Blogs

Displaying 25881-25890 of 25896 results.
ID: 154051
Uid: 15283
Author: 20
Category: 0
Title: US policy towards Iran must focus strategically
Source:
Body: <p class="MsoNormal"><img src="http://www.cnn.com/2017/12/31/opinions/iran-protests-meaning-opinion-parsi/index.html"></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Back in 2009 when a million Iranians took to the streets to reject the results of a manipulated Presidential election, we called for all-out US support to the protesters as they turned against the regime itself. The backing we suggested referred to political, moral and eventually peaceful logistical support, including broadcast, communications, and similar media allowing the opposition to express itself inside and outside the country. The world has seen briefly then, thanks to Twitter and YouTube, gigantic marches across the capital—but also acts of repression, including the shooting of young protester Neda. The regime shut down civil society’s media just before it clamped down on the protesters. Unfortunately, the US official positioning in June 2009 allowed Iran’s regime to eliminate its non-violent opposition faster than projected. One cannot destroy a million plus demonstrators unless there is certainty there will be no retribution. By stating that the US would not be taking sides between demonstrators and the Ayatollah regime—the words of President Barack Obama—indirectly gave a green light to the regime to crush the upheaval. The Obama administration was about optics: “The US should not be seen” as siding with Iran’s demonstrators because this would allegedly turn the country against the demonstrators. These talking points reflected the interests of the regime in Tehran, for American silence would demoralize the protesters, would demobilize allies and partners, and would freeze the use of international institutions to pressure the oppressive government in Iran—and it did.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi;mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi">Ironically, the same administration did not hesitate to openly call for the downfall of Egyptian, Tunisian. Libyan and other authoritarian heads of states two years later during the “Arab Spring.” So what was it about Iran’s democratic revolt of 2009 that forced the Obama team to abandon the millions of youth and workers in Iran as they rose? During that same month, President Obama sent a letter to Ayatollah Khamanei seeking engagement, which eventually led to a change of US policy towards Iran and the production of the “Iran Deal.” Abandoning the people on the streets of Tehran in 2009 was not some random tactical mistake; it was strategic policy that sacrificed democracy in Iran in order to establish an economic and political partnership with the regime. That US policy must change as we are witnessing its failures. Iran’s regime was given the opportunity to crush its popular opposition, export its military and militias to four countries in the Middle East, build a fleet of missiles, and keep its options open to produce and deploy nuclear weapons. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi;mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi">Today, the world is watching—again—many demonstrations taking place in Iran. The protesters come from all walks of life, spreading across the country beyond Tehran. They have been angry at the financial disparities and are now calling for the fall of the regime. Note also that many among the protesters were children during the 2009 upheaval. It is clear: the wave comes deep from within civil society. This a historic moment that needs to be seized by the United States and the international community to assist a peaceful political change in Iran, a change that would end half of the war on terror and set the track for peace and social prosperity. But what exactly should the US do?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi;mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">First, speak and speak loudly, shatter the silence. Supportive tweets by President Trump are crucial because they can be read by Iranian youth, women and workers and can serve as a morale booster to Iran’s civil society, to the silent majority and to ethnic minorities. Just the opposite of what former administration officials are prescribing: more of the same silence that suffocated the 2009 revolt. However, the President’s tweets should present a focused content that can help allies, partners and the Iranian opposition understand what Washington wants and can do. Presidential tweets can be a formidable game changer if they are disciplined and prioritized. So are Congressional tweets from both parties.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi;mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi">Second, US diplomacy can and should raise the bar by speaking up as Ambassador Haley is doing at the UN Security Council, and as Spokeswoman Heather Nauert at Foggy Bottom and NSC staffers are voicing at the White House. But beyond lamenting the actions of the Iranian regime, what is needed next is the formation of a large coalition of countries ready to act at the UN, flanked by a larger alliance of NGOs ready to take it to the streets and social media. If Haley’s efforts at the UNSC are vetoed by Russia, she should call on a meeting in support of the Iranian people. Dozens of Arab, Muslim, Latin American, Asian, and African delegates will show up. Some East European countries may also join in. The US can convene a coalition of the willing to pressure Tehran. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi;mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi">Third, the Iranian opposition—particularly those in exile—must help the US and the world mobilize by uniting themselves first. The Western based Iranian groups need to stop unproductive competition, think of the now and not of who will seize power later, and appear together and in solidarity on the international scene. The “I am Iran” slogan must be put on the side for now, and a vast national unity coalition of emigres and exiles should be formed and petition the UN, UNHRC, EU, and other organizations to lend them support. Keeping in mind that the real actors on the ground inside Iran, that is the protesters, are the ones to be supported in their quest for democracy. The diaspora should back them up, and once the change is achieved, let a free competition be the fair game for all to form future governments. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi;mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi">Fourth, US policy must present a rational and strategic agenda regarding Iran’s protests. The administration’s narrative must be unified, and the administration must reach out to Congress and coordinate a comprehensive strategy. A bipartisan platform needs to be built as a basis for a national US approach to the matter. We strongly suggest the appointment of an “Iran coordinator,” as long as the crisis is ongoing, to maintain cohesiveness between all US government entities and to reach out to regional and international players, as well as the Iranian opposition. Someone who understands both the opposition and the strategies of the regime as well.