eligible to be nominated. The ten sites to be highlighted in the study will
    be selected based on geographic location, military significance, and the
    immediacy of current threats. To nominate a battlefield, individuals and
    groups are encouraged to fill out the nomination form available online at Applications should include
    photographs of the site and a detailed description of recent threats.
    Nominations must be postmarked no later than 31 October 2003. For more
    information, contact Jim Campi of CWPT at 202-367-1861 ext. 205.

    There is no article posting this week.

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    editor - 9/3/2003

    Untitled Document Article 2 of 8, Nimrod Raphaeli, "Saudi Arabia: A Brief Guide to its
    Politics and Problems," 8 pages.

    MERIA JOURNAL Volume 7, Number 3 (September 2003)
    Direct Circulation 12,216 Total Circulation 18,291
    *Serving Readers Throughout the Middle East and in 100 Countries*
    Publisher and Editor, Prof. Barry Rubin
    Assistant Editors, Cameron Brown, Elisheva Rosman-Stollman,
    Joy Pincus, Ehud Waldoks

    MERIA is a project of the Global Research in International Affairs
    (GLORIA) Center, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya. Site:
    <>;. Email: <>. All material
    copyright MERIA. Credit if quoting; ask permission to reprint.
    Abstract: This article examines the familial structure of the Saudi ruling
    oligarchy and considers this regime's performance given the economic and
    demographic challenges it faces.

    By Nimrod Raphaeli*

    Oligarchy is a form of government where a few rule the many. In Saudi
    Arabia, the few are predominantly royal male princes who are all descended
    from the founder of the modern Saudi kingdom, King Abd al-Aziz bin Sa'ud
    who, upon his death in 1953, left behind 44 sons (and an uncounted number of
    daughters) by 17 wives. Today, Saudi Arabia's ruling structure is capped by
    a unique, almost unprecedented, form of oligarchy, whose members are
    connected through a bloodline to Saudi Arabia's polygamous founder. The
    princes have treated the country's wealth of oil and minerals as their
    personal domain and made themselves famous for their extravagant life style.
    Some princes have accumulated enormous personal wealth; with King Fahd bin
    Abd al-Aziz, the reigning monarch, topping the list with a personal fortune
    estimated at $20 billion.(1)
    This particular system has important implications for Saudi society,
    politics, and policies. It is also a central consideration for pondering any
    future reform or development in the country.

    As the princes have grown richer, the people of Saudi Arabia have grown
    poorer. While gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average of 1.25
    percent per year between 1981 and 2001, from $155.1 billion in 1981 to
    $186.5 billion in 2001, the average GDP per capita shrunk roughly 2.5
    percent per year.(2) In fact, the per capita GDP was worse in 1999 than it
    was in 1965 before the massive rise in the price of oil.(3) Even the Saudi
    press has noted how, in nominal terms, GDP per capita went from $10,330 in
    1989 to $7,743 in 2001.(4)
    Additionally, a review of the Saudi economy by the International
    Monetary Fund indicates that, with the exception of the year 2000, in which
    the overall central government budget registered a sharp turnaround due
    largely to a rise in oil prices, "in every other year, the budget has run a
    deficit and the debt stock has run up to $170 billion, which is equal to the
    size of GDP."(5) (By comparison, in the European Union, the ratio of public
    debt to GDP is restricted to 60 percent.) Given the lack of discipline by
    many princes and a bloated bureaucracy, these issues are not likely to be
    solved quickly.
    Beyond the poor financial management by the ruling elite, this section
    examines the major systemic problems of the Saudi economy, including its
    dependence on oil, its population explosion, and its massive unemployment.

    The Dependence on Oil
    Saudi Arabia is an oil-based economy with strong government control
    over major economic activities. The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75
    percent of budget revenues, 45 percent of GDP, and 90 percent of export
    earnings. Indeed, only about 25 percent of GDP comes from the private
    sector. Saudi Arabia's economy remains, despite attempts at diversification,
    heavily dependent on the production and export of oil.
    A strong rebound in oil prices beginning in the latter part of 2002 and
    the beginning of 2003 provided a little relief for the Saudi economy.
    According to a Saudi Arabia Monetary Authority (SAMA) report, the Kingdom's
    revenues from oil in 2002 reached $54.4 billion or 30 percent over the
    budgeted revenues. However, actual spending has also exceeded budgeted
    expenditures by 11 percent, reaching $60 billion, up from a projected $53.9
    billion.(6) The rise in oil prices preceding the war in Iraq was a temporary
    rise, however, and so will not dramatically alter the revenue figures, nor
    provide long-lasting relief for burgeoning public debt. In other words, the
    long-term health of the economy still requires a measure of fiscal
    discipline, which the Saudis have so far failed to exercise.
    In fact, in the long-term, oil prices will likely suffer as Iraq
    reenters the export market at eventually higher levels than during the
    period of UN sanctions, since it possesses the world's second largest oil
    reserves. It could increase its exports from the two million barrels a day
    (mbd) produced at the end of Saddam Hussein's regime to 3.5 mbd within 18
    months, and has a reasonable potential to produce 6 mbd in 3 to 5 years.(7)
    While Saudi Arabia produced 8.7 mbd in 2002 (11.8 percent of the world
    market), total global production is only about 74 mbd.(8) And from the Saudi
    perspective, even a reduction of $10 in the price of a barrel of oil would
    mean a loss of revenues of about $70 million a day, or a loss of
    approximately $25 billion on an annual basis. Since the beginning of the war
    in Iraq until the end of May, oil prices have already fallen roughly $5 per

    The Economy's Non-Oil Tax Base
    The non-oil government revenues are constrained by a largely
    non-competitive market place where monopolies and "exclusive dealerships"
    are dominated by members of the royal family and their cohorts, and usually
    they do not generate revenues for the government in the form of sales or
    income tax. While some monopolies and single dealerships control large
    segments of the market, they are protected by the Shari'a (Islamic law) from
    paying taxes on their earnings. Rather, they are required to make a
    voluntary contribution of 2.5 percent in the form of zakat (religious
    charity) to organizations or groups or individuals of their choice.
    This religious protection of the rich and the powerful deprives the
    government of vital sources of income to address the social and economic
    needs of the majority of the people. The result is a skewed income
    distribution and the growth of extensive poverty and deprivation. Despite
    growing social needs, Khalid al-Qusaibi, the Saudi minister of planning has
    recently confirmed that the Saudi Government will not introduce the income
    tax to reduce the burden of the national debt or redistribute national

    Population Growth
    While GDP went from $155.1 billion in 1981 to $186.5 billion in 2001,
    the population grew from 9.9 million in 1981 to 21.4 million in 2001, an
    increase of 54 percent. Thus, while economic growth has averaged 1.25
    percent annually, the population has increased by about 3.67 percent per
    annum.(11) The UN has estimated that the rate of population growth in Saudi
    Arabia in the years 1975-1999 was at an even higher rate of 4.2 percent,
    making it one of the highest in the world.(12)
    According to Dr. Wadi' Ahmad Fadhil, a professor of economics at King
    Abd al-Aziz University, the kingdom has been facing a population explosion
    since the early 1990s which will remain at about the same rate through the
    2030s. At this rate, the population will double every 20 years from 20
    million in 2000 to 40 million in 2020.(13)
    There are several causes for this tremendous population growth. The
    first is that infant death rates in the Kingdom have plummeted over the past
    20 years. From 65 deaths per 1000 live births in 1980, Saudi Arabia had
    dropped to 19 per 1000 by 1999--one of the lowest in the Arab world and
    under half the regional average.(14) Likewise, life expectancy in Saudi
    Arabia, which was 61 in 1980, had risen to 72 by 1999 (from two years under
    the world average to six years above it).(15)
    Clearly, these improvements are largely the fruit of Saudi investment
    in the health care system. The Kingdom currently spends approximately $890
    per person on health care expenses, the third highest in the region after
    Israel ($1,730) and the UAE ($1,495), and is twice as high as the region's
    fourth biggest spender (Lebanon at $430).(16) However, as a portion of total
    GDP (which tells what percent of the oil revenue goes to health), Saudi
    Arabia was in the middle for the region with 8 percent of GDP, following
    Lebanon (9.8 percent), Israel (9.5), Jordan (9.1), the PA (8.6), and the UAE
    Despite all these improvements in health care, the country has been
    unwilling to seriously tackle the issue of family planning and birth control
    in order to rein in population growth. The average woman still has 5.4
    children, though this has dropped from 5.7 in 1997.(18) One Saudi analyst,
    Muhammad Abd al-Latif al-Sheikh, foresees a very serious problem in terms of
    water supply for this burgeoning population. This conclusion led him to
    suggest, though this is not a popular idea in Saudi Arabia, that some form
    of "population rationalization" may become inevitable. (19)

    Unemployment figures in most developing countries are unreliable. There
    are no official employment agencies which register work seekers on a regular
    basis and governments may be reluctant to make known the extent of the
    problem. Saudi Arabia is no exception. A Saudi newspaper speculates that
    while the unemployment rate is estimated at 20 percent it could be as high
    as 30 percent. The irony of the situation is that the Saudis employ 6 to 7
    million foreign workers, including 3 million maids and drivers.
    The foreign workers transfer, primarily to their home countries, 50
    billion Saudi riyals ($13.3 billion) annually.(20) To reduce the number of
    expatriate workers, the government has recently decreed that 24 categories
    of employment will be restricted to Saudi applicants.(21) Minister of
    Interior Prince Naif, who is in charge of foreign labor, has decreed that
    foreign workers and their family members should not exceed 20 percent of the
    Saudi population in 2013.(22)
    To deal with the problem of unemployment the Saudi government has
    allowed the civil service and the public sector to hire Saudis for
    nonexistent jobs, turning government agencies into a vast social welfare
    system. As a result, Dr. Abd al-Rahman al-Shaqqawi, director of the Saudi
    Institute of Public Administration, has estimated that $28.5 billion, 65
    percent of the Saudi annual budget, is earmarked for salaries and that
    proportion is bound to increase.(23)
    Poverty is one of the immediate manifestations of unemployment. In
    Saudi Arabia, poverty is reflected in high population growth, in poor
    housing and inadequate social services. To dramatize the problem of poverty
    in Saudi Arabia, Crown Prince Abdallah toured homes of poor people in Riyadh
    for an hour and a half. He called on the wealthy people of Saudi Arabia to
    do more for the poor, which, as will be discussed later, is the Saudi way of
    addressing urgent social issues. A striking manifestation of poverty is the
    large and growing number of street beggars. According to published data, the
    number of arrested Saudi street beggars, both male and female has been on
    the increase. Most alarming is the number of beggars who are children. A
    Saudi journalist complains about "convoys of human beings who arrive every
    day? who could be a source of danger to the citizen and the security of the
    land." The author, Salwa abu Mideen, complains that beggars search the
    garbage cans, which cause "the spread of bad odors, flies and
    At the same time, the elite has a very high standard of living. In
    2002, the Saudis charged $19 billion against their Visa credit cards, an
    increase of 23 percent over the previous year. The average annual charges
    were $8700 per card.(25) The kingdom imports more than 275,000 cars a year
    at a cost of 41 billion riyals ($10.9 billion), in addition to spare parts
    at a cost of 9 billion riyals ($2.4 billion).(26) It is revealing that Saudi
    Arabia is perhaps the only country in which Mercedes cars are advertised as
    gift items.

    Modern Saudi Arabia was founded by King Abd al-Aziz bin Sa'ud in 1932.
    Since his death in 1953, the throne has been held successively by four of
    his sons. The crown first passed to the eldest son, Sa'ud, who was succeeded
    by Faisal in 1964. Khalid succeeded Faisal when the latter was assassinated
    by a nephew in 1975; Khalid was succeeded in 1982 by Fahd who continues to
    rule formally as king and prime minister to the present day, although real
    power is vested in his half-brother, Crown Prince Abdallah.
    The heir to the Saudi throne is selected by the royal family through a
    secretive process. The chosen heir is given the title of "crown prince" and
    holds the position of first deputy prime minister in the king's cabinet
    until such time as he becomes king. Presently, Prince Abdallah bin Abd
    al-Aziz is the crown prince. Should he become king, he would be the fifth
    son of the family patriarch, bin Sa'ud, to succeed to the throne.
    The central figures of the oligarchy are the "Sudairi seven" which
    comprise King Fahd and six of his brothers whose mother was Hassa bint Ahmad
    al-Sudairi. Crown Prince Abdallah is a half-brother to the seven whose
    mother was al-Fadha bint Asi al-Shuraim. The Sudairi seven comprise:

    Fahd bin Abd al-Aziz King and Prime Minister
    Sultan bin Abdul-Aziz Second Deputy Prime Minister and
    Minister of Defense and Aviation
    Abd al-Rahmam bin Abd al-Aziz Deputy Minister of Defense
    Na'if bin Abd al-Aziz Minister of Interior
    Ahmad bin Abd al-Aziz Deputy Minister of Interior
    Salman bin Abd al-Aziz Governor of Riyadh
    Turki bin Abd al-Aziz Businessman, lives in Cairo

    Based on extensive examination of two Saudi dailies--Okaz and
    al-Riyadh--a number of charts with the names of the various princes in
    senior government and other positions have been pieced together. The charts
    cover most of the highest echelons of government. They include 103 princes
    (and one princess), in addition to the king, who are often mentioned in the
    dailies in connection with their duties or activities, such as attending
    receptions or receiving or bidding goodbye to a senior member of the royal
    family or foreign dignitaries. Others may be mentioned in connection with
    medical treatment abroad. Some names appeared in special notes of gratitude
    and appreciation when one or more of the leading princes offered condolences
    to a bereaved family, normally a wealthy and/or important family which can
    afford to pay for "thank you notes" which cover an entire page in one of the
    Saudi dailies.
    The charts provide visual evidence of the pervasiveness of the Saudi
    royal oligarchy over all ruling positions of the Saudi kingdom. The charts
    provide a picture of the extent to which an oligarchy of a little over 100
    princes, related by blood and accountable only to themselves, control the
    lives and well being of 22 million Saudis.

    Chart I: The King and his Deputies (see chart at
    Chart I represents the apex of the political-military establishment
    with King Fahd at the top followed by his two brothers, Abdallah, as crown
    prince, deputy prime minister and commander of the National Guard, and
    Sultan, as the second deputy prime minister, and minister of defense and
    aviation. Fahd's own son, Abd al-Aziz is a state minister for cabinet
    affairs and a gatekeeper to the king. Two half-brothers, Turki and Badr,
    serve as the deputies to the commander of the National Guard. Three of
    Abdallah's sons, Mut'ib, Turki and Abd al-Aziz serve in various senior
    capacities in the National Guard and hence under their father. The
    separation of the National Guard from the ministry of defense is intended to
    avoid the concentration of too much military power in the hands of any of
    the leading princes.

    Chart II: Royal Members of the Cabinet (see chart at
    Chart II provides information on the ministerial positions in the
    cabinet held by the princes. The cabinet comprises 24 ministers (with
    portfolios) and 8 state ministers. The three key ministries, foreign
    affairs, defense and interior are held by senior figures of the royal
    family. The minister of foreign affairs, Prince Faisal, is the son of the
    late King Sa'ud, and thus a nephew of the reigning king. The defense and
    interior ministries are held by members of the Sudairi seven, Sultan in
    defense and Na'if in interior, both brothers of the king.
    Below the ministers' level are a number of princes who are the children
    or close relatives of the ministers themselves. In the ministry of foreign
    affairs, the most important diplomatic post--ambassador to the United
    States--is held by Prince Bandar, the son of the previously mentioned
    defense minister, Prince Sultan. In the recent cabinet reshuffle, Prince
    Bandar was given the rank of minister, though keeping his position as
    ambassador to the United States.
    Prince Bandar bin Sultan is not just any other ambassador. He is responsible
    for maintaining the vast and intricate relations between his country and
    United States at the highest levels. His access to high-ranking U.S.
    officials has no equal in Washington. Recent discussion about succession in
    Saudi Arabia has focused on Prince Bandar being elevated to a high position
    in Riyadh should the leadership decide to skip over his father, Prince
    Sultan, as the next crown prince if Abdallah were to become king. The
    promotion of Prince Bandar is said to compensate his father (one of the
    wealthiest men in Saudi Arabia. His wealth is derived from commissions on
    vast military procurements).27) The ambassador to the United Kingdom, Prince
    Turki, is the son of the late King Faisal, and thus the first cousin of the
    minister. Two other princes occupy the two most senior civil service posts
    in the ministry, including that of the first secretary-general and the
    director general of inspection, and both are nephews of the king.
    In the ministry of defense, the second most important position below
    that of the minister himself is held by another member of the Sudairi seven,
    Abd al-Rahman (Sultan's brother) who serves as deputy minister. A
    minister's son, Khaled, serves as assistant minister while his half brother,
    Nawaf, occupies the powerful position of director of central intelligence
    (previously occupied by the minister's nephew, the aforementioned Prince
    The ministry of interior is a powerful ministry because it controls the
    13 governorates of the country. Both the minister, Na'if, and his deputy,
    Ahmad, are members of the Sudairi seven. The minister's son, Muhammad,
    serves as the assistant minister.
    The possibilities for favoritism in the granting of government
    contracts are enormous. A half-brother of King Fahd, Prince Mut'ib, serves
    as a minister for public works and housing, while his brother, Prince Ahmad,
    is his deputy. The ministry of public works is an important economic
    ministry with control over a large amount of money. Prince Abdallah bin
    Faisal is the governor of the investment authority with the rank of
    minister. He is the son of the late King Faisal and the nephew of the
    current king.
    Princes serve as deputy ministers in two other ministries, petroleum
    and planning. In the ministry of petroleum, the deputy minister is Prince
    Abd al-Aziz, the son of Prince Salman who is the governor of the important
    governorate of Riyadh and one of the Sudairi seven. In the ministry of
    planning the deputy minister is Prince Faisal, the son of Prince Sultan.
    Two significant ministries--finance and petroleum--have always been
    under non-royal technocrats. In the case of the ministry of finance, a
    non-royal minister is perhaps intended to prevent any of the leading princes
    from controlling the enormous finances of the kingdom. In any case, the
    minister of finance does not have the stature to stand up to any of the
    senior princes. While the kingdom has a budget approved by the cabinet,
    there appears to be no strict control over expenditures, if judged by the
    frequency with which the king or one of the senior princes makes donations
    to causes big or small. Nevertheless, a technocrat minister at the treasury
    guarantees a semblance of accountability. In the case of the ministry of
    petroleum, major decisions regarding production and pricing are made by the
    king or his deputy, the crown prince.

