SOURCE: New York Times
Former Star Keyshawn Johnson: Football Hall Must Honor "Forgotten Four" Integration Pioneers
Kenny Washington, Marion Motley, Woody Strode and Bill Willis reintegrated the NFL in 1946, breaking a "gentlemen's agreement" among the owners not to sign Black players.
Clark Griffith Was Too Cheap To Integrate Baseball
Washington Senators owner Clark Griffith did not seize the opportunity to bring the Black superstars who played for the Homestead Grays in the nation's capital, or the District's enthusiastic Black baseball fans, into the Major League fold. Was bigotry or cheapness to blame?
SOURCE: Boston Review
“White Fragility” Gets Jackie Robinson's Story Wrong
by Peter Dreier
In an effort to define the Major League Color Line as an artifact of white prejudice, Robin DiAngelo obscures the fact that Jackie Robinson was part of a broad protest movement by Black activists and some white allies to demand and achieve integration of professional baseball.
How Tuskegee Airmen Fought Military Segregation With Nonviolent Action
Alan Osur and Todd Moye help tell the story of the efforts of the Tuskegee Airmen to integrate military recreational facilities in 1944.
Levittown, PA and The “Northern Promised Land That Wasn't”
by Jasmine Torres and Alan Singer
Levittown, Pennsylvania violently errupted when William and Daisy Myers moved into the suburban town in 1957.
When Mississippi Basketball Was Integrated. (Sort of.)
by Luther Spoehr
It was in 1963. And for the first time the all-white Bulldogs of Mississippi State agreed to play an out-of-state team including black players.
How a Young Joe Biden Turned Liberals Against Integration
by Jason Sokol
Forty years ago, the Senate supported school busing—until a 32-year-old changed his mind.
Why Was Enoch Powell Condemned as a Racist and Not Charles de Gaulle?
by Daniel Pipes
Credit: Wiki Commons/HNN staff.The French and British empires historically had different premises, with the former (in the Roman tradition) focused more on culture and the latter more on race, hierarchy, and family. This difference took many forms: one finds meals of bifteck-frites in tiny towns in the former French colony of Niger but little English food even in the cities of neighboring Nigeria. Léopold Senghor of Senegal became a significant French poet and cultural figure whereas Rabindranath Tagore of Bengal could never transcend his Indian origins.Likewise, French and British politicians responded to the initial post-World War II immigration of non-Western peoples to their countries in characteristically different ways. Charles de Gaulle, arguably the most important leader of France since Napoleon, focused on culture while Enoch Powell, a rising star in the United Kingdom, emphasized race. Here are their speeches on the topic, starting with de Gaulle (1890-1970), who spoke on March 5, 1959:
In Mississippi, a gray area between black and white
CLEVELAND, Miss.—The Illinois Central railroad tracks that once separated residents, white from black, have been torn out to make way for a landscaped promenade.Cleveland's largest high school, founded in 1906 exclusively for the children of white residents, now has nearly equal numbers of black and white students.But nearly a half century after a federal judge ordered Cleveland to begin school desegregation, government attorneys have returned to court to argue the district must, once and for all, "fully dismantle its racially identifiable one-race schools," in a legal battle that is again dividing the town.Public schools east of the former railroad tracks are still virtually 100% black. Schools west of the former racial divide remain predominantly white....
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