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi;mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi">Fifth, the US and its international coalition must provide strategic non-military support to the Iranian people, ethnic majority and minorities alike, including efficient means of communications with powerful internet access. Along with broadcast abilities, both those funded by the US such as radio Farda and VOA Faris, and private sector networks. Coordinate with partners in the region to broadcast into Iran in Farsi and other languages, and work with humanitarian NGOs to assist the victims of violence in Iran<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi;mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi">Six, extend assistance to civil societies in the region, particularly in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Yemen, targeted by Iran regime’s militias, so that they can also put pressure on Tehran to cease its interventions in the region.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi;mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi">Seven, continue to block the shipping of Iranian missiles to countries overseas, including in the Middle East, starting with Yemen. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi;mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi">Now that Iran’s civil society has risen, it is the moral obligation of the international community to not only express solidarity with the latter but also to provide support—within the limits of international law—so that Iran’s silent majority can bring about political change to that ancient country, ruled by dictators since 1979. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi;mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Dr Walid Phares is a professor of political science, and served as Foreign Policy advisor to Donald Trump in 2016 and senior national security advisor to Mitt Romney in 2011-2012. Author of several books including </span><i style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">The Lost Spring: US Policy in the Middle East and Catastrophes to Avoid</i></p>
ID: 154052
Uid: 31615
Author: 19
Category: 0
Title: The Greatest Show on Earth
Source:
Body: <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">I didn’t expect much more than a bit of diversion from the new film about P.T. Barnum, “The Greatest Showman”. A musical biopic from Hollywood is rarely a source of thoughtful history or powerful emotion. But “Greatest Showman” delivered something unexpected: a morality tale appropriate to 21<sup>st</sup>-century America. </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P._T._Barnum">Phineas Taylor Barnum’s</a> real life was <a href="https://www.newyorker.com/culture/richard-brody/the-greatest-showman-and-the-far-more-fascinating-real-life-of-p-t-barnum">far more interesting</a> than any movie could portray. He dropped out of school at 15, ran a grocery store at 17, started a weekly newspaper in Danbury, Connecticut, at age 19, and sold lottery tickets. As an adult, besides his famous freak shows and traveling circus, he campaigned against slavery, was elected to the Connecticut legislature after the Civil War, and served as the mayor of Bridgeport.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Barnum’s passion was entertainment. He got rich by exploiting the public desire for sensation, often duping his audiences with fraudulently advertised human and animal curiosities. He displayed the “<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiji_mermaid">Feejee mermaid</a>” in his American Museum in New York, the torso and head of a monkey sewn on to the body of a fish. He bought <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joice_Heth">Joice Heth</a>, a slave woman in her 70’s who was blind and paralyzed, and exhibited her as “The Greatest Natural and National Curiosity in the World,” the 161-year-old nursemaid to George Washington. She died 7 months later, and Barnum set up a public autopsy before 1500 spectators to prove her age, then rejected the results.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Barnum’s most famous attraction, whom he called General Tom Thumb, was the dwarf <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Tom_Thumb">Charles Sherwood Stratton</a>, a distant relative, whom Barnum began displaying at age 5. Stratton was a talented performer, whose performances went beyond the usual display of “human curiosities” to be compared by theater critics with other professional singers and dancers. Barnum and Stratton toured Europe, were presented to Queen Victoria, and thrilled audiences across the US. Stratton became wealthy and bailed Barnum out when he went bankrupt in 1856. He married another little person, Mercy Lavinia Warren Bump, in a <a href="http://www.missioncreep.com/mundie/gallery/little/little1.htm">highly publicized wedding</a> in 1863, and the couple was received by President Lincoln at the White House.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Barnum sought ever more sensational acts. Although the couple did not produce any children, Barnum acquired a succession of babies wherever they performed. His autobiography, “The Life of P.T. Barnum”, was sub-titled “<a href="https://archive.org/details/lifeofptbarnum00barn">Golden Rules for Money-Making</a>”.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Presenting complex historical characters is not Hollywood’s strength. <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0705.html">Barnum’s contradictory qualities</a> as showman, hoaxer, anti-slavery activist and politician are too much to fit into a big budget spectacle, much less a family-oriented musical.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Film critics did not like “Showman”.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In England, the “<a href="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/films/0/greatest-showman-review-hugh-jackmans-sanitised-pt-barnum-musical/">Telegraph</a>” called it “insane” and “miserable”. Canada’s “<a href="https://www.theglobeandmail.com/arts/film/film-reviews/review-barnum-musical-the-greatest-showman-proves-theres-a-sucker-born-every-minute/article37383295/">Globe and Mail</a>” said it was “empty, moronic, pandering and utterly forgettable”. These critics were expecting history, but “Showman” delivered instead a spectacle. “Showman” is itself a historical hoax, transforming Barnum into a celebrator of human diversity, who freed his “freaks” from the shackles of popular prejudice. The film’s P.T. Barnum is not a historical character, but a vehicle for a moral message not entirely foreign to the real Barnum’s political ideas. </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The sacrifice of historical truth for message is the source of the sub-plot of the <a href="http://www.historyvshollywood.com/reelfaces/greatest-showman/">white-black love affair</a> between Zac Efron as Barnum’s partner and Zendaya as a trapeze artist. Love conquers all, in this case the racial prejudices of the upper class.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Barnum profited from the presentation of freaks, but also helped to transform his unusual collaborators into respected personalities. His historical efforts to abolish the enslavement of some Americans by other Americans are transformed in the film into a broader “celebration of humanity”. Barnum exhibited <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annie_Jones_(bearded_woman)">Annie Jones Elliot</a>, a bearded girl and later woman, paying her <a href="https://www.thehumanmarvels.com/annie-jones-the-esau-woman/">$150 a week</a>, an enormous salary at that time.