    Chart III: The Structure of the Sub-National Government (see chart at
    Saudi Arabia is comprised of 13 governorates (imarat), each headed by a
    governor (amir) with the rank of a minister. All the governors report to the
    minister of interior, Prince Na'if. The governors are either brothers of
    the minister of interior or his nephews. The most senior of the governors is
    the governor of Riyadh, Prince Salman bin Abd al-Aziz who is one of the
    Sudairi seven. The other half-brothers of the minister of interior are the
    governors of al-Baha, al-Hudud al-Shamaliyah, al-Madinah, and Jizan. The
    minister's nephews occupy the governorates in al-Baha, al-Sharqiyah, Asair,
    Najran and Tabouk. Most of the governors have royal deputies.

    Chart IV: Princes in Other Senior Positions (see chart at
    Chart IV lists royal princes in a variety of senior positions in the
    sub-national administration, the military establishment, youth, women and
    sport, medical societies and business. Particular mention should be made of
    Prince Mash'al bin Majid bin Abdul al-Aziz, the governor of the district of
    Jeddah (and the son of Prince Majid, the governor of Meccah), Prince Sultan
    bin Salman, secretary general of the Tourism authority and the son of Prince
    Salman, the governor of Riyadh.
    In the military establishment, besides the minister of defense and air
    force Prince Sultan, princes are commanders of the navy, air force, armored
    corps, National Guard and a variety of air bases, including Prince Abdallah
    Air Base, named after the Crown Prince.
    In business and publishing, princes control the two major Saudi
    dailies, al-Hayat and al-Sharq al-Awsat, both published in London. Princes
    also control some of the largest business establishments, al-Mara'i, Arab
    Electronics and the largest cement company, Qusaim Cement Company. Many
    princes lend their names and connections to business enterprises or they
    control "exclusive dealerships"--the monopolistic form of trade that allows
    an individual the exclusive rights to import a particular commodity. Many of
    these princes/businessmen do not operate under the limelight like their
    political cousins, and hence we have little information about their
    activities. An exception, however, is Prince Walid bin Talal, a billionaire
    Princes also head sports and youth organizations as well as a variety
    of medical societies. All the princes listed are males, which is hardly
    surprising in the conservative Saudi society. The sole exception is Princess
    Abta bin Hamoud al-Rashid, president of the Women's Council, who is the wife
    of Prince Muqrin, the governor of Mecca.

    Royal Donations to Address Social and Economic Problems
    Having a patriarchal and proprietary view of the country--and drawing
    scant distinction between the private and the public domain--the royal
    oligarchy looks upon the Saudi people as subjects merely deserving of royal
    charity rather than as the true owners of the country. Thus, instead of
    addressing social problems as a public obligation requiring state action,
    the royal oligarchy in Saudi Arabia individualizes the solutions by making
    royal grants designed to enhance the gratitude and the loyalty of the
    citizenry to their patrons. The absence of an income tax and the reliance on
    zakat enhances this personalized and individualized form of social policy.
    To illustrate this point, the following are but a few examples of royal
    grants made to address broad social (and medical) issues and the spread of
    Islam outside the kingdom:

    --King Fahd donated 5.8 million riyals ($1.54 million) to an Islamic
    --King Fahd donated 100 million riyals ($20 million) to establish a national
    center for the treatment of breast cancer.(29)
    --Prince Sultan (Minister of Defense) donated 15 million riyals ($4 million)
    for the construction of a liver department in the armed forces hospital and
    another 60 million riyal ($16 million) for its equipment.(30)
    --Prince Sultan donated 19 million riyals ($5 million) for the construction
    and equipping of a kidney department in the armed forces hospital.(31)
    --Prince Sultan's City for Human Services opened in Riyadh on October 30,
    2002. It was financed by Prince Sultan's charitable foundation at a cost of
    1.2 billion riyals ($320 million).(32)
    --Prince Fahd bin Sultan (Governor of Tabuk) undertook the cost of extending
    power lines to al-Assafiya village and paid the electric bills for 3
    --Prince Muhammad bin Fahd, Governor of Sharqiya, donated land for a large
    housing project for the needy.(34)
    --Princess Sara (wife of Prince Abd Al-Majid, Governor of Mecca) donated 1
    million riyals ($266,000) to a psychiatric hospital in Mecca.

    The government-controlled newspapers, which report on these royal
    donations, never question the source of the money. If it is public money
    why is it offered as donations, and if they are private donations how can
    government officials, and often their spouses, display such largesse unless
    their access to public money is unrestricted?

    Voices of opposition to the oligarchy are beginning to appear. The
    minister of economic affairs, Muhammad bin Abdul-Aziz Al-Sheikh, a scion of
    one of the most distinguished families in the kingdom, tendered his
    resignation in early 2003. In it, he expressed his disappointment regarding
    the failure of economic reforms, the waste of public money and the absence
    of plans for economic growth based on justice and wellbeing for the people.
    The resignation was not accepted.(35) However, he was not included in the
    new cabinet announced by King Fahd at the end of April.
    In April 2003, 100 politicians and academics sent a letter to the
    senior princes. In it, they called for halting the waste of public money,
    convening a conference for reconciliation and dialogue, reforming the
    judicial system, granting equal rights to women, abolishing restrictions on
    travel and preventing arrests without a trial. Above all, they called for
    the Saudi parliament to be elected by the people.(36)
    In early 2002 a Saudi daily published an article entitled: "The Time
    has Come for the Reform of State Institutions." The thrust of the article
    was the need to tell the facts. The time of denials, the article said, has
    passed and the time has come to tell the truth. It is time "to draw the
    sword of conscience in the face of the lazy and crooks."(37)
    Perhaps most disturbing for the Saudi leadership are the voices of
    dissent emanating from their Shi'a minority, which accounts for 20 percent
    of the Saudi population. Most of them reside in the oil-rich eastern part of
    the country. One of the main leaders of the Shi'a community, Sheikh Hassan
    al-Saffar, complained about job and ethnic discrimination. The Shi'a, he
    said, are not allowed to serve their country in the defense, security and
    diplomatic fields. They are denied the right to observe their religious
    rituals and an official prohibition exists on the publishing or importing of
    books related to the Shi'a. In general, al-Saffar said, the Shi'a community
    feels a sense of marginalization.(38)
    Yet despite all these issues, the existing system seems strong enough
    to sustain itself, though possibly against rising dissent, precisely because
    of its interlocking control mechanisms, ways of relieving the pressure, high
    degree of control, and massive infusions of oil money.

    *Nimrod Raphaeli received his Ph.D. in development planning from the
    University of Michigan. He has spent most of his professional career at the
    World Bank. Since his retirement from the bank, he has served as an
    occasional consultant to both the World Bank and the International Monetary
    Fund. Dr. Raphaeli joined the Middle Media Research Institute (MEMRI) as a
    senior analyst in 2001.

    1. Forbes magazine, April, 2003.
    2. "Country at a Glance: Saudi Arabia," (World Bank, September 23, 2002)
    3. Eric Swanson, et al., World Development Indicators, 2001 (Washington,
    D.C.: World Bank, 2001), pp. 24-26.
    4. Okaz, October 19, 2002.
    5. "Article IV Consultation with Saudi Arabia," (International Monetary
    Fund), November 7, 2001.
    6. A summary of SAMA's report was published in the Saudi daily, Okaz,
    January 28, 2003.
    7. Okaz, December 31, 2003.
    8. BP Statistical Review of World Energy, (British Petroleum), 2003
    9. Middle East Economic Survey, figures can be found at the Alaska state tax
    division homepage:
    10. Okaz, November 29, 2002.
    11. Saudi population statistics come from the "Country at a Glance: Saudi
    Arabia," (World Bank) and a World Bank file
    <>;. A similar
    report was published by SAMA, a summary of which was published in the Saudi
    daily, Okaz, on January 28, 2003.
    12. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report, 2001,
    (United Nations, 2002), p. 155. Other organizations, like the World Bank,
    concur with the UN.
    13. Okaz, January 28, 2003.
    14. Eric Swanson, et al., World Development Indicators, 2001, pp. 16-18,
    15. Ibid., pp. 114-6.
    16. Ibid., pp. 98-100. Health Expenditure per capita on average for the
    years 1990-1998; figures in purchasing power parity.
    17. Ibid., pp. 98-100. As a measure of reference, the global average was 5.5
    percent, while the regional average was 4.6 percent.
    18. "Saudi Arabia Data Profile," (World Bank), statistics drawn from the
    World Development Indicators Database, published April 2003.
    19. Al-Jazirah (Saudi daily), March 8, 2003.
    20. Okaz, February 3, 2003.
    21. Al-Riyadh, (Saudi daily), May 5, 2002.
    22. Okaz, February 3, 2003.
    23. Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, May 14, 2003.
    24. Al-Jazira, January 30, 2003.
    25. Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, April 14, 2003.
    26. Al-Riyadh, July 12, 2002.
    27. Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, May 1, 2003.
    28. Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, July 12, 2002.
    29. Okaz, June 4, 2003.
    30. Okaz, April 13, 2002
    31. Okaz, July 20, 2002.
    32. Al-Hayat, October 30, 2002.
    33. Okaz, June 30, 2002.
    34. Al-Riyadh, July 10, 2002.
    35. Al-Quds Al-Arabi, April 24, 2003.
    36. Ibid.
    37. Okaz, March 16, 2002.
    38. Al-Quds Al-Arabi, April 24, 2003.

    Oliver Johnstone - 8/30/2003

    Without at least a full sentence quotation, this whole article is a "he said, she said" word game. To say that Jews were not the only victims of mass extermination in World War II is hardly denial of the holocaust. Presumably what Iliescu said or implied went well beyond this. Or he is being attacked for some other reason. At least it ought to be possible to post a link to Haaretz.

    Tina Braxton - 8/30/2003

    Getty also refused to ransom his 16-year-old grandson, until the boy's ear was cut off and sent to a newspaper office. Even then, he paid a far smaller sum than the kidnappers had demanded, and insisted that his son (the boy's father) pay him back with interest.

    The revelation about his dealings with Hitler don't surprise me.

    David Hulbert - 8/29/2003

    J.Paul Getty once said his greatest pleasure in life was to take a simple walk on the beach.Nothing more elaborate than that.

    The remark made Getty more human to me somehow.Reading of such subterfuge with purely a monetary motive with "his old friend Hitler"diminishes that image of humanity considerably.

    editor - 8/29/2003

    The Gazette (Montreal, Quebec)
    August 29, 2003 Friday Final Edition
    SECTION: News; Pg. A15
    HEADLINE: Report sheds light on 20 years of violence in Peru: Many citizens were unaware of the 69,000 killed or missing in political conflict in the countryside


    Peru's Truth and Reconciliation Commission handed in a long-awaited and controversial report yesterday into two decades of atrocities that left about 69,000 people dead or missing during the government's battle with Shining Path guerrillas.

    "Today, Peru must confront a time of national shame," Salomon Lerner, president of the 12-member commission, said as the nine-volume report was submitted to President Alejandro Toledo in a ceremony at the Government Palace.

    Commission members hope the report will force Peruvians to deal with a dark chapter in their history that many have tried to ignore. The armed forces, political parties in power during the violence and even conservative Catholic Church leaders have criticized the commission's investigation into the past.

    Many Peruvians know little about the campaigns that bloodied the country for years, but took place mainly in the countryside.

    At a photo exhibit set up by the commission as a prelude to the report's release, Lima resident Mauricio Zuniga, 30, stared silently at the photos of bloated bodies pulled from mass graves.

    "I was only 15, 17. We didn't pay attention to what was happening in the countryside," he said.

    The commission has identified by name about 32,000 people who died during the violence. But sociologist and historian Nelson Manrique, who worked on the project, said yesterday's report estimates at least 69,000 people died or disappeared - double previous estimates.

    He said the study attributes 48 per cent of the deaths to the Shining Path guerrilla group, 33 per cent to the security forces, 17 per cent to government-backed peasant militias and two per cent to a small Cuban-inspired guerrilla group.

    The commission gathered nearly 17,000 testimonies from 530 villages in remote areas and held public hearings in seven regions, where survivors poured out tales of horror.

    The violence erupted in May 1980 when the Shining Path, a Maoist-inspired rebel movement that tolerated no opposition, launched its insurgency and began using terror to force peasants to support its drive to overthrow Peru's elected governments. The army responded with a savage campaign against Indian peasants.

    Commissioner Gasten Garatea said the report incriminates more than 100 officers, though that information is not open to the public. Political parties in power during the violence also criticized the commission for digging into the past.

    editor - 8/29/2003

    The Jerusalem Post
    August 27, 2003, Wednesday
    SECTION: NEWS; Pg. 4
    HEADLINE: Romanian president calls 'Haaretz' quote a fraud
    BYLINE: Alison Mutler, Ap
    BUCHAREST - President Ion Iliescu on Tuesday lashed out at the Haaretz daily, saying it committed fraud when it quoted him as saying the Holocaust was not unique to the Jews.

    Iliescu was quoted by Haaretz as saying that "the Holocaust was not unique to the Jewish population in Europe. Many others, including Poles, died in the same way." The interview was published in July.

    The comments outraged the Israeli government, which protested to Romania.

    Iliescu responded with a letter to President Moshe Katsav, saying he had never meant to downplay Jewish suffering during the Nazi era with his comments.

    But some Romanian historians continued criticizing Iliescu for the remarks, and on Sunday, an official in the opposition Democratic Party called for Parliament to sanction Iliescu.

    Emil Boc, the party's deputy leader, said he would try to have the president suspended. Such a move would be unlikely to succeed as Parliament is dominated by the ruling party.

    In response, the president's press office on Tuesday issued a statement accusing the newspaper of intentionally distorting the interview. The statement said Iliescu had been "firm and consistent" in his comments about "the Holocaust and the Jewish tragedy."

    Haaretz called the accusations "ridiculous and baseless. We have published his exact words in the interview and we have the tapes to prove it."

    The presidential statement also accused the newspaper of ignoring Iliescu's request to see a translation of the interview and of "deforming the position expressed by the president, by both condensing the text and the translation."

    "In this way, the newspaper committed a fraud, publishing a text that was cooked up in the newsroom, which was not approved by the one who was interviewed, deforming what he said," the statement said.

    Haaretz said there had been no "condition to send the interview to be approved before it was published".

    editor - 8/29/2003

    Contact: Suzanne Balaban

    Death of "Hitler's Angel" in Paris Releases Confidential Letters, Photographs

    New York, NY (August 28, 2003) - William Morrow, An imprint of HarperCollins Publishers, today announced it would accelerate publication of DIANA MOSLEY: MITFORD BEAUTY, BRITISH FASCIST, HITLER’S ANGEL by British journalist and author, Anne de Courcy. Mosley’s death was announced in Paris on August 13, 2003. Publication of the book, with its exclusive access to her diaries, correspondence and photographs was conditional on her demise. The book will go on-sale on October 14, 2003 and will be simultaneously published in Britain.

    Claire Wachtel, Executive Editor for William Morrow Publishers bought the book more than a year ago from Carole Blake at Blake Friedmann Literary Agency. “Diana Mosley’s life was like watching a train crash. How could this intelligent and beautiful woman make such awful choices? Even after she’d learnt of Hitler’s crimes against the Jewish people she refused to recant. She made excuses for Nazism her whole life, and went against her country and members of her own family to embrace the enemy wholeheartedly. Even at the end she told Anne de Courcy she was ‘very, very fond’ of Adolph Hitler.”

    Mosley’s death frees de Courcy to make public previously secret details of the wayward life and loves of Diana Mosley. Obsessed with Hitler, and married in Goebbel’s dining room to the leader of the British Fascist Party, Oswald Mosley, Diana Mosley was considered dangerous enough by British wartime intelligence to require imprisonment for three-and-a-half years in London’s Holloway prison. Anne de Courcy met Diana Mosley more than ten years ago, and gained access to never-before-seen letters, papers and photographs. She has hundreds of hours of taped interviews in which Mosley spoke frankly of her life and beliefs.

    One of the famous Mitford sisters, Diana was the fourth of seven children and considered the most dazzling. Her sister Unity fell in love with Hitler, and shot herself in the head when war was declared. She shared Diana's Fascism and together they attended many Nazi rallies. Her sister Jessica was a Communist and came to loathe her; her sister Nancy personally denounced Diana to the authorities and Diana was imprisoned; her sister Deborah (now the Duchess of Devonshire and still alive) was her lifelong friend. Diana's heart was broken by the death of her brother Tom who so loved German culture that he applied for a transfer so that he would not have to enter a shattered Germany with Allied forces in 1945; instead he was posted to Burma where he was killed days before hostilities ended.