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">When the bearded woman in “Showman”, the biracial singer Keala Settle, belts out “This is Me”, she speaks for all human freaks and curiosities. The song won a Golden Globe and <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/This_Is_Me_(Keala_Settle_song)">became a hit</a> in countries as diverse as South Korea, Sweden and Australia.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>“When the sharpest words wanna cut me down,</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Gonna send a flood, gonna drown them out.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">I am brave, I am bruised,</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">I am who I’m meant to be, this is me.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">That’s a simple message we need in 2018.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Steve Hochstadt</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Berlin, Germany</span></p> <span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif;mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">Published in the Jacksonville Journal-Courier, January 23, 2018</span><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> <w:SplitPgBreakAndParaMark/> <w:EnableOpenTypeKerning/> <w:DontFlipMirrorIndents/> <w:OverrideTableStyleHps/> <w:UseFELayout/> </w:Compatibility> <m:mathPr> <m:mathFont m:val="Cambria Math"/> <m:brkBin m:val="before"/> <m:brkBinSub m:val="&#45;-"/> <m:smallFrac m:val="off"/> <m:dispDef/> <m:lMargin m:val="0"/> <m:rMargin m:val="0"/> <m:defJc m:val="centerGroup"/> <m:wrapIndent m:val="1440"/> <m:intLim m:val="subSup"/> <m:naryLim m:val="undOvr"/> </m:mathPr></w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" DefUnhideWhenUsed="false" DefSemiHidden="false" DefQFormat="false" DefPriority="99" LatentStyleCount="375"> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="0" QFormat="true" Name="Normal"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 9"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 9"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 9"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Normal Indent"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="footnote text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="annotation text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="header"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="footer"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index heading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="35" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="caption"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="table of figures"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="envelope address"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="envelope return"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="footnote reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="annotation reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="line number"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="page number"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="endnote reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="endnote text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="table of authorities"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="macro"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toa heading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Bullet"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Number"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Bullet 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Bullet 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Bullet 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Bullet 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Number 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Number 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Number 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Number 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="10" QFormat="true" Name="Title"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Closing"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Signature"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Default Paragraph Font"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text Indent"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Continue"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Continue 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Continue 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Continue 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Continue 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Message Header"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="11" QFormat="true" Name="Subtitle"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Salutation"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Date"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text First Indent"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text First Indent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Note Heading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text Indent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text Indent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Block Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Hyperlink"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="FollowedHyperlink"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="22" QFormat="true" Name="Strong"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="20" QFormat="true" Name="Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Document Map"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Plain Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="E-mail Signature"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Top of Form"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Bottom of Form"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Normal (Web)"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Acronym"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Address"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Cite"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Code"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Definition"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Keyboard"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Preformatted"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Sample"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Typewriter"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Variable"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Normal Table"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="annotation subject"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="No List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Outline List 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Outline List 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Outline List 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Simple 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Simple 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Simple 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Classic 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Classic 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Classic 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Classic 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Colorful 