    Diana’s first husband was the fabulously wealthy Bryan Guinness. Scion of the brewing dynasty, her two sons by him, Jonathan and Desmond, are today leading lights in Ireland's artistic community. At 19, Diana was a society hostess with a vast country house and a home in London's Cheyne Walk. Her friends included Evelyn Waugh, Randolph Churchill and Cecil Beaton.

    At 22, she threw this all away -- scandalizing society by leaving her pleasant young husband and going to live openly as the mistress of Oswald Mosley, fourteen years her senior, and the leader of the British Fascists. Mosely was married to one of Lord Curzon's daughters and had no intention of leaving his well-connected wife.

    Mosley (a notorious womanizer) was also having an affair with his wife's sister as well. Diana went to Germany with Unity. There they met Hitler who became Diana's friend. Hitler and Diana got together constantly for teas and dinner and to view films, often tête-à-tête. She continued to see Hitler until a month before war broke out and with Mosley was involved with both Hitler and Mussolini in raising money for a radio station to broadcast pro-Nazi propaganda.

    In 1936 (after the death of his wife) Diana secretly married Mosley in Goebbel's drawing room in Berlin. Hitler was guest of honor. Her great friend, Magda Goebbels gave her a complete set of the works of Goethe as a wedding present; Hitler's gift was a silver framed photo of himself. In 1940 she was arrested. Her first act when the police came was to run upstairs with Hitler's photo and hide it in her baby's crib. She was taken away (though nursing) and spent years in Holloway prison. Her greatest regret was that she missed out on the young childhood of her two sons by Mosley.

    She never had any regrets, however, about Fascism. She hero-worshipped Mosley. Ostracised after the war, the lived first in Ireland and then in France where they became friends with the Duke and Duchess of Windsor.

    Author Anne de Courcy is author of The Viceroy's Daughters, The Lives of the Curzon Sisters and 1939: The Last Season. Lady Mosley's own autobiography was published in 1977. De Courcy will be available for interview in New York City.


    William Morrow is an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers. HarperCollins is one of the leading English-language publishers in the world and is a subsidiary of News Corporation (NYSE: NWS, NWS.A; ASX: NCP, NCPDP). Headquartered in New York, the company has publishing groups in the U.S., Canada, the U.K. and Australasia. Its publishing groups include the HarperCollins General Books Group, HarperCollins Children’s Books Group, Zondervan, HarperCollins UK, HarperCollins Canada and HarperCollins Australia/New Zealand. The HarperCollins General Books Group is made up of four operating divisions: HarperTrade, Morrow/Avon, HarperInformation and HarperSanFrancisco. You can visit HarperCollins Publishers on the Internet at

    Suzanne L. Balaban

    Assistant Director of Publicity

    William Morrow Publishers

    An imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers
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    editor - 8/29/2003


    A "Suspect Persons" file made by the Foreign Office for the Ministry of Economic Warfare has been newly declassified at the National Archives in Kew. It is thought to have been the work of the British Security Co-ordination team in New York during the Second World War. In it, Texan oil billionaire Jean Paul Getty is alleged to have had links with dubious financiers who organised fuel supplies for Nazi Germany. The intelligence report states: "Getty, controller of Mission Oil Corp which holds German patents licensed by I G Farben and Standard Oil of New Jersey subsidiaries, returned from Europe in November 1939 talking breezily about his 'old friend' Hitler…. Later he was said to have sold 1,000,000 barrels of oil to Germany for delivery via Russia. The Hotel Pierre was filled with doubtful and flashy characters with Nazi-Fascist-Vichy antecedents and/or connections, and when Getty bought control of it he first employed an Austrian baron, then a German war veteran and an ex-U boat captain as managers.” (Aug 25)

    editor - 8/29/2003

    From HISTORY TODAY 8-29-03:

    Breastfeeding in Middle Ages strengthened babies

    "They grew as well as modern babies"

    Tests on medieval bones in an abandoned Yorkshire village have led scientists to believe that babies who were breastfed were as healthy as modern children. The research team was led by Dr Simon May from English Heritage's Centre for Archaeology based at Portsmouth, which discovered that immune systems were boosted by breastfeeding by avoiding infected food and water. The excavated bones were from Wharram Percy, a village in the Yorkshire Wolds which was left between the 11th and 18th centuries. Dr May commented: "Peasants faced a terrible daily struggle for existence, yet extended breastfeeding shielded children from the very high levels of infant mortality we might otherwise expect to see. Infant mortality at Wharram Percy was much lower than one might expect.” He added: "Indeed, while being breastfed they grew as well as modern babies. But when it stopped, the environment made its baleful impact, producing slow growth and widespread disease." Breastfeeding in the Middle Ages was encouraged by the writings of the ancient Greek physician Soranus. Until 18 months old, children were breastfed along with solid foods but the research found that after this period, their growth was stunted. Scientists at Bradford and Oxford universities determined the length of weaning by analysing the nitrogen isotopes in the bones left from the mother’s milk. (Aug 23)

    Susan Tandy - 8/29/2003

    I have known Alya since I was 16 and she was 17 when she arrived in this country in the summer of 1965 to spend the year at Pennridge H.S in Bucks County,Pa. Her father was an older father like mine and I remember thinking that he was very brave to have sent his daughter so far away to be cared for by strangers. Her spirit was indomitable. We did not realize that she was a person of such imnportance because over the years we only spoke of family things. Her daughter Sarah and now her 3rd grandchild were as she desribed them "the core of her life". I will miss you and love you always "Al Baby".

    editor - 8/26/2003

    IO Report Follow-up, Iraqi historian, Alya Sousa killed in UN
    Headquarters Bombing******

    In what is very sad news, Iraqi historian Alya Sousa was killed at the
    UN Headquarters bombing on August 19, 2003.

    Dr. Sousa had just recently returned from Amman to Baghdad to take up a
    new position with the World Bank and was at that organization's office
    at the time of the explosion.

    Dr. Sousa had a distinguished career as a professor in the history
    department at Baghdad University and worked for the UN for much of the
    1990s. And recently she had become a grandmother. *She is profiled in
    the IO's report: *

    On a personal note, I found her to be a charming dignified woman,
    fiercely proud to be Iraqi and committed to her country's rebuilding.
    *She, like too many like her, will be missed.

    Keith Watenpaugh

    Dennis Johnson - 8/26/2003

    Another mystery is Geoffrey Chaucer's birth. The Geoffrey Chaucer website at shows birth of Chaucer as 1340-45. Five years of labor wow.

    editor - 8/22/2003

    from HISTORY TODAY August 22, 2003:

    New book claims Chaucer was murdered

    A controversial new book suggests that the author of the Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer, was murdered soon after Henry IV rose to power in 1399. The new research was carried out by Terry Jones (associated with the Monty Python comedies) and co-author Dr Alan Fletcher, a lecturer in medieval studies at University College Dublin. As well as a poet, Chaucer was a royal servant and had close links with Richard II, who died in 1400. Dr Fletcher stated: “Chaucer was under a very dark cloud indeed. The regime was against him. It is quite possible that he was just quietly shut up, as it was more convenient to have him out of the way than around. The politics of 1399-1400 completely scuppered Chaucer. He was Richard II’s man.” Chaucer could have been resented by the new Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Arundel, with his depictions of the Friar and Pardoner in the Canterbury Tales. The authors also think his first tomb in Westminster Abbey and funeral were not as lavish as such a senior courtier could expect, furthermore there is no record of his will or death. Chaucer is thought to have died in October 1400 and he had been living in the Sanctuary in Westminster Abbey, where he was immune from prosecution. The authors of Who Murdered Chaucer? believe his religious and political affiliations were his downfall. (Aug 17)

    John - 8/21/2003

    If folks got eaten, was it really a party?

    Editor - 8/21/2003

    Copyright 2003 The Times Mirror Company; Los Angeles Times

    All Rights Reserved
    Los Angeles Times

    August 20, 2003 Wednesday Home Edition

    SECTION: California Metro; Part 2; Page 1; Metro Desk

    LENGTH: 828 words

    HEADLINE: Bone Hints at Donner Party Cannibalism;
    If the ax-marked relic is human, it could be the first physical proof. A hearth is also found.

    BYLINE: Thomas H. Maugh II, Times Staff Writer

    Archeologists have found what may be a human bone scarred by the marks of a butcher's ax, possibly the first physical evidence that the 1846 Donner Party -- trapped in the Sierra Nevada by early blizzards -- resorted to cannibalism.

    If the bone is confirmed to be human, "that would really be the smoking gun," proving that the travelers ultimately were forced to eat some of their companions to survive the harsh winter, said archeology team leader Julie Schablitsky.

    The team made the discovery at Alder Creek on the outskirts of Truckee. Although parts of the site have been excavated before, the team found evidence of a hearth and other artifacts that may be the strongest evidence yet that the Donner Party made its winter camp there.

    Although many descendants of Donner Party members view it as the camp, some historians say the actual site was on a part of Alder Creek now submerged by the nearby Prosser Creek Reservoir, and thus lost to history.

    "We're really thrilled about the discovery and hope this will trigger some funding so they can do more research," said Frankye Craig, an amateur historian in Reno. "Everyone is hoping that they will turn up a diary or a buried box or something like that with items of interest to the Donner Party. There was no one left to carry that stuff out."

    The story of the Donner Party has gripped the imagination like few other tales of westward migration. George and Jacob Donner and James Frazier Reed gathered up their families in the spring of 1846 and left Illinois for the golden promise of California.

    On July 20, their group -- 20 wagons and 81 people -- made a fateful decision, departing from the well-known and frequently traveled wagon trail to take a "shortcut" that promised to trim several hundred miles from their trip.

    But the new route was harder than they expected, dissension was rife and progress was slow. Ultimately, they were halted by a blizzard just short of what is now called Donner Pass and forced to erect a winter camp. They soon ate all their food and animals, and hunting and fishing were virtually nonexistent. As people died, their flesh was reportedly cut off and eaten. Two Miwoc Indians assisting the group were purportedly killed and eaten as well.

    By the time rescuers from Sutter's Fort reached the party, half the Donner group had died.

    "It's a very human story," Craig said. "They were people like you and me, just trying to survive. And the survivors were so traumatized by the stigmatism and shame [of the cannibalism] that they wouldn't speak of it, not even to their children."

    Many aspects of their struggle to survive are not completely clear.

    The group settled into two encampments, one at the well-known site on the shore of what is now Donner Lake and the second four to five miles away on Alder Creek, where the Donners themselves waited out the weather. The actual site of the second -- so-called lower -- camp has been the subject of dispute for some time.

    Archeologist Donald Hardesty of the University of Nevada, Reno, excavated part of the Alder Creek site in 1990 and 1993. His team found artifacts, small bone fragments and other objects that seemed to support the idea that this was the lower camp, "but we did not find an intact feature, like a foundation from a shelter or a fire hearth that you could definitely associate with the encampment," he said. They also found no human remains, either at Alder Creek or Donner Lake.

    Working near where Hardesty had dug, Schablitsky and her colleague Kelly Dixon of the University of Montana discovered a hearth -- fire-glazed rocks, charcoal fragments, burned bones and other objects. "That in itself is quite significant," Hardesty said, because it indicates the presence of a campsite of the right age.

    They also found a ceramic pipe bowl fragment, a buckle from a leather belt, lead shot from firearms and glass from a hurricane lamp. Perhaps most important, they found "a small brass link from a delicate chain, like a woman's necklace," Schablitsky said. That indicates "a female presence in the camp," which would not be the case if the camp had belonged to later miners or hunters.

    In addition, the team discovered a section of a mammalian bone, possibly human, with ax marks on it, suggesting butchering. The team has sent it to a lab for analysis. If it is human, they will try to match the DNA with that of Donner descendants, who have agreed to cooperate.

    "We approach an archeological site like a crime scene, using tools such as forensic testing," Schablitsky said. "Now we need to find out if the bones are human and possibly who they are related to."

    She said the team was at the site only four days and was able to open up only four 1-square-yard holes. She is convinced that there is much more to be found.

    The team was supported by the Discovery Channel, and the research will appear on television in October as part of the "Unsolved History" series.

    editor - 8/21/2003

    Author(s): Jenna Russell, Globe Staff Date: August 20, 2003 Page: B1 Section: Metro/Region
    Three months after students at Harvard Divinity School called for the return of his $2.5 million gift, the president of the United Arab Emirates appears to be abandoning a controversial research center that has been accused of anti-Semitic and anti-American activities.

    Following a flurry of reports by Arab media outlets this week, a diplomat who asked not to be named confirmed yesterday that the United Arab Emirates will withdraw its support for the Zayed International Center for Coordination and Follow-up. The center was described on its website as "a fulfillment of the vision" of Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan al-Nahyan, the 85-year-old president of the small Persian Gulf state. The center has been the subject of controversy since May, when Harvard Divinity School student Rachel Fish publicly requested that Harvard give back Sheikh Zayed's donation because of his apparent ties to the center, whose director denounced Jews as "the enemies of all nations" at a conference last year, according to news reports of the event.

    Harvard assigned a researcher months ago to investigate ties between Sheikh Zayed and his center, but a spokeswoman for Harvard's president said yesterday that the university had not decided what to do with the donation.

    "It is a complicated matter, and we have to look at everything," said Lucie McNeil. She said the university would not comment on the UAE's withdrawal "until it's official."

    Founded in 1999, the center champions unity between Arab nations but has also hosted speakers who contend the United States was responsible for the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks and that the Jewish Holocaust never happened.

    It has attracted strong criticism from the Anti-Defamation League and the Simon Wiesenthal Center, both Jewish human rights groups. The criticism caused an elementary school in California to reconsider a $15,000 donation from Sheikh Zayed this summer.

    The decision to withdraw support from the center was made "by concerned authorities," said the diplomat at the UAE's embassy in Washington, who said officials intend to "review and assess the center's activities."

    The $2.5 million gift from Sheikh Zayed to Harvard, negotiated in the summer of 2000, was to create an endowed professorship in Islamic studies at the divinity school; the position has never been filled.

    After she learned of the donor's link to the Zayed Center earlier this year, Fish researched the center's activities and shared her concerns with the dean of the divinity school, William A. Graham, and Harvard president Lawrence Summers.

    When administrators did not act on her request that they give back the money, Fish started an online petition that has attracted thousands of signers. At her graduation in June, she handed a copy of the petition to Graham as she crossed the stage to collect her diploma.

    Now working for The David Project in New York, Fish said she was stunned at the latest development.

    "This is incredible to me," she said. "I expected Harvard to make a decision long before the United Arab Emirates."

    editor - 8/21/2003

    The Guardian (London)
    August 15, 2003
    SECTION: Guardian Home Pages, Pg. 7
    HEADLINE: Newton brings Winston back to earth
    BYLINE: John Ezard
    Sir Isaac Newton. 'His understanding of gravity . . . sent satellites into space' Image: National Portrait Gallery To the rest of the world Sir Isaac Newton - not Sir Winston Churchill - is the Greatest Briton in history.

    The scientist best known for discovering gravity triumphed over the war leader by five percentage points in a BBC World poll announced yesterday.

    The poll was conducted in the same way as the domestic vote in the BBC2 Great Britons series in November, in which more than a third of the 1.2 million Britons taking part chose Sir Winston, often regarded as the greatest Englishman since Nelson for his role as prime minister in the second world war years.

    Newton reached only sixth place then, but in yesterday's international poll of 10,000 people the 17th-century mathematician was said to have been chosen by more than a fifth of voters, 21.4% against Churchill's 17%.

    The other main difference between the polls was that the 19th-century railway, bridge and ship engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel came seventh with world viewers.

    In November's poll of home viewers he was second to Churchill. Both votes followed the transmission of a series of programmes profiling 10 candidates.

    The historian Tristram Hunt, who presented the Great Britons profile of Newton, said he was delighted that his choice had won. "I think it is a proper reflection of his genius that a global audience has voted him the Greatest Briton.

    "Indeed, it was Newton's advances in physics - his understanding of gravity and planetary motion - that have sent satellites into space and allowed the series to be beamed round the globe. The world has now repaid the favour."

    Narendhra Morar, commissioning editor for BBC World of Great Britons, said: "I think one of the reasons for Newton's victory was that the poll was conducted online and he would appeal to younger, computer-savvy voters.

    "It's fascinating that our viewers chose a different greatest Briton to the original series, although Churchill still had a strong following and actually came first among BBC World's expatriate viewers."

    editor - 8/21/2003

    The Atlanta Journal and Constitution
    August 15, 2003 Friday Home Edition
    SECTION: News; Pg. 16A
    HEADLINE: Bush nominee faces opposition
    SOURCE: Cox Washington Bureau
    Washington --- American Arab and religious leaders expressed outrage Thursday at reports that President Bush may use a congressional recess to appoint a controversial Middle East scholar to a peace-promoting think tank.

    The tension centered on Daniel Pipes, a 53-year-old outspoken Harvard-educated historian, and his potential appointment to the board of the federally funded U.S. Institute for Peace.

    "Daniel Pipes has a long track record of bigotry . . . and of advocating war and violence, especially in the Middle East," said Mary Rose Okar, president of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee. "He has no business serving the United States Institute for Peace in any capacity."

    But supporters of Pipes argue that his voice is needed at the institute, which was created by Congress to "promote peace and curb violent international conflict."

    Through research and analysis, he has been "alerting the American public to the dangers posed by extremist Islamism in this country and abroad," wrote Harold Tanner and David Harris in an endorsement from the American Jewish Committee. "At the same time, Dr. Pipes has been a defender and champion of moderate Islam."

    Bush nominated Pipes, who heads the Middle East Forum in Philadelphia, to the scholarly institute in April. The nomination was stalled in committee in July.

    With Congress in recess, however, Bush could bypass the Senate confirmation process by naming Pipes to the board, where he would serve at least until the Senate acts. The White House has declined to comment on nominations. But at a news conference Thursday, opponents denounced efforts Bush might make toward the appointment.

    "A recess appointment . . . would be a slap in the face of all those who seek to build bridges of understanding between people of faith," said Nihad Awad of the Council on American Islamic Relations.

    Supporters of Pipes contend he is a scholar who correctly warned against militant Islam and whose predictions were proved true by Sept. 11, 2001.

    "He is no bigot," contended more than 30 academicians in a letter of endorsement. "His extensive experience as an outspoken opponent of terrorism, including Islamic fundamentalist terrorism, has earned him a following among scholars and ordinary Americans of all backgrounds."

    fgs - 8/15/2003

    What an interesting comment!

    However, as a Mitford addict (though no particular fan of Diana Moseley's), I'm compelled to point out two things:
    (1) ALL of the Mitford sisters dearly loved what they called a "tease" (what we would call a "put on"). And Diana's consistently pro-Hitler effusions - reprehensible in the extreme - smack very stronly of a HUGE Mitford-style tease, perhaps the HUGEST. (2) Her effusions(and especially the fact that she LOVED saying them to members of the press to be broadcast to the unwashed multitudes) are also in keeping with the Mitfords' vast snobbishness, especially with respect to what they perceived of as bourgeois "Babbitry." Hence, the comments about Goebbels' "ordinary MIDDLE CLASS drawing room." Diana could look down on all of us from her aristocratic vantage point (as could Jessica, the Communist, for that matter - anything was preferrable to being bourgeois). The only trouble...what was a cute "put on" for Diana and her siblings was DEADLY serious to the rest of us....

    Ephraim Schulman - 8/15/2003

    July 16, 2003
    It should be quite obvious to all who are willing to see the reason why the U. S. has steadfastly refused to declassify their relations with unit 731 is that Washington has something to hide. The U. S. has a record of using weapons of mass destruction. It is not far fetched that Truman did not use bacteriological warfare or experimentation in Korea.
    Ephraim Schulman

    Editor of HNN - 8/14/2003

    August 13, 2003, Wednesday
    SECTION: Pg. 20
    HEADLINE: Diana Mosley, unrepentantly Nazi and effortlessly charming The historian Andrew Roberts recalls his meeting with the fabled Mitford sister, who died yesterday at 93
    The death of Diana Mosley brings to an end one of the most curious questions of British upper-class etiquette: how does one deal socially with an unrepentant Nazi? One of the funny, charming, intelligent and glamorous Mitford sisters; a denizen of the "Hons' cupboard"; a dedicatee of Vile Bodies; a beautiful woman whom Churchill called "Dinamite"; an inspired interior decorator; a steadfast friend to a wide galere (including some Jews); a fine autobiographer and loving mother; yet Diana Mosley was also a woman who could - when she was inadvisedly invited to appear on Desert Island Discs - describe Adolf Hitler in almost wholly positive terms.

    The social problem was made easy for most people of her acquaintance during the Second World War because of her long incarceration in Holloway prison for her fascism.

    Lest anyone still believe that her imprisonment was somehow undeserved, let them read Jan Dalley's generally sympathetic 1999 biography of Lady Mosley, in which it is recorded that, during a Hyde Park rally in October 1935, she silently gave the Heil Hitler salute when the rest of the crowd was singing God Save the King. And that was before she married Sir Oswald Mosley.

    Her interrogation by Norman Birkett's Advisory Committee in 1940 - the transcripts of which were finally released in 1983 - confirmed that it had been quite right to recommend that she stay in jail, especially after she told them that "she would like to see the German system of government in England because of all it had achieved in Germany".

    The key, inescapable difference between Diana Mosley and the scores of other pre-war pro-Nazis who had changed their political allegiance once the concentration camps yielded up their incontrovertible evidence of the profound evil of Hitlerism was that she was hooked for life.

    As the writer Michael Shelden has diagnosed it: "There was no going back; Diana Mosley's stubbornness and aristocratic pride made her reluctant to admit that she had made a profound mistake." Indeed, even that puts it too mildly.

    Lady Mosley fully appreciated the frisson that would shoot through a lunch table when she made some fond reference to a Nazi leader. Nor did it end there.

    She helped to finance the British Union of Fascists until the death of its organiser, Jeffrey Hamm, in 1994, often attending their annual dinners. In letters I received from her in 1992, she took particular pleasure in the way that Czechoslovakia, which she wrote "couldn't last in its 1938 form", was splitting in two, just as Hitler had succeeded in forcing it to do at Munich. She even recently wrote to The Spectator to argue that her late husband "was not an extremist".

    The problem of how to deal socially with Lady Mosley was not made that much harder after her release from Holloway in 1943, especially once she went to live in France after the war.

    British ambassadors were instructed, as if they really needed to be, not to invite the Mosleys to the embassy, and, other than the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, they made few new friends. But old friendships and ties of blood, especially through the children of Diana's first husband, Bryan Guinness, meant that they were never short of visitors to their beautiful house outside Paris, Temple de la Gloire, which was originally built for General Moreau in 1800 to commemorate the battle of Hohenlinden.

    When I visited the Temple to interview Diana Mosley for a book I was writing about Churchill's contemporaries, I was subjected to the full force of her superb Mitfordesque charm, and I am ashamed to say that I loved it. There was not a trace of pomposity to her - "How snooty I looked in those days", she said of a photograph of herself - nor of the boorishness one expects (and rather hopes for) from fascists. Yet she never failed to appreciate the effect of occasionally flashing a view of the cloven hoof. "Hitler was attractive," she told me, "though not handsome, with great inner dynamism and charm. Charm can mean so many things; I don't suppose I've met anyone quite so charming. It might be just that he was powerful, I suppose, but it seemed more than that." I asked about the Holocaust, of course, expecting a David Irving-style refutation, but was astounded not to get one. "I'm sure he was to blame for the extermination of the Jews," she answered. "He was to blame for everything, and I say that as someone who approved of him."

    Was that use of the past tense an admission? Had she in fact changed her mind about the Fuhrer? So I asked her again, hoping that I would not have to think this beautiful aristocrat a monster because of her disgraceful views. When she married Mosley in a civil ceremony in Joseph Goebbels's "ordinary, middle-class drawing room" in Berlin in 1936, the only guests (besides the witnesses) were Hitler and Goebbels himself. Fifty-two years and a world war later, I wondered, what she would do if the Fuhrer walked into the room? "I should have to be pleased," she replied, "and ask him how it had been in Hell, or Heaven, or wherever he'd been."

    There it was; the same disdain for equivocation that later led her to talk to Sue Lawley about Hitler's lovely blue eyes, the same inability to admit that the central fact about her life had been disastrous, that fascism was evil and that the man she had worshipped - Oswald Mosley, "Tom" to his friends, "Kit" to her - had wasted his undeniable talents upon a foul lie.

    There were several people who told me in the course of my researches - including another of Oswald Mosley's lovers, Lady Alexandra "Baba" Metcalfe - that Diana was the more dangerous of the couple, because she was more fanatical than her husband back in the 1930s. Her own sister, the novelist Nancy Mitford, told the Home Office as much in 1940.

    I like to think that she stuck to her repulsive views out of love for her husband and because her beloved sister Unity had attempted to commit suicide for them on the outbreak of war, and that to denounce them would have been a betrayal of her.

    Whatever the reason, Diana Mosley took her disgusting, unchanged views to her grave, and now she can ask the Fuhrer herself how he has fared "in Heaven, or Hell, or wherever he'd been".

    Editor - 8/14/2003

    Los Angeles Times
    August 12, 2003 Tuesday Home Edition
    SECTION: California Metro; Part 2; Page 4; Metro Desk
    HEADLINE: Group Speaks of Japanese WWII Germ Warfare Tests
    BYLINE: K. Connie Kang, Times Staff Writer

    Researchers who have been investigating Japan's germ warfare experiments on Chinese civilians during World War II visited Los Angeles on Monday to urge the U.S. to release documents that they say would shed light on that chapter in history.

    Survivors of those experiments have endured six decades of suffering that continues today, said Ignatius Ding, a spokesman for the Alliance to Preserve the History of WWII. "It's real, it's ongoing," he said.

    Ding's group is hosting a tour of six U.S. cities by researchers and activists from China and Japan to publicize the issue.

    Groundbreaking work by Sheldon H. Harris, a Cal State Northridge historian, helped establish that Japan's infamous Unit 731 had conducted large-scale biological warfare experiments in northern China. Harris, who died last year, had filed hundreds of Freedom of Information Act requests to gather information for his 1994 book "Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-1945, and the American Cover-Up."

    In it, Harris wrote that U.S. authorities protected high-level Japanese scientists from prosecution in exchange for their data. At the time, the United States was developing its own biological warfare program.

    Activists charge that the U.S. government has reclassified some of the documents it had previously declassified. They also say the Japanese government has undisclosed records.

    Harris said that as many as 12,000 people died in Japanese laboratories after they were infected with anthrax, cholera, typhoid and plague, and that more than 250,000 civilians were killed as a result of Japanese field tests in the Chinese countryside.

    Last year, a Japanese court, ending decades of denial, acknowledged for the first time that Unit 731 "used bacteriological weapons under the order of the imperial Japanese Army's headquarters" in occupied China in the 1930s and 1940s.

    But the court rejected compensation for the 180 plaintiffs, saying that the compensation issues had been settled under postwar treaties between Japan and China. Each plaintiff sought about $85,000.

    Despite the court finding, the Japanese government denies that its Army ever used biological agents in China.

    Yang Wanzhu, director of the Institute of Germ Warfare Research in Chengde, China, and a member of the visiting group, said he believed that the toll of Japan's biological warfare was much higher than previously thought. Thus far, in Chengde Prefecture alone, 7,643 deaths have been confirmed, he said.

    But the full extent of the deaths is not known, he said, because so many people fled the town and escaped to the countryside after Unit 731's aircraft allegedly dropped "36 kilos of plague germ-carrying fleas to Chengde on Nov. 4, 1941."

    Yang, former deputy mayor of Chengde, said lack of education made victims fearful of injections. Many avoided hospitals because they feared being put into isolation wards, he said.

    "So, they ran away to the countryside and carried the disease with them," Yang said.

    Wang Xuan, a plaintiff in the court case, said researchers cannot get records of the biological warfare from the Japanese government.

    editor - 8/12/2003

    Statement on August 9, 2003

    Nagasaki Mayor Iccho Itoh

    Today, the modern buildings and houses of Nagasaki's verdant cityscape make it difficult to imagine what happened here at the end of the Second World War on August 9 at 11:02 AM, fifty-eight years ago. An American aircraft dropped a single atomic bomb that was detonated at an altitude of about 500 meters over the district known as Matsuyama-machi. In an instant, the resulting heat rays, blast wind, and radiation descended upon Nagasaki and transformed the city into a hell on Earth. Some 74,000 people were killed, and 75,000 injured. Many of those who were spared from death were afflicted with incurable physical and mental wounds, and many continue today to suffer from the after-effects of the atomic bombing, and from health problems induced by the stress of their experience. We have ceaselessly called for the eradication of nuclear weapons and the establishment of world peace, so that such a tragedy is never repeated.

    Nevertheless, in March of this year, the US and the UK launched a preemptive attack on Iraq, whom they accused of possessing weapons of mass destruction. In the ensuing war, waged in the absence of a United Nations resolution, the lives of many civilians were sacrificed in addition to those of soldiers. We deeply regret that this conflict could not be averted, despite our appeals for a peaceful resolution based on international cooperation, and a rising worldwide anti-war movement.

    In January of last year, the United States government conducted a nuclear posture review, recommending the development of mini-nuclear weapons and the resumption of nuclear explosions for test purposes, and openly proposing the use of nuclear weapons under certain circumstances. At the same time, following nuclear tests by India and Pakistan, the disclosure by North Korea that it too possesses nuclear weapons has served to heighten the tension of international society. International agreements supporting nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation, and the prohibition of all nuclear weapons testing now appear to be on the verge of collapse.

    Mother Theresa, when she visited Nagasaki, commented as she viewed a picture of a boy whose body had been burnt black in the atomic bombing, "The leaders of all the nuclear states should come to Nagasaki to see this photograph." We do indeed invite the leaders of the US and the other nuclear weapons states to visit the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum, so that they may witness with their own eyes the tragic outcome of these instruments of destruction.

    We also urge the government of Japan, the only country to have sustained a nuclear attack, to stand at the forefront of efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons. In response to concerns voiced both domestically and internationally over the possibility of Japan's remilitarization and nuclear armament, the government must uphold the principle of an exclusively defensive posture, and the Three Non-Nuclear Principles (stating that Japan will not possess, manufacture or allow nuclear weapons into the country) must be passed into law, thus demonstrating the sincerity of Japan's intentions. The Korean Peninsula Non-Nuclear Joint Statement must be realized in cooperation with other nations, and, based on the spirit of the Pyongyang Declaration, work must begin on the establishment of a Northeast Asia nuclear-weapon-free zone.

    It is our hope that younger generations may continue to work for the advancement of science and technology in pursuit of human happiness. May they also consider what has been wrought upon humanity when these have been misused, and learn from the events of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. May they turn their eyes to the wider world around them, consider what must be done to bring about peace, and join hands in concerted action.

    Here in Nagasaki, the hibakusha atomic bomb survivors, growing increasingly older, are continuing to earnestly retell their experiences of the atomic bombing, and large numbers of young people are actively engaged in peace promotion and volunteer activities. Nagasaki City will persevere in providing opportunities for learning and reflection, that the experiences of the atomic bombing may not become lost and forgotten. In November of this year, we will host for the second time the Nagasaki Global Citizens' Assembly for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons, an international gathering of peace-supporting NGOs and individuals, held in advance of the 2005 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, calling to the peoples of the world for the abolition of nuclear weapons.

    Today, on the 58th anniversary of the atomic bombing, as we pray for the repose of those who died and recall to mind their suffering, we the citizens of Nagasaki pledge our commitment to the realization of true peace in the world, free from nuclear weapons.

    Dave Thomas - 8/10/2003

    Are we well served by a justice system that provides Holocaust murders with loopholes to hide in? Surely we are. The murderers are brought into the light of day by our justice system, and even disgusting, foul individuals like them have their rights respected.

    editor - 8/8/2003

    The Guardian (London)
    August 7, 2003
    SECTION: Guardian Foreign Pages, Pg. 13
    HEADLINE: Austria indignant as Mozart makes shortlist for best German of all time
    BYLINE: Ben Aris in Berlin

    Voting for the "best German of all time" got off to a shaky start yesterday after the Austrian ambassador to Germany complained that Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, whose name appears on a list of eligible candidates, is Austrian.

    The ambassador, Christian Prosl, was indignant after he saw Mozart's name on the list of 300 potential candidates as the competition organised by the German television station ZDF got started.

    Mr Prosl said: "Mozart is naturally an Austrian. I would say that this is a case of misguided nationalism." Mozart was born in Salzburg in 1756 and died in Vienna in 1791. The confusion is caused by the fact that until the founding of the second Reich in 1815, Germans lived in a confederation of independent city-states allied with the Austro-Hungarian empire.

    Modern reference books refer to Mozart as an "Austrian composer" but if the composer himself had been asked, he would probably have said his nationality was German - the nation-state was a vague concept and individuals associated themselves more with ethnic groups.

    Copying the BBC series Great Britons, shown last autumn and won by Winston Churchill, the German version has opted for the name of Our Best and, unlike the British version, drew up a list of suggested candidates.

    For good reason: a more obvious Austrian candidate is missing. Adolf Hitler was born in the Austrian town of Braunau am Inn, near the Austro-German border, but his name, as well as those of other prominent Nazis, was not included on the list.

    "We are looking for the best among ourselves and Hitler clearly doesn't fit into that category," said Thomas Hargerdorn, the spokesman for the German show.

    "This is supposed to bring out the positive aspects of German culture, so his name has been excluded."

    The consequences of Germany's historically mobile borders have made suggesting candidates a nightmare for the producers. The list has managed to annoy several other countries and sent diplomats scrambling for their history books.

    "It was much easier for the British as they live on an island," Mr Hargerdorn said, "but for us the constantly moving borders have caused a lot of problems."

    Even Mr Hargerdorn admits that Sigmund Freud's eligibility is "borderline". Freud was born in 1856 in Pribor, which is now part of the Czech Republic and at the time only part of a German league. Freud spent most of his working life in Vienna before emigrating to London where he died in 1939.

    The case for including Nicolaus Copernicus, the first astronomer to suggest that the earth goes round the sun, is even more questionable.

    "He is Polish. At least that is what they taught us at school," said a spokesperson at the Polish embassy in Berlin. "Parts of Poland did belong to Germany, but that was later."

    Copernicus's father was from Krakow and he was born in the Polish town of Torun in 1473. He studied briefly at the university of Bologna in Italy before returning to Poland where he died in 1543 in the town of Frombork.

    Historians could argue that the patch of land Copernicus lived on was German enough to make him eligible.

    The only thing that qualifies the actor Gojko Mitic is his passport. Much loved by a whole generation of east Germans, Mitic was born in Serbia and came to East Germany as a young man where he quickly became the heartthrob of the DDR by playing a Native American in a series of socialist westerns.

    "Mitic is eligible because he made his career in Germany and was an East German citizen when the wall came down. That is the second criterion we have used to draw up the list," Mr Hargerdorn said.

    Frontrunners and faux pas

    Contenders include:

    Musicians Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Haydn, Richard Strauss, Wagner, punk star Nina Hagen . . . and Mozart

    Writers Brecht, Goethe, Hesse, Mann, Grass and the Brothers Grimm

    Thinkers Einstein, Engels, Hegel, Heidegger, Kant, Luther, Marx, Nietsche . . . and Freud

    Today's celebs Boris Becker, Steffi Graf, Karl Lagerfeld, Claudia Schiffer, Michael Schumacher

    Mozart and Freud: on the list but were they really German?

    editor - 8/8/2003

    From HISTORY TODAY 8-8-03:

    A notebook belonging to Thomas Hardy is to be published for the first time. The novelist wanted the item to be burnt when he died, in 1928, but it was kept by the executors of his will. It reveals many of his story-lines were based on articles from Dorset newspapers, such as the wife sale in the Mayor of Casterbridge and plot of Tess of the d’Urbervilles. Many stories in the notes are from editions of the Dorset County Chronicle from 1826 to 1830. The notebook, called Facts from Newspapers, Histories, Biographies and Other Chronicles, was started in 1883 and is among a number saved by his executors. Others focus on architecture, painting and literature and are kept in the Dorset county museum. The editor of the notebook, William Greenslade, lecturer at the University of the West of England stated: “There is an embarrassment that he feels about his reliance upon these sources and this was why he was so secretive and wanted the book destroyed.” (August 3rd)

    S. Heymann - 8/8/2003

    Can you verify any of the above news story??

    Thanks in Advance

    S. Heymann

    editor - 8/7/2003

    The Straits Times (Singapore)
    August 5, 2003 Tuesday
    SECTION: Asia
    HEADLINE: Mega's bid to restore father's lost glory fails;
    Attempt to repeal decrees on Sukarno's removal from power and the ban on communism wins little political support

    BYLINE: Devi Asmarani

    JAKARTA - President Megawati Sukarnoputri's attempt to restore the reputation of her father - founding president Sukarno - and remove a three-decade ban on communism is floundering after the proposal failed to win support in the National Assembly (MPR).

    The Indonesian Democratic Party-Struggle (PDI-P) sought the abolishment of three MPR decrees that spelt out the late president's removal from power in 1966.

    The decrees are among several obsolete ones being reviewed by the MPR during its annual session, which will end on Thursday.

    The PDI-P argues that the three decrees should be repealed to rehabilitate the image of Mr Sukarno, who has been perceived over the past three decades as a leftist leader and whose tolerance for the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) led to an abortive coup against him.

    But with fears about communism still lingering, many parties indicated they would oppose the repeal.

    The PDI-P's proposal to end a three-decade ban on communism was also rejected Overwhelmingly in the assembly.

    The incident on Sept 30, 1966, that claimed the lives of six generals led to the rise of General Suharto, who took over power from the ailing president.

    It also led to nationwide witchhunts against communists and their supporters in which thousands were reportedly killed and many more jailed without trial.

    Mr Sukarno died in isolation while under house arrest, and his legal status remains unclear even to this day.

    PDI-P legislator Subagyo Anam told The Straits Times: 'Under Suharto, the whole country had been led to believe that Sukarno was a communist, and these three decrees clearly implied that.

    'It is our duty to rehabilitate his name because we are carrying his torch, his legacy and political ideas.'

    Analysts said the perception of Mr Sukarno as an ardent communist could be behind the general reluctance to repeal the decrees.

    Under his rule the PKI flourished, and at one point he even championed the ideology of Nasakom, which stands for 'nationalism, religion and communism'.

    But historians believe this was Mr Sukarno's way of balancing the power between the strong Islamic and military elements.

    Political analyst Sukardi Rinakit said the mere mention of communism still sparked fear among many.

    The last attempt to end the ban on communism - under former president Abdurrahman - met a similar fate with many in the Muslim community expressing their anger.

    For now, the PDI-P has agreed to a compromise to withdraw the proposal to lift the ban on communism.

    But it said it would continue to fight discrimination against former communist sympathisers and their families, who suffered during Suharto's rule.

    With their state-issued identity cards marked, they could not get state jobs or enrol in state-owned universities.

    The PDI-P now plans to propose a decree allowing those with links to communist parties to run for office.

    Howard Jones - 8/6/2003

    The journalist should know that some historians have dealt with the Amistad on a scholarly basis. He might examine my work, MUTINY ON THE AMISTAD: THE SAGA OF A SLAVE REVOLT AND ITS IMPACT ON AMERICAN ABOLITION, LAW, AND DIPLOMACY (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987; revised and reissued 1997). I have also spoken at numerous places where the replica of the Amistad paid a visit and drew large crowds.

    Howard Jones, University Research Professor of History, University of Alabama

    Mario Moiraghi - 8/6/2003

    Dear Sirs,

    About the question of King Arthur, St. Galgano and the sword in the stone I think it will be useful to make some notes. Let me summarise the matter as follows.
    I didn't really say that the story of King Arthur came from Italy.

    1. A Sword in the Stone, St. Galgano‘s sword, has been visible in the chapel of Montesiepi in Chiusdino, province of Siena, officially since 1181. This is a first fixed point.
    In fact, ancient books, chemical analyses on the materials, tests and direct surveys confirm that the sword and the story of St. Galgano’s life belong to the XII century. On this basis, the sword story is dated before 1185, thirty
    or forty years at least, before any other Swords in the Stone.

    2. Another fixed point is that the original text of the Canonization
    Inquiry of St. Galgano (including the story of the sword in the stone) is dated 1185, at least ten or twenty years before Chrétien's Perceval and Round Table Knights.
    But the story of St Galgano’s life, in more than 30 specific points, is identical to Parsifal’s story.

    3. Many elements produced in me and in other scholars or experts (Markale,
    Evola, von Suhtscheck, etc) the feeling or the opinion that the original story of King Arthur and of the Round Table Knights did not originate in Europe. Animals e.g. (panthers, mongooses, etc.), trees, dresses and many other
    belong to a far east environment. Names like Arthur, Mazadan, Gahmuret
    (belonging to the family line of the king) correspond to ARTA (the Truth)
    MAZDA (the Lord) GAYOMART (the Adam) clearly defined by the Persian Mazdeic tradition. Such elements are included in Chrétien's or Wolfram's textes.
    My books are two: in the first, the story of King Arthur (sword excluded)
    is connected to ancient novels coming from Persia.

    4. Connections between Celtic myths and Arthur's legend (Myrrdin etc.) seem to be introduced later. In any case Geoffrey de Monmouth, Beda or Nennius were not underestimated or ignored.

    Therefore in a second book (Enigma Galgano) I tried to explain how and why the story passed through Tuscany (Pisa precisely), and arrived in Aquitania and Britain, introducing in the matter the local stories of the sword and of St. Galgano (i.e. Parsifal): it appears like a natural effort (by European translators and authors) to give European character to foreign novels.

    This event must be understood from the point of view of the Middle Ages European culture, when the problem was not to make competition between Italy and France or Cornwallis. In a common culture, based on Latin language, it seemed good to propose a nice oriental story, transformed with local appearance, for benefit of the courts and the lords of that time, when Bernard
    of Clairvaux or Friedrich Emperor were in Italy or French or Germany with a low perception of national differences.

    Please consider the following facts:
    - Art- can be found in many Persian kings (Artaserses and others).
    - Perceval can be written Perse-val where Persia is evident.
    - Camelot comes from the land of camels, i.e. the Persian Battriana.
    - - The definition of "lapsit ex illis" given to the Holy Grail is clearly explained in my books.

    Best regards
    Mario Moiraghi

    zuma macheke - 8/5/2003


    Good day,

    You may be surprised to receive this letter from me
    since you do not
    know me personally. The purpose of my introduction is
    that I am James
    Macheke, the first son of Zuma Macheke one of the most
    popular black
    farmers in Zimbabwe who was recently murdered in the
    land dispute in my
    country. I got your contact through network online
    hence decided to write

    Before the death of my father, he had taken me to
    Johannesburg to
    deposit the sum of USD$9.5 million (Nine million, Five
    Hundred thousand
    United States dollars), in one of the private security
    and finance company,
    as he foresaw the looming danger in Zimbabwe this
    funds was deposited
    in a box as gem stones to avoid much demurrage from
    the security and
    finance company. This amount was meant for the
    purchase of new machines
    and chemicals for the Farms and establishment of new
    farms in switzerland.

    This land problem came when Zimbabwean President Mr.
    Robert Mugabe
    introduced a new Land Act Reform wholly affecting the
    rich white farmers
    and some few black farmers, and this resulted to the
    killing and mob
    action by Zimbabwean war veterans and some lunatics in
    the society. In fact
    a lot of people were killed because of this Land
    reform Act for which
    my father was one of the victims.

    It is against this background that, I and my family
    fled Zimbabwe for
    fear of our lives and are currently staying in the
    Netherlands where we
    are seeking political asylum and moreso have decided
    to transfer my
    fathers money to a more reliable foreign account.
    since the law of
    Netherlands prohibits a refugee (asylum seeker) to
    open any bank
    account or to be involved in any financial transaction
    throughout the
    territorial zone of Netherlands, As the eldest son of
    my father, I am
    saddled with the responsibility of seeking a genuine
    foreign account
    where these funds could be transferred without the
    knowledge of my
    government who are bent on taking everything we have
    got. The South African
    government seems to be playing along with them.

    I am faced with the dilemma of moving this amount of
    money out of South
    Africa for fear of going through the same experience
    in future, both
    countries have similar political history. As a
    businessman,I am seeking
    for a partner who I have to entrust my future and that
    of my family in
    his hands, I must let you know that this transaction
    is risk free. If
    you accept to assist me and my family, all I want you
    to do for me, is to
    make an arrangements with the security and finance
    company to clear the
    consignment(funds) from their affiliate office here in
    the Netherlands
    as i have already given directives for the consignment
    to be brought to
    the Netherlands from South Africa.But before then all
    modalities will
    have to be put in place like change of ownership to
    the consignment and
    more importantly this money I intend to use for

    I have two options for you. Firstly you can choose to
    have certain
    percentage of the funds for nominating your account
    for this transaction.
    Or you can go into partnership with me for the proper
    investment of the funds in your country. Whichever the
    option you want, feel
    free to notify me. I have also mapped out 5% of this
    money for all kinds
    of expenses incurred in the process of this
    transaction.If you do not
    prefer a partnership I am willing to give you 10% of
    the money while the
    remaining 85% will be for my investment in your
    country. Contact me
    with the above E-mail address,while I implore you to
    maintain the absolute
    secrecy required in this transaction.

    Thanks, GOD BLESS

    Yours Faithfully,

    Mr.James Macheke.

    editor - 8/5/2003

    Los Angeles Times
    August 3, 2003 Sunday Home Edition
    SECTION: Main News; Part 1; Page 33; National Desk
    HEADLINE: The Nation; A History Lesson on Slavery Sails In; A replica of La Amistad, where 53 Africans rebelled in 1839, proves to be 'very humbling.'
    BYLINE: Eric Slater, Times Staff Writer

    People groused about the heat and long wait and worried about the storm on the western horizon as Lake Michigan lapped at the wood hull of the Freedom Schooner Amistad.

    On board, though, the complaining stopped and voices dropped to a whisper as visitors peered into the cargo hold of the replica of the 19th century vessel La Amistad, where 53 slaves were shackled in a cramped space before rebelling and taking over the ship.

    They were eventually cleared of wrongdoing by the U.S. Supreme Court -- 18 years before the Emancipation Proclamation that freed the slaves.

    "It's very humbling," said Renee Bonner, 49, as she stood beneath the rolled-up sails and swept-back masts of the ship. "Imagine being chained down there, dying, because you're black."

    More than two dozen classic sailing ships are anchored for a week along this city's lakefront and lining the Chicago River that runs through downtown in the largest gathering of so-called tall ships on the Great Lakes.

    There's a replica of the HMS Bounty, aboard which Fletcher Christian led history's most famous mutiny, another of the Nina, Christopher Columbus' favorite vessel, and the Tarangini, powered by 10,000 square feet of sail.

    None, however, appears to be luring more visitors than Amistad, which is neither the most spectacular nor famous of the ships. More than 5,300 boarded one recent day, virtually all seeming sobered by the story of the ship it's modeled after.

    "They lived down there?" asked a 7-year-old girl named Shawna. "Was it dark?"

    "Yes," a crew member said.

    In early 1839, 53 people captured in West Africa and brought across the Atlantic Ocean aboard a Portuguese ship were sold in Havana to two Spaniards, Pedro Montez and Jose Ruiz. On about June 27, Montez and Ruiz shackled the Africans -- all but one male -- in the bowels of La Amistad for a trip to the Cuban city of Puerto Principe, where they planned to resell them.

    Four days later, a captive named Senge Pieh, known as Cinque to his captors, used a nail to free himself and other slaves, who then overtook the ship and killed the captain and the cook. Two Africans also were killed in the uprising.

    Not knowing how to sail or navigate, the men ordered Montez and Ruiz to take them home. Each morning, the Spaniards sailed very slowly east, toward the rising sun and Africa. At night, however, they secretly turned northwest and sailed more quickly.

    Two months after leaving Cuba, La Amistad sailed into Montauk Point, Long Island, where the vessel was seized by the U.S. Navy. The Africans -- six more of whom had died during the journey -- eventually went on trial for murder. After being vindicated, most returned to Africa.

    Although the story would be largely overlooked by historians -- Steven Spielberg's 1997 film "Amistad" told it to a large audience for the first time -- the trials at the time became the focus of abolitionists and slavery supporters alike.

    In 1841, former President John Quincy Adams successfully defended the slaves before the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled that the Africans had been illegally enslaved and thus justified in their rebellion.

    The decision did not directly challenge the institution of slavery. But for the first time the Supreme Court suggested that blacks were entitled to the same rights as whites.

    The replica anchored at Chicago's Navy Pier was built between 1998 and 2000 by Amistad America Inc., a nonprofit education group. It is a simple, spartan vessel with a deck just 23 feet wide and 82 feet long. It seems incapable of holding 53 slaves and a crew -- and the original was actually 10 feet shorter, six feet narrower and had no railing.

    "I feel proud of the people who endured this," said Evelyn Floyd, 57. "I couldn't have made it, but my ancestors did."

    As the storm arrived this recent day, pouring rain, the crowd thinned but the ship's master, Bill Pinckney, stood and chatted with those who stayed. The 67-year-old sailor is among an elite group who have circumnavigated the globe alone -- and is the first African American to do so.

    "This is an extremely well-turned-out piece of wood, you might say, and a special one," Pinckney said.

    The ship will head to Indiana when it weighs anchor Aug. 13, and then will sail on to Detroit and a series of other ports on the Great Lakes before settling in at Boston's Fan Pier in mid-October.

    "This ship isn't going to change the world, but for a brief period of time people who don't usually get together have conversations about the past, about how we could live closer to our ideals," Pinckney said.

    "They walk together in the steps of 19th century sailors ... and of slaves."

    Editor - 8/4/2003

    The Times (London)
    August 1, 2003, Friday
    SECTION: Overseas news; 17
    HEADLINE: Nazi-tainted past looms over Lithuania's EU future
    BYLINE: Roger Boyes
    Roger Boyes meets one of those on a list of 32 suspected war criminals submitted to the country's prosecutor

    IT IS hot in Kaunas; the before-the-storm stickiness that overcame Lithuania in June 1941, the season of massacres.

    So hot, that Alfonsas Zaldokas is wearing only a vest and shorts when he opens the door of his top-floor flat on the edge of this Lithuanian town. Visible under his vest are two scars.

    The Times knows -but he has not yet been told -that his name is on a list of suspected war criminals submitted to the country's prosecutor-general. The 82-year-old man talks enthusiastically about his heroic past. His frail bespectacled wife senses trouble and disappears inside the flat; through a closed door we hear her sob.

    According to the Nazi-hunter Efraim Zuroff, of the Simon Wiesenthal Centre in Jerusalem, this bony man with thick, wavy, grey hair is reported to have been on the spot during a frenzied killing of Jews.

    "Information on Lithuanian war crimes has been coming to us as part of Operation Last Chance," says Dr Zuroff. "We have been offering rewards for tips." He has submitted the names of 32 suspects to the chief prosecutor, including that of Mr Zaldokas.

    "You know, war is war," says Mr Zaldokas. "There was chaos, there were small groups which robbed the Jews, but there was no organised plan to take action against them." The veteran speaks in Russian but his grasp of military German is strong. "A lot happened in the confusion of those six to eight days and I cannot exclude the possibility that something happened; but, I tell you, it was nothing organised."

    But there are discrepancies in what he says. He describes himself as a partisan, then as a Gefreiter -a junior German rank -but later reconstructs his adventures as if he were giving commands.

    There is a constant confusion of "we" and "they" as he describes how the Police Support Battalions cordoned off areas while German soldiers or SS units carried out killings. First "they" surrounded the killing fields; later "we" tried to dissuade the Germans from committing massacres.

    The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, reached in August 1939, allowed Stalin to grab the independent Baltic States, a big prize for a navy seeking warm water ports and command of northern Europe. The Red Army and the NKVD security police units moved in on June 15, 1940, arresting and deporting more than 18,000 Lithuanians, including 5,000 children. When Hitler invaded the Soviet Union a year later his troops were decked with flowers from grateful Lithuanians.

    Before the Germans arrived, the Lithuanian Activists' Front mounted the June 1941 rebellion against the retreating Soviet forces to establish an independent state before the arrival of the Germans. Mr Zaldokas was in the group, which was steered by exiles in Berlin whose rhetoric, plainly influenced by their Nazi hosts, was purely anti-Semitic. Dr Zuroff believes that it has blood on its hands. More than 96 per cent of the 220,000 Jewish people who were living in Lithuania when the Nazi occupation began were murdered during the Holocaust, many of them by Lithuanians. Indeed, Lithuanian police battalions, working with the Germans, slaughtered thousands of Jews across Eastern Europe. Even Lithuanian historians now admit that the murder of the country's Jews was not the responsibility of the Germans alone. It was a horrified German army photographer who witnessed the killing of 45 Jewish people in a garage in Kaunas on June 25, 1941. A young Lithuanian struck each of the group with a crowbar until they were dead. The photographer records: "After the entire group had been beaten to death, the young man put the crowbar to one side, fetched an accordion and went and stood on the mountain of corpses and played the Lithuanian national anthem." Civilian bystanders applauded.

    Lithuanian historians now admit that the scope of the national resistance movement has been grossly exaggerated. Original accounts spoke of the killing of up to 6,000 rebels and a total number of rebels of up to 131,000. The respected historian Valentinas Brandisauskas has produced a more realistic estimate of 650 dead insurgents and a resistance movement of up to 20,000.

    Some Lithuanians did save Jews; some were openly hostile; most were indifferent.

    The evidence against Mr Zaldokas is unclear but he is certainly not shy about mouthing the reductionist myths of the Lithuanian resistance. Jewish officers were among the NKVD units that had deported Lithuanians to Siberia. What could be more natural, he says, than seeking revenge when the Red Army cleared out?

    A Lithuanian student asks us: "Why do you want to stir up the old ghosts?"

    "For starters," Dr Zuroff retorts, "we could expect an explicit admission of guilt, a sincere apology, a serious attempt to bring murderers to justice and a determination to teach the truth about what happened."

    As long as the Baltic republics find it hard to face their history they will have uncertain national identities. Now that they are about to form the northeastern frontier of the EU, that matters a great deal. Countries that persist in seeing the Nazis as liberators and are reluctant to admit that their national heroes may have been involved in terrible crimes are likely to have a troubled relationship with their Russian and Polish neighbours.

    Editor of HNN - 8/4/2003

    The New York Times
    August 1, 2003, Friday, Late Edition - Final
    SECTION: Section B; Page 3; Column 5; Metropolitan Desk
    HEADLINE: Man U.S. Says Was a Nazi Is Stripped of His Citizenship
    For decades, Jakiw Palij lived in Queens like many exiles from the chaos of World War II, fitting in gradually to a new life in a new country.

    Yesterday, a federal judge stripped him of his American citizenship and paved the way for his deportation, saying he had been an armed guard at an SS slave labor camp in Nazi-occupied Poland, and that he lied about his past when he came to this country in 1949.

    The Justice Department provided "convincing and unequivocal evidence that defendant assisted in the persecution of civilians," Judge Allyne R. Ross of Brooklyn federal court said.

    Mr. Palij, 79, presented what lawyers say is a confrontational but not unknown defense in deportation cases stemming from the Nazi era. He introduced no evidence and declared that the government's case was based on "an expression of opinion about history."

    Since 1979, the Justice Department has won deportations of 57 people its lawyers argued assisted in Nazi persecution. Lawyers familiar with those cases say challenging the historical record of the Holocaust and certain events during it was a defense in some of those cases.

    Justice Department lawyers presented Judge Ross with five volumes of historical documents to support their claims that Mr. Palij served in the SS and was a guard at the Trawniki camp in occupied Poland at a time when 6,000 Jewish prisoners were fatally shot there.

    Those materials included rosters of units that committed atrocities, showing that Mr. Palij was a member. The government did not present evidence that he participated in any killings.

    Part of the government's case was an analysis by Peter Black, a senior historian at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, who concluded that the records showed Mr. Palij "served as an armed guard of civilian prisoners at a forced-labor camp for Jews at Trawniki."

    Although Mr. Palij, before the Justice Department began its deportation proceeding last year, acknowledged to a government investigator that he was a trainee at Trawniki, during the proceeding he refused to answer questions, citing his right against self-incrimination.

    Confronted with the Dr. Black's detailed analysis of Mr. Palij's background, Mr. Palij's lawyer, Ivars Berzins, told Judge Ross that Dr. Black was a former employee of the Justice Department unit that pursues former Nazis, the Office of Special Investigations. Mr. Berzins said Dr. Black "carries with him the stigma of that office."

    A secretary at Mr. Berzins's office in Babylon, N.Y., said yesterday that he was not interested in speaking with reporters. There was no answer yesterday at Mr. Palij's home on a tree-lined street in Jackson Heights. Mr. Palij, a retired draftsman, and his wife of 43 years have no children.

    The Justice Department's case against Mr. Palij is one of three deportation proceedings now under way involving men who have spent the last five decades in New York. According to evidence submitted by the Justice Department, the three remained friends in New York and their names appear next to each other on the roster of a unit at Trawniki.

    After Mr. Berzins presented no evidence, Justice Department lawyers urged Judge Ross to order the deportation without a trial. Such a ruling is permissible in a civil case like a deportation proceeding when one side presents a legally compelling case and there are no disputes about the facts.

    Although he had not presented evidence to contradict the government's claims, Mr. Berzins argued that a trial was "necessary to dispel serious doubts on critical issues." An appeal of Judge Ross's ruling could delay a deportation for years.

    Editor - 8/4/2003

    The Independent (London)
    August 1, 2003, Friday
    SECTION: NEWS; Pg. 6

    THE DISPUTE over race and the Conservative party has been reignited by the eminent right-wing historian Andrew Roberts, who has spoken out against the promotion of "non-Tory" black people, women and gays in the party.

    Mr Roberts made his controversial remarks in the latest edition of the far right-wing magazine Right Now! Asked what he though of the "so- called modernising faction within the Conservative party", he replied: "Again and again, when the modernisers tell us that we've got to have more blacks, gays and women in the higher echelons of the party, it seems that the blacks, gays and women who they promote aren't Tories. If we do want to try and create a new image for the party, we shouldn't be doing it with non-Tories."

    The magazine is edited by Derek Turner, who once claimed he was a "neighbourhood Nazi."

    Mr Roberts said in his article he had "never believed in positive discrimination, which is just degrading and demeaning for those who are its supposed beneficiaries". He also said the Tories had the first woman prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, and the first Jewish Prime Minister and did not need to be "lectured".

    editor - 8/4/2003

    from History Today:

    Oracle at Delphi was in narcotic trance

    Scientists believe they have unravelled the mystery of the prophecies of the Delphic oracle in ancient Greece. A town at the base of Mount Parnassus, in Greece, Delphi was the seat of the oracle from the 7th century BC, where prophesies were made for the god Apollo through a priestess in a trance. The scientific team, headed by Prof John Hale of Louisville University, publish their findings in Scientific American and believe the maiden was in a narcotic trance. This was caused by her chamber being built on top of a natural fissure that emitted ethane and ethylene fumes, produced by petrochemical layers in the limestone. Tests show that exposure to ethylene gases can cause euphoria, trances, amnesia and even convulsions and death; according to ancient histories at least one oracle died. The geologists stated the intersection in the rocks “provided pathways along which both groundwater and gases were able to rise… These vapours then moved through fissures into the small chamber where the oracle sat.” Greek biographer Plutarch, who was also priest of Apollo and kept strong links with Delphi, recorded that the oracle sat in a deep, sweet-smelling chamber. Analysis of water around the temple led the scientists to confirm: “Because ethylene has a sweet odour, the presence of this gas supports Plutarch's description of a gas that smelled like expensive perfume.” (Aug 3rd)

    editor - 8/1/2003

    NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE (Vol. 9, #33; 1 August 2003)
    by Bruce Craig (editor) <> with Paul Beede
    (contributing editor)
    National Coalition for History (NCH)
    Website http//

    Editor's Note to Readers
    1. House Acts on Budget For National Archives
    2. Congress Investigates NPS Outsourcing Plans
    3. Energy Committee Approves Cold War Theme Study/Woodson Home NHS Bills;
    Action on Other Bills Pending
    4. House Slashes E-Government Act Funding
    5. Annual State of Declassification Report
    6. Bits and Bytes: Transportation Enhancements Funding Left to Discretion
    of States; ‘Picturing' Women A Cross-Disciplinary Symposium; ABPP
    Battlefield Grants Announced; Bush Issues New Executive Order on
    Information Sharing
    7. Articles of Interest: "Humor, Humility, and Rhetorical Courage" (Slate,
    23 July 2003); "History on the Chopping Block" (The Christian Science
    Monitor; 28 July 2003)

    Editor's Note to Readers:
    With Congress now out of session for the month of August, the editor will
    be making his annual trek north to Prince Edward Island, Canada, where he
    will rest, re-cooperate, and eat mussels, lobsters, and the world's finest
    potatoes. As such we will be operating on a reduced publication schedule:
    there will be only two UPDATES during the month of August -- no posting
    will be made the week of 4 August.

    The House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations has marked up its
    version of the Department of Transportation, Treasury, and Independent
    Agencies funding bill for FY 2004 and there is some good news to
    report! The committee mark sets the National Archives and Records
    Administration (NARA) operating budget at $255.191 million which is only
    about $3 million short of the President's request. A new electronic
    records archives account has been funded at $35.914 million and there
    report language earmarking $600,000 for the "preservation of the records of
    the Freedmen's Bureau."

    For the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC)
    grants program, the Committee has recommended full-funding -- $10 million
    "to remain available until expended" -- thus doubling the President's
    request of only $5 million.

    On 24 July 2003, the National Parks Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on
    Energy and National Resources held a hearing to gather information on
    current competitive sourcing initiatives, which includes long-range plans
    to outsource archeologist, historian, archivist, and other professional
    staff positions. The subcommittee heard from two administration witnesses
    -- Fran Mainella, Director of the National Park Service, and Angela B.
    Styles of the Office of Management and Budget. Styles is the OMB official
    in charge of the competitive sourcing program, an initiative by the Bush
    administration to mandate government workers to compete for their jobs with
    private-sector employees.

    Mainella's testimony focused on dispelling the "misunderstandings"
    surrounding the competitive sourcing plans. She attempted to reassure
    bureau employees that their jobs were not already lost, and that many if
    not most jobs would remain in the hands of Park Service governmental
    workers. Angela Styles reminded the subcommittee that jobs that are
    "inherently governmental" would not be affected, and the out-sourcing would
    focus on commercial jobs only. Later that same day, in front of another
    panel, Styles also announced that the Bush administration's competitive
    sourcing initiative would no longer require federal agencies to meet
    government-wide quotas.

    Also testifying at the hearing in support of the competitive sourcing
    program were Sam Kleinman of CNA Corporation, and Geoffrey Segal, Director
    of Privatization and Government Reform Policy of the Reason Foundation, a
    Los Angeles based conservative libertarian think tank. Testimony of both
    witnesses focused on the monetary benefits of outsourcing program and
    included description of successful outsourcing efforts within the
    Department of Defense and in the Canadian provincial park system. Segal
    predicted that the outsourcing program would save the NPS about $6.6
    million in the first year, and if handled properly, it could save as much
    as 31 percent of the baseline cost of government operations.

    Other witnesses including Scott McElveen, speaking on behalf of the
    Association of National Park Rangers, and Bill Wade, a former
    superintendent of Shenandoah National Park who spoke on behalf of the
    Coalition of Concerned NPS Retirees and the Campaign to Protect America's
    Lands, took the administration and libertarian think-tank witnesses to
    task. "The National Park Service is different [from other federal
    agencies]," Wade said. "Many, if not most, of the positions in the NPS are
    ‘multi-disciplinary' in nature." He explained why outsourcing is an
    assault on the integrity and mission of the NPS and that it is also having
    a detrimental effect on morale. If left unchecked, Wade continued, the
    program "will reduce a once proud highly productive workforce into a
    run-of-the-mill government bureaucracy."

    On 23 July 2003, the Senate Energy Committee favorably reported out several
    bills focusing on historic resources. The first, the Cold War theme study
    bill (S. 452) requires the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a study to
    identify sites and resources to recommend alternatives for commemorating
    and interpreting the Cold War. The bill was amended to require the
    Department of the Interior (DOI) to coordinate with the Department of
    Energy (DOE). The legislation was originally introduced on 26 February
    2003 by Senator Harry Reid (D-NV).

    Also favorably reported out of committee was a bill establishing the Carter
    G. Woodson Home National Historic Site in Washington D.C. (H.R.
    1012). Woodson, considered the father of African-American history, founded
    the Association for the Study of African-American Life and History in
    1915. This bill was also amended by allowing the historic site to be
    expanded after the Carter Woodson home is purchased. HR 1012 passed the
    House on 14 May 2003. Action by the full Senate on both bills is now pending.

    Other Bills passed or acted upon by Congress include:
    A bill to Extend the Authority For the Construction of a Memorial to Martin
    Luther King, Jr.: On 18 July 2003, under unanimous consent, the Senate
    passed legislation (S 470) to extend the authority for the construction of
    a memorial to Martin Luther King, Jr. to November 12, 2006. The bill was
    introduced by Senator Paul Sarbanes (D-MD) on 27 February 2003. The House
    companion legislation, HR 1209, is pending on the House calendar. It was
    introduced on 11 March 2003 by Representative Diane Watson (D-CA).

    Smithsonian Facilities Authorization Act: On 17 July 2003, under
    suspension of the rules, the House passed legislation (HR 2195) to provide
    for additional space and resources for national collections held by the
    Smithsonian Institution. The legislation was introduced by Rep. Ralph
    Regula (R-OH) on 21 May 2003. The bill has been received by the Senate and
    has yet to be referred to a committee for consideration.

    Paleontological Resources Preservation Act: On 17 July 2003, under
    unanimous consent, the Senate passed legislation (S 546) to provide for the
    protection of paleontological resources on Federal lands, and for other
    purposes. The bill was introduced by Senator Daniel Akaka (D-HI) on 6
    March 2003. It was sent to the House on 18 July, and referred to both the
    Committee on Resources and the Committee on Agriculture.

    Buffalo Soldier Commemoration Act of 2003: On 17 July 2003, under
    unanimous consent, the Senate passed legislation (S 499) to authorize the
    American Battle Monuments Commission to establish in the State of Louisiana
    a memorial to honor the Buffalo Soldiers. The bill was introduced by
    Senator Mary Landrieu (D-LA) on 3 March 2003. The legislation has been
    sent to the House and referred to the Committee on Resources.

    The U.S. House Appropriations Committee is calling for only $1 million in
    2004 funding for the Electronic Government Act (E-Gov), which invests in
    inter-agency projects with government-wide applications. The Bush
    Administration had requested $45 million for the program, but a House
    Appropriations Committee spokesperson said the Bush Administration had not
    justified the $45 million funding request. The Senate has not reported an
    E-Gov funding bill as yet and Joe Lieberman (D-CT) and Conrad Burns (R-MT),
    who authored the original bill, are expected to mount a vigorous fight for
    more money for the program.

    Amid much fanfare last November, Congress passed the E-Government
    legislation, touting it as the beginning of a new era of government
    openness and services. President Bush signed the bill in December
    2002. Bush had hoped to ramp up funding for the program to $150 million a
    year by 2006. The E-Gov initiatives propose to make it easier for citizens
    and businesses to interact with the government, save taxpayer dollars, and
    streamline citizen-to-government transactions.

    On 23 July 2003, the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) released
    its annual report to the president on the status of the security
    classification program. The annual number of classification decisions
    made by classifiers in the executive branch increased by 14 percent in
    fiscal year 2002 to more than 23 million individual classification actions,
    while declassification activity declined to the lowest level in seven
    years. However, almost 45 million pages of information were declassified
    by various government agencies.

    Among other statistics of interest, ISOO reported that
    classification-related expenditures, which include the costs of personnel
    security, physical security and associated infrastructure, rose to $6.5
    billion in government and industry. The report also outlined the new
    outlook on classification spending--government agencies will have to spend
    money to keep information classified, rather than spending it to declassify
    the information.

    ISOO director J. William Leonard opened the report with an introductory
    essay entitled "A Look to the Future of the Security Classification System
    in a Post 9/11 Environment." "While there is always a temptation to err on
    the side of caution, especially in times of war," Mr. Leonard wrote, "the
    challenge for agencies is to similarly avoid damaging the nation's security
    by hoarding information."

    A copy of the report may be found at:

    Item #1 -- Transportation Enhancements Funding Left to Discretion of
    States: Following up on last week's posting ("Transportation Enhancements
    Program Still Endangered," NCH WASHINGTON UPDATE, Vol. 9 #32; 24 July 2003)
    on 24 July 2003, the House Appropriations Committee marked up the FY 2004
    Transportation Appropriations Bill, providing $33.8 billion for highway
    spending, and restoring $600 million in funding for the Enhancements
    Program -- the 10% set aside program that benefits transportation-related
    historic preservation projects. The original draft of the transportation
    spending measure had eliminated the $600 million for enhancements
    completely; however, the committee-approved draft bill left it up to the
    States to decide whether to spend their allocations on enhancements
    projects or roads. An amendment by Representative John Olver (D-MA) sought
    to keep the enhancements program the way it has been since authorized by
    ISTEA in 1991, but the motion was defeated by a vote of 29-33.

    Item #2 -- ‘Picturing' Women A Cross-Disciplinary Symposium -- Call For
    Papers: The Center for Visual Culture at Bryn Mawr College and The William
    Penn Foundation will sponsor a one-and-a-half-day symposium on 19-20
    March 2004, exploring the question of what women were historically and are
    today "pictured" to be -- in the vocabulary and imagery of various
    fields. The exhibition will juxtapose historical works with 20th- and
    21st-century art as a means of exploring the historical and contemporary
    representations and self-representations of women­ how they are figured,
    fashioned, turned into portraits, and described in words and pictorial
    narrative. To submit a proposal for consideration please email a detailed
    proposal for your talk, a letter outlining your interest and expertise in
    the subject, and a resume, to Susan Shifrin, Project Curator, at, by 30 September 2003. An honorarium will be
    provided. For more information on suggested submission areas, go to:

    Item #3 -- ABPP Battlefield Grants Announced -- Earlier this month, the
    American Battlefield Protection Program announced the award of 21 grants
    totaling $464,560 to assist in the preservation and protection of America's
    significant battlefield lands. This year's grant recipients represent a
    historical cross section ranging from the mid-18th century conflict known
    as the War of Jenkins Ear to World War II. Funded projects include
    delineation and evaluation of sites, planning, education, and
    interpretation. For the full list, tap into: <http:

    Item #4 -- Bush Issues New Executive Order on Information Sharing: On 29
    July President Bush issued an Executive Order 13311 that seeks to implement
    a provision of the Homeland Security Act that is supposed to promote
    increased sharing of homeland security information throughout the federal
    government and with state and local officials. For the EO, tap into:>;.

    Two articles this week -- First, in "Humor, Humility, and Rhetorical
    Courage" (Slate, 23 July 2003) Michael Kinsley says American politicians
    should take a page from Tony Blair if they want to make politics engaging.
    Kinsley writes that "Blair's speech [to Congress] also had qualities that
    go beyond eloquence. They might be summed up as rhetorical
    courage....Rhetorical courage comes down to a willingness to be
    interesting. Interesting can be dangerous, so American pols tend to avoid
    it." tap into: <>;.

    Second, in "History on the Chopping Block" Monitor reporter Beth Joyner
    Waldron (The Christian Science Monitor; 28 July 2003) reports on how
    lawmakers in some states are trying to save historic sites from budget
    axes. Tap into: <>;.

    The National Coalition for History invites you to subscribe to this FREE
    weekly newsletter! You are also encouraged to redistribute the NCH
    Washington Updates to colleagues, friends, teachers, students and others
    who are interested in history and archives issues. A complete backfile of
    these reports is maintained by H-Net on the NCH's recently updated web page
    at: <>;.

    To subscribe to the "NCH Washington Update," send an e-mail message according to the following model: SUBSCRIBE H-NCH
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    You can accomplish the same tasks by tapping into the web interface at and at the "network" prompt,
    scroll down and select H-NCH; enter your name and affiliation and "submit".

    editor - 8/1/2003

    The Irish Times
    July 31, 2003
    HEADLINE: Leader of Germany's reformed communist party was Stasi spy
    Germany's reformed communist party was thrown into chaos yesterday after its leader was unmasked as a former spy for the East German secret police, the Stasi.

    The name of Mr Lothar Bisky emerged from secret Stasi files, codenamed Rosenholz, that were in the possession of the CIA for the last 12 years until they were handed over to the German government earlier this month.

    Mr Bisky worked under the codenames "Bienert" and "Klaus Heine" for 16 years and was praised by officials as a "trustworthy, ready-for-action comrade". "Having a registration card is no proof of IM activity. What is understood by IM activity - obligation to keep certain rules and report regularly - that's not what I was," said Mr Bisky.

    Mr Bisky had been suspected in recent years of working as an "unofficial worker" (IM) for the Stasi, but there was until now no proof. "In 1995 Mr Bisky said there was no codename and no IM registration. Both (nos) are now yes," said Dr Hubertus Knabe, a leading German historian and Stasi expert.

    The revelation could have serious consequences for Mr Bisky, just three weeks after he was re-elected head of the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS). Three years ago he stepped down as leader of the party, the successor to the Socialist Unity Party (SED).

    The revelation will be a stinging blow to the PDS, still trying to find its feet a year after the general election when it lost all but two seats in the lower house of parliament, the Bundestag. "A new start for the PDS with a man who worked for (the Stasi) for 16 years is difficult to imagine," said Dr Knabe.

    Earlier this week the new leader launched a programme to revitalise the party and rebuild its fading public profile.

    Mr Bisky, a one-time film studies professor, served as head of an investigation into Stasi allegations surrounding Mr Manfred Stolpe, then state premier of Brandenburg and currently federal Transport Minister in Berlin. The two-year investigation cleared Mr Stolpe, but questions are now being asked as to how a former Stasi spy could chair such an investigation.

    This latest revelation shows how the poisonous legacy of the Stasi continues to fester in Germany. As a surveillance organisation, it had no equal in history. It kept files on around one-third of East Germany's 17 million citizens and an estimated 1 in 68 East Germans worked for it.

    editor - 8/1/2003

    The Atlanta Journal and Constitution
    July 31, 2003 Thursday Home Edition
    SECTION: Metro News; Pg. 1B
    HEADLINE: Divers study long-sunken Civil War ship; Confederate ironclad's crew scuttled it in Savannah River
    Archaeologists are taking the first steps in what may become a multimillion-dollar effort to save Savannah's incredible hulk.

    For the next six weeks, divers will cope with powerful currents and near zero visibility in the muddy Savannah River to complete the first detailed underwater survey of the CSS Georgia, a lumbering Confederate ironclad scuttled by its own crew as Sherman's troops entered the city in 1864.

    After almost 140 years on the river bottom, the ship, once hailed as the savior of Savannah, now needs a little saving itself.

    Sonar measurements show that the vessel, which lies in 40 feet of water three miles downriver from Savannah, has deteriorated rapidly in recent years. So the Confederate Navy's "mud tub," which was lost for a century until it was struck by a passing dredge in 1968, might be lost again, this time for good.

    "We don't really know why it's deteriorating," said U.S. Army Corps of Engineers archaeologist Judy Wood. "But by the time we finish this project, we should know what we need to do to protect it."

    Although sonar has enabled the corps to monitor the general outlines of the wreck, no detailed visual inspection of it has been made since the 1980s.

    "We haven't seen her for almost 20 years," says Wood. "Back then we had divers measuring her with a knotted rope. Now they're using high-tech electronic equipment and getting very accurate measurements."

    The $375,000 survey, paid for by the corps and the Georgia Ports Authority, is also being supported by the National Park Service and the historic preservation agencies of Georgia and South Carolina.

    Because the wreck lies in the path of the planned $262 million Savannah Harbor expansion, the corps must consider a range of preservation options.

    The agency could attempt to stabilize the crumbling hull in place and retrieve key components. It could also decide that the only course of action is complete recovery of the massive shipwreck.

    "These studies will allow us to determine the best course of action," says Roger Gerber, commander of the corps' Savannah district.

    With the wreck's heavy armor and an overall length of 150 to 250 feet, full excavation would be one of the most ambitious, and costly, marine archaeology projects ever undertaken in the United States. More than $13 million of the cost of harbor improvements has been earmarked for the possible work on the CSS Georgia.

    In contrast, last year's expedition off Cape Hatteras, N.C., to raise the turret of the USS Monitor, the Union Navy's famous ironclad "cheesebox on a raft," cost $6.5 million.

    The Georgia has never enjoyed the star status accorded the Monitor or the Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley, which sank in the harbor at Charleston, S.C. But naval historians find it intriguing for several reasons.

    The Georgia was the product of a frenzy of ironclad fever that swept both the North and the South after the historic 1862 duel between the Monitor and the CSS Virginia (formerly Merrimack) at Hampton Roads, Va.

    In all, three ironclads were built in Savannah, and three more were under construction when the war ended. Most of the $155,000 cost of building the Georgia was raised by patriotic groups called Ladies Gunboat Associations. Confederate troops and house carpenters built the ship from plans developed by a Savannah iron foundry --- with predictable results.

    The 500 tons of railroad iron used for armor made the ship so heavy it bulged at the seams. Because it leaked and was powered by an anemic engine from a side-wheel steamer, the ship's top speed was 2 knots.

    Because the Savannah River's current was 4 knots, the Georgia could go only one way --- downstream. It was eventually moored as a floating battery near Fort Jackson, where, Wood says, it functioned much "like a large guard dog on a chain." Facing the imposing "iron monster" in the river channel, the Union Navy never attacked.

    For all of its historic import to Savannah, however, precious little is known about the crumbling ironclad.

    Its exact length is unknown. No plans for the ship have ever been found. There are no known photographs. And three historic sketches of the ship, including one made by an artist who never saw the vessel, are all different.

    Without a paper trail, the only known detailed record of the ship's construction lies in the mud at the bottom of the Savannah River. As part of the survey effort, the corps has enlisted an archaeological firm, New South Associates of Stone Mountain, to scour archives for lost information.

    To cast an even wider net, the corps has also issued a public appeal for help with photographs, letters or other documents from descendants of individuals who raised funds for the ship, who helped build it or who crewed it.

    The agency plans to place a list of known names with some connection to the ship on the Internet at in the hopes that schools, amateur historians and genealogists will help track down any living descendants.

    editor - 8/1/2003

    Australian Financial Review
    August 1, 2003 Friday
    SECTION: Weekend Review; Pg. 3
    HEADLINE: A Risky Interpretation Of History
    BYLINE: John Quiggin John Quiggin Is An Australian Research Council Professorial Fellow Based At The University of Queensland And The au
    John Quiggin on the past, present and future of the quest for security

    The past is inevitably viewed through the prism of the present and the imagined future. New concerns about the future necessitate a reassessment of the past and a rewriting of history in the light of contemporary preoccupations. This point is nicely illustrated by David Moss's When All Else Fails,* in which he surveys two centuries of US history and presents the state as "the ultimate risk manager". It is unlikely that past theorists of the state would have taken this view, or that many previous historians would have presented the development of the limited liability corporation as part of the same historical movement as the New Deal.

    However, it is fast becoming a commonplace that "risk" is the central idea of the early 21st century. Just as happened with "globalisation" a decade ago, it is necessary to reassess the experience of the 19th and 20th centuries in the light of new ways of thinking about the present. Moss has fulfilled this task admirably.

    He starts with a nice primer on risk and the history of thinking about risk and uncertainty (an adequate exposition of the subtle differences between these concepts would require a book in itself). It is striking that the concept of probability, fundamental to any formal reasoning about risk and uncertainty, was not developed until the 16th century. Despite insightful contributions in the 1920s by John Maynard Keynes and leading Chicago economist Frank Knight, serious economic analysis of problems involving uncertainty did not occur until the latter half of the 20th century.

    Although probability estimates are now part of daily life, from sporting odds to weather forecasts, the relatively recent development of probability as a concept is an indication that it is not part of our natural mental equipment. As a result, reasoning about probability is typically heuristic in nature and characterised by a range of biases, many of which were catalogued by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. In particular, people like certain sorts of gambles (those with a lower risk of loss and a small chance of a big payoff, as in a lottery) and dislike others which, under certain consistency assumptions, they should rank similarly. Even more strikingly, the way in which a risky prospect is presented or "framed" may have a large effect on how it's perceived. As Moss shows, this must be taken into account in policy analysis and policy formulation.

    Moss distinguishes three phases of public risk management in the US. The first, "security for business", encompasses innovations such as limited liability and bankruptcy laws, introduced in the period before 1900. The second phase, "security for workers", includes Progressive initiatives such as workers compensation and the core programs of the New Deal, unemployment insurance and social security. The third phase, "security for all", is still under way and includes such diverse initiatives as consumer protection laws and public disaster relief.

    In many ways, the discussion of bankruptcy and limited liability laws is the most interesting section of the book. These institutions have been established for so long now that they seem like a natural part of the capitalist order of things. Yet, as Moss shows, before their introduction, they were vigorously opposed by defenders of the free market, who felt they undermined the principle of individual responsibility and promoted what is now called moral hazard.

    This responsibility associated with shareholding was certainly a heavy one. As Moss observes, before the introduction of limited liability, the shareholders in a company were jointly and severally liable for its debts in most jurisdictions. That is, any shareholder, no matter how small their holding, could be pursued for the entire debts of the company and made to contribute their entire wealth. Since most of the same jurisdictions allowed imprisonment for debt, these institutions were not particularly conductive to shareholding. In the face of these disincentives, arguments that unlimited liability was the best guarantee of individual responsibility failed to command much support.

    A free-market critique more congenial to modern tastes was put forward by the (then newly established) Economist in 1854. The Economist argued that individuals and companies were free to enter into contracts that limited liability in the event of default. Hence, a specific rule limiting liability was at best superfluous and at worst (if it proved impossible to contract around limited liability) harmful. Although the Economist had changed its mind about limited liability by 1926, this kind of argument has resurfaced again and again, in relation to workers compensation, consumer protection and many other instances of public intervention in risk management.

    The shift from an economy dominated by agricultural smallholdings to a manufacturing-based economy in which most households depended on wage employment produced the second of Moss's three phases. Workers received systematic protection from the effects of industrial accidents, through workers compensation, and from the risk of unemployment, the natural counterpart of wage employment.

    Moss presents a fascinating analysis of the arguments used by the advocates of reform to press their case, and of the debates among them as to the most appropriate form of social security policy. In a point of particular interest in the light of present policy debates in the US (and also in Australia) he shows that health insurance came very close to being included as part of the Roosevelt administration's social security package. It was dropped in the face of fierce opposition from the American Medical Association, among others. As a result, Americans turned to their employers for medical insurance, creating a unique and problematic set of institutions for financing health care.

    Moss's treatment of the third phase, "security for all", is brief and focuses on the relatively minor example of disaster insurance. He mentions Medicare and other aspects of public involvement in health insurance, but only briefly. He omits altogether the biggest risk management innovation of the second half of the 20th century, macroeconomic stabilisation policies, based on Keynesian fiscal policy and, more recently, on counter-cyclical monetary policy. Given the huge literature on both topics, this is perhaps a sensible acknowledgement of comparative advantage.

    Moss confines his attention to the US. He argues persuasively that the risk management devices he describes can be seen as reflections of a distinctively American approach to the role of the state. In this approach, US governments have sought, as far as possible, to act indirectly, through institutions that are nominally private (such as the mortgage guarantee corporations Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac) or at least designed to closely resemble private institutions like insurance companies (as in the social security system).

    Moss's analysis is convincing and appealing for those who have long been puzzled by the evident fact of US exceptionalism. By European or even Australian standards, the American state seems weak and underdeveloped in domestic matters, a sharp contrast with its awesome and largely unfettered military power. Culture-based explanations, harking back to the frontier spirit, seem unsatisfactory given that for practical purposes the frontier ceased to be a meaningful concept in 1869 with the completion of the first transcontinental railroad.

    As Moss argues, the difference is as much cosmetic as real. The American state fulfils most of the same risk management functions as the social democracies of Western Europe, but does so in a way that maintains the appearance, and to some extent the reality, of private operation and individual self-reliance. The result is, in most cases, less comprehensive public provision of risk management than is provided elsewhere, but considerably more than would be supposed from a superficial survey.

    The idea that risk could be better managed by individuals and markets than by governments enjoyed a resurgence in the boom of the 1990s, and was an important component of the "Third Way" thinking of theorists like Anthony Giddens.

    But the worldwide financial disasters of the late 1990s have undermined this belief. The question of how society can best manage risk in an increasingly diverse community will dominate policy debate for many years to come.

    Editor - 7/31/2003


    July 29, 2003, Tuesday

    SECTION: Pg. 17

    LENGTH: 1261 words

    HEADLINE: Optical allusions David Hockney's startling claim about the use of mirror lenses by certain Old Masters has sparked an increasingly heated debate. Sebastian Smee reports on a new assault on the artist's controversial views


    One of the National Gallery's most extraordinary paintings, Jan van Eyck's Portrait of Arnolfini and His Wife, is at the centre of an increasingly ugly debate between scientists over whether the Flemish artist employed optical projections to help him paint it.

    The claim was originally made more than two years ago by the artist David Hockney, in a book called Secret Knowledge. The book, which was followed by a BBC documentary and a segment on CBS's 60 Minutes programme in the US, emerged from several years of keen observation and frenetic hypothesising, and prompted a flurry of articles, seminars, conferences and websites.

    Of course, art historians had known for a long time that certain Old Masters did use optical devices. Vermeer almost certainly used a camera obscura; Canaletto used lenses; and Ingres carried a camera lucida with him when making his portrait drawings.

    But, until Hockney and his friend the physicist Charles Falco came along, no one had suggested that a concave mirror might have been used as a lens by the likes of van Eyck as early as the 1420s.

    The claim drew dismissals from many art historians, who were unimpressed by Hockney's inability to find conclusive written evidence for the claim. (His explanation was that the knowledge was kept secret by artists, hence the title of his book.) But, since an important part of the claims comes down to optical evidence and to knowledge of the history of lenses, much of the work of rebutting the claims has fallen to experts in the field of optics.

    And here, in the supposedly cool and calm climes of science, things have been getting shockingly heated.

    Leading the anti-Hockney charge has been David Stork, an academic at Stanford University and chief scientist at Ricoh Innovations, who has written several papers attempting to rebut aspects of the Hockney-Falco theory. The most recent (soon to appear in Optics and Photonics News, a journal that has also published Hockney's and Falco's arguments) addresses specifically van Eyck's painting of the Arnolfini wedding.

    Stork's efforts have not endeared him to Hockney and Falco. Falco says his papers "are so superficially incorrect that they're useless. Everything he's written has either been wrong or irrelevant or misleading, or all three. After a while, life's just too short."

    Stork's paper on the van Eyck hypothesis addresses two main points. In Secret Knowledge, Hockney pointed to the convex mirror depicted in the Arnolfini painting: "If you reverse the silvering, and then turn it around [to produce a concave mirror], that would be all the optical equipment you would need for the meticulous and natural-looking detail in the picture."

    Stork's response, hingeing on a lot of impressive-looking formulae, was to calculate the focal length of the mirror depicted by van Eyck and compare it to an estimate of the focal length of the concave mirror he may have used to make his projection.

    "These lengths differ by over eight standard deviations," Stork concludes triumphantly, "and thus we must reject the conjecture that the depicted mirror was so used."

    Falco's impatient retort has been to say that Hockney was never saying van Eyck used the same mirror depicted in the painting; he was just demonstrating the simplicity of the mechanism.

    Hockney had also claimed that van Eyck's incredibly detailed-looking chandelier (which reveals no underdrawing) was in "perfect perspective", suggesting to Hockney and Falco the assistance of an optical projection.

    Stork, therefore, performs various perspective analyses on the chandelier, basically by extending lines from the image to see if they meet at the horizon. Since they don't, he concludes that the chandelier is not in perfect perspective at all. He even gets a contemporary British painter, Nicholas Williams, to paint a (simpler) chandelier "by eye" alone, and, finding that it is in perfect perspective, concludes "that a skilful artist does not need projections to achieve excellent perspective".

    On this point, Falco can barely contain his exasperation. He argues that an image of any complex, handmade chandelier would fail the perspective analyses performed by Stork for the simple reason that any slight imperfection in it would prevent Stork's extended lines from meeting at the horizon.

    Falco's own, more sophisticated (he says) tests show that indeed van Eyck's perspective is virtually perfect.

    One could go on endlessly with such arguments and all their multiple rebuttals. But what becomes most fascinating is the tone of the debate.

    "Stork is such a literal-minded person. I wish he would go away," said Falco, who claimed his opponent is simply using the high-profile nature of the debate to get himself known.

    Stork, in turn, is highly critical of Falco's perceived arrogance, and irritated by the way the debate is being conducted. "We cannot ignore the immense public-relations advantage of Hockney," he adds. "If the same (or better justified) ideas were put forth by an obscure scholar or brilliant graduate student, no one would pay attention."

    Hockney, like Falco, is dismissive of Stork ("I never took him seriously"). But he seems increasingly keen to lift himself above the melee.

    "I don't want to get involved with the scientists too much. They tend not to grasp what it is actually about. What they're asking is, 'Is David Hockney right or wrong?', which is a ridiculous way of looking at it."

    Hockney's argument about the use of optical devices was part of a wider thesis on photography and its relationship to art. Such questions have been at the centre of his own practice for several decades, as anyone who has seen his inventive photocollages or shifting perspective paintings will know.

    Although Hockney claims pictures themselves are his historical documents, ultimately, he is not so interested in making them perform the empiricist function scientists require. Instead, his observations are constantly being fed back into his concerns as a practising artist.

    None of which is to deny the significance of his claim about the early use of mirror lenses. The question is important because van Eyck has always represented something of a turning point in art history. He attained a degree of detailed naturalism that seemed a quantum leap ahead of what had preceded them.

    The usual explanation for this leap invokes the invention of oil paint, as well as the application of newly discovered rules of perspective. So it's no surprise that Hockney's suggestion that van Eyck had used an optical device came as a shock.

    But, when I asked him if his thesis would be demolished if his speculation about van Eyck proved wrong, Hockney said: "No, of course not. To see the optical projection is to use it. You don't need to have traced from it. So the question is when did they first see it? That's a perfectly good question. And what I'm saying is that around 1420 there was a change in painting which had to do with optics. How it happened I can't be sure, but there was."

    Stork says he came to Hockney's theory with an open mind. He now disagrees with the claims about van Eyck, but, when asked whether he thought artists might have used optical devices more than we previously realised, his admission seemed to echo what most people secretly think: "This is an interesting question, worthy of further analysis."

    editor - 7/31/2003

    The Times (London)
    July 28, 2003, Monday
    SECTION: Overseas news; 8
    HEADLINE: Tomb reveals Ancient Egypt's humiliating secret
    BYLINE: Dalya Alberge
    Dalya Alberge reports on how details of crushing defeat by another Nile superpower were kept hidden

    Ancient Egyptians "airbrushed" out of history one of their most humiliating defeats in battle, academics believe.

    In what the British Museum described as the discovery of a lifetime, a 3,500-year-old inscription shows that the Sudanese kingdom of Kush came close to destroying its northern neighbour.

    The revelation is contained in 22 lines of sophisticated hieroglyphics deciphered by Egyptologists from the British Museum and Egypt after their discovery in February in a richly decorated tomb at ElKab, near Thebes, in Upper Egypt.

    Vivian Davies, Keeper of the museum's Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan, said: "In many ways this is the discovery of a lifetime, one that changes the textbooks.

    We're absolutely staggered by it."

    The inscription details previously unknown important battles unprecedented "since the time of the god" -the beginning of time. Experts now believe that the humiliation of defeat was one that the Ancient Egyptians preferred to omit from their historical accounts.

    Contemporary Egyptian descriptions had led historians to assume that the kingdom of Kush was a weak and barbaric neighbouring state for hundreds of years, although it boasted a complex society with vast resources of gold dominating the principal trade routes into the heart of Africa. It did eventually conquer Egypt, in the 8th century BC.

    Mr Davies, who headed the joint British Museum and Egyptian archaeological team, said: "Now it is clear that Kush was a superpower which had the capacity to invade Egypt. It was a huge invasion, one that stirred up the entire region, a momentous event that is previously undocumented.

    "They swept over the mountains, over the Nile, without limit. This is the first time we've got evidence. Far from Egypt being the supreme power of the Nile Valley, clearly Kush was at that time.

    "Had they stayed to occupy Egypt, the Kushites might have eliminated it. That's how close Egypt came to extinction. But the Egyptians were resilient enough to survive, and shortly afterwards inaugurated the great imperial age known as the New Kingdom. The Kushites weren't interested in occupation. They went raiding for precious objects, a symbol of domination. They did a lot of damage."

    The inscription was found between two internal chambers in a rock-cut tomb that was covered in soot and dirt. It appeared gradually as the grime was removed.

    Mr Davies said: "I thought it would be a religious text, but it turned out to be historical. Gradually, a real narrative emerged, a brand new text inscribed in red paint, reading from right to left."

    The tomb belonged to Sobeknakht, a Governor of El Kab, an important provincial capital during the latter part of the 17th Dynasty (about 1575-1550BC).

    The inscription describes a ferocious invasion of Egypt by armies from Kush and its allies from the south, including the land of Punt, on the southern coast of the Red Sea. It says that vast territories were affected and describes Sobeknakht's heroic role in organising a counter-attack.

    The text takes the form of an address to the living by Sobeknakht: "Listen you, who are alive upon earth...Kush came...aroused along his length, he having stirred up the tribes of Wawat...the land of Punt and the Medjaw..." It describes the decisive role played by "the might of the great one, Nekhbet", the vulture-goddess of El Kab, as "strong of heart against the Nubians, who were burnt through fire", while the "chief of the nomads fell through the blast of her flame".

    The discovery explains why Egyptian treasures, including statues, stelae and an elegant alabaster vessel found in the royal tomb at Kerma, were buried in Kushite tombs: they were war trophies.

    Mr Davies said: "That has never been properly explained before. Now it makes sense. It's the key that unlocks the information. Now we know they were looted trophies, symbols of these kings' power over the Egyptians. Each of the four main kings of Kush brought back looted treasures."

    The alabaster vessel is contemporary with the latter part of the 17th Dynasty. It bears a funerary text "for the spirit of the Governor, Hereditary Prince of Nekheb, Sobek-nakht". Now it is clear that it was looted from Sobeknakht's tomb, or an associated workshop, by the Kushite forces and taken back to Kerma, where it was buried in the precincts of the tomb of the Kushite king who had led or inspired the invasion.

    The El Kab tomb was looted long ago, probably in antiquity. There is more to investigate at the enormous site and the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Egypt is now making such work a priority.

    editor - 7/31/2003

    The Straits Times (Singapore)
    July 25, 2003 Friday
    SECTION: World
    HEADLINE: Berlin airport sitting on live bombs; Stasi files claim tonnes of WWII bombs - and Nazi fighter planes - lie in bunkers under airport

    BERLIN - A Berlin airport used by hundreds of thousands of tourists and business travellers each year could be sitting on top of thousands of live bombs.

    According to The Scotsman, papers among thousands of files captured from the Stasi, the former East German secret police, claim that tonnes of live World War II munitions were buried in concrete bunkers some eight to nine metres beneath the runways of Schoenefeld airport in East Berlin.

    It is now the main destination for discount airlines, such as Ryanair, and numerous charter companies.

    Not only did the commissars put ammunition beneath the runways, but also entire Nazi fighter planes, all fuelled and armed with bombs, according to the Stasi.

    The captured files of Interflug, the former East German government airline and the airport authority of the former German Democratic Republic (DDR), are now being examined to see if the Stasi claim is true.

    The Scotsman said experts believe it was possible that in the aftermath of war, with Berlin littered with millions of tonnes of unexploded ordnance, the Soviets pressured local officials to clear the airfield swiftly.

    'They would have stuffed them anywhere they could - there was simply too much stuff to blow up all at once,' the newspaper quoted Berlin historian Karl-Heinz Eckhardt as saying.

    'There was a warren of massive Nazi bunkers beneath the site of the present airport that would have suited their purposes.'

    The city authorities have said the airport, which handles some two million passengers a year, is perfectly safe.

    'We became aware of the bunkers in 1993, four years after the fall of the Berlin Wall. A check was undertaken then and everything was determined to be safe,' an airport spokesman said.

    But the Scotsman said a thorough check on the Stasi claims - which will take several years to decipher - is ongoing.

    Berlin, with its sandy, dry soil, was perfect for the bunker-building of the Third Reich, the report added.

    Hundreds of thousands of them were constructed during the 12-year lifespan of the Nazi government.

    For every metre of building above ground in modern-day Berlin, there are three metres below, the report said. It added that bunkers are being discovered every day and some are even turned into tourist attractions.

    editor - 7/31/2003

    The Weekend Australian
    July 26, 2003 Saturday All-round Country Edition
    BYLINE: Paul Kelly
    The US must learn that military might, even when it's right, is not enough, writes Editor-at-Large Paul Kelly from Washington

    THIS is a time to refocus on the limits to US power. Since George W. Bush entered the White House, the US has become a deficit economy, a neo-imperial power and a crusading unilateralist -- and the mix is unsustainable.

    The Bush administration has been driven by fear, hubris and an anything-but-Clinton ideology. The strength of its misunderstood leader is his conviction.

    "We are in a conflict between good and evil and the US will call evil by its name," he said at West Point in June 2002. The moment has called forth a leader who acts with a God-ordained sense of mission.

    But conviction is not enough. Nor is being the world's unmatched military power. All the comparisons between the US and ancient Rome are looking threadbare. The US is unbeatable on the battlefield, but in today's world that is not a statement of comprehensive power. Bush's problem arises from the contradiction between his vast aims and his more limited means. It is time for a stocktake.

    As the US President pursues a strategy of regime change abroad, his policy at home is a low dollar, high budget deficit, high current account deficit reversion to Reaganomics. There is no sense whatsoever that Bush has devised a fresh integrated US strategic-economic polity for a new era. He merely pursues all his political objectives on a simultaneous front. Does a new war dictate any sacrifice, like postponement of the tax cuts? No way. That would be too hard politically. So the issue is the contradictions in Bush's policies and how they are resolved.

    Iraq is the path towards a new realism. Empire expert Niall Ferguson, professor of history at New York University, is pessimistic about Iraq's reconstruction. "The US is attempting nation-building on a shoestring," he wrote in The Washington Post. "Back in April, administration officials talked as if the reconstruction of Iraq would somehow be self-financing. That seemed optimistic at the time; today it is simply incredible."

    Ferguson highlighted the wide range of cost estimates involved. If $US100 billion ($150 billion) was required -- towards the lower end of estimates -- "it is hard to imagine the Bush administration paying more than a tiny fraction of it".

    Every US politician knows why: the budget deficit is $US455 billion (more than 4 per cent of gross domestic product) and growing. This contrasts with a $US236billion surplus three years ago. The US cannot afford to finance an extensive Iraqi reconstruction. The cost of the war is about $US50 billion to date and may reach $US100 billion. With 150,000 troops in Iraq and no end in sight to the security problems, the cost of the Pentagon deployment is severe -- and this is before any contemplation of reconstruction costs.

    Ferguson wrote that the administration "has so far spent next to nothing on the reconstruction of Afghanistan, where nation-building has supposedly been under way for a year and a half". Yet many intellectual journals in the US persist with their bizarre debate about a new US empire that does not exist and won't come into existence.

    The Bush doctrine is no longer a theory; its implementation phase is under way. Now comes the dawn of realism. US military success in Iraq was stunning but, as many critics predicted, winning the peace is far more challenging.

    BUSH'S policy must be seen in its totality. He came to power with a Reaganite passion to cut taxes and did so despite the low revenues and growing deficits caused by the US economic downturn. The US has reverted to the twin deficits of the Reagan era, discarding the Clinton economic model. Its current account deficit is projected at about $US500 billion for 2003 and that has to be financed by foreigners.

    The new US strategic doctrine post-September 11 takes these strains to a point of unsustainability. It outlines an open-ended, revolutionary US policy of intervention and pre-emption that rejects the "reactive policy" of the past. Bush unveiled this doctrine on September 17, 2002: "We must be prepared to stop rogue states and their terrorist clients before they are able to threaten or use weapons of mass destruction against the US and our allies ... we cannot let our enemies strike first." This was the strategic blueprint that flowed from Bush's historic 2002 state of the union address when he confounded those who thought al-Qa'ida was the US's exclusive target. He mobilised the political capital created by September 11 to identify a new global threat: rogue states seeking weapons of mass destruction. He named Iraq, Iran and North Korea as an "axis of evil".

    In fulfilment of this doctrine, the US deposed the Taliban and Saddam Hussein. But Bush found regime change created a need for nation-building for which the US was less prepared and less enthusiastic. Iraq is the first true test of the viability of pre-emption -- and it may be the last.

    Prominent US economist David Hale argued in The Weekly Standard that "the markets are alarmed that the US is embarking on an imperialist foreign policy that will have unknown economic consequences". Bush runs a low-dollar policy, following market sentiment and preferring the stimulus offered by depreciation. Hale calls this the Texan "soft dollar" tradition favoured by past Treasury secretaries John Connally, James Baker and Lloyd Bentsen. It is the apparent path chosen by new Treasury chief John Snow. So the US has chosen a risky mixture -- it has gone unilateralist in strategy while making itself more vulnerable to foreign capital inflows. This story has a long way to run.

    David Calleo, of Johns Hopkins University, argues the US is overextended and that there are serious limits to its use of hard power.

    "These geopolitical-driven fiscal prospects raise the all important question of whether the neo-conservative global agenda is economically sustainable," he wrote in The National Interest. "Just as there has been a revival of Reaganomics, so it seems likely there will soon be a revival of 'declinism' with its warning of hegemonic over-stretch. A feeble economy seems a likely and reinforcing complement to such a revival."

    This may be prophetic. It is 15 years since Yale historian Paul Kennedy, in his book The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, predicted the relative decline of the US and warned that Washington must reduce its commitments to match its power. Kennedy said the task of US statecraft was "to manage affairs so that the relative erosion of the US position takes place slowly and smoothly and is not accelerated by policies [that] bring merely short-term advantage but long-term disadvantage".

    Bush would have no taste for such heresy. And Kennedy's timing was a disaster. Scarcely had his book been released than the US began a resurgence in which it dominated global economic affairs in the 1990s. But Bush's policies -- big deficits at home and over-stretch abroad -- are so strikingly the exact factors that Kennedy identified that it seems inconceivable this debate will not reignite. Will Kennedy be proved right a decade and a half later?

    This is a vital question for many nations and notably Australia because the Howard Government has premised its foreign and trade policies on the strategic judgment that US power is rising, not declining. This is a geopolitical faith of John Howard and Alexander Downer, who consign the Kennedy thesis to the scrap heap of history.

    At present the argument mounted by Joseph Nye of Harvard University still seems convincing -- that the underlying sources of US power are so pervasive, resilient and renewable that the world superpower will retain an overwhelming d