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Colorful 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Colorful 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Columns 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Columns 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Columns 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Columns 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Columns 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table 3D effects 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table 3D effects 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table 3D effects 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Contemporary"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Elegant"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Professional"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Subtle 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Subtle 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Web 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Web 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Web 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Balloon Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="Table Grid"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Theme"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" Name="Placeholder Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" QFormat="true" Name="No Spacing"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" Name="Revision"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="34" QFormat="true" Name="List Paragraph"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="29" QFormat="true" Name="Quote"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="30" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Quote"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="19" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="21" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="31" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="32" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="33" QFormat="true" Name="Book Title"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="37" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Bibliography"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="TOC Heading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="41" Name="Plain Table 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="42" Name="Plain Table 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="43" Name="Plain Table 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="44" Name="Plain Table 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="45" Name="Plain Table 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="40" Name="Grid Table Light"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Mention"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Smart Hyperlink"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Hashtag"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Unresolved Mention"/> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:8.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:107%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} </style> <![endif]-->
ID: 154053
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: America's Year of Living Trumpishly: Oh My!
Source: The Jerusalem Post
Body: <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">Fittingly, America’s year of living Trumpishly ended in a government shutdown – modern America’s now-ritualized expression of partisan fanaticism and governing deadlock. Living Trumpishly means having a vulgar, vicious president who unleashes inner demons not better angels. Living Trumpishly means left and right both listening censoriously, acting self-righteously, and detesting those who dare disagree with “us,” the enlightened. Nevertheless, America is resilient. Despite the pain and chaos Donald Trump generates, the Constitution is working. Trump’s great failure, however, is&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">reducing America’s sacred “bully pulpit” to a bullying pulpit.</span><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);"></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">First the good news. The stock market is climbing, unemployment, dropping. America-the-functional is functioning. Nearly sixty percent of Americans are bullish economically. Trump’s opponents are mobilizing, exercising their still-vigorous democratic rights and shaping the debate profoundly, from rebranding children of illegals “dreamers” to finally, belatedly, outing some sexual thugs.&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">The separation of powers are checking and balancing Trump –despite Republicans controlling Congress. Honest Obamians should admit that Trump’s tax bill – whose impact will take years to assess – had some good: even Barack Obama sought lower corporate taxes. Moreover, in defeating ISIS, challenging Iran, recognizing Jerusalem, trusting Israel, and dissing the UN, Trump’s foreign policy outshines Obama’s.</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">So America will survive Trump’s harshness toward immigrants and sweetness toward alt-right hatemongers, his sloppy racism and Putin man-crush. Who knows whether his saber-rattling will intimidate or inflame North Korea. But these mysteries keep some debates about him in the realm of the normal, continuing America’s post-Sixties liberal versus conservative clash.</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">Trump’s assault on America’s civic culture, however, is pathological: relentless, unnecessary, inexcusable, and destructive. It’s why nearly sixty percent of Americans dislike him.&nbsp; In renouncing the non-partisan, kingly presidency, Trump abandons the magic that unites a country, making citizens feel good about one another, their leaders, themselves.&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 13pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">In 1932, a New York tycoon running for president, Franklin Roosevelt, called the&nbsp;<a href="http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=9D03E0DC1631E633A25752C1A96F9C946394D6CF" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res%3D9D03E0DC1631E633A25752C1A96F9C946394D6CF&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1516820187809000&amp;usg=AFQjCNFlpwQJ6hsscZSVV412WtP3oV-pGg" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);">presidency</a>&nbsp;“</span><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">more than an engineering job, efficient or inefficient. It is preëminently a place of moral leadership.”&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">Seeing presidents as “leaders of thought” elevating the people reflected the sensibilities of ‘76. The&nbsp;</span><a href="http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1516820187809000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGNHqyxadi0PyuIwlpcSr7llMiSTA" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(16, 60, 192);">Declaration of Independence</span></a><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">&nbsp;expressed “a decent respect to the opinions of mankind.” Inventing the presidency, Alexander Hamilton wrote in&nbsp;</span><a href="http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed68.asp" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed68.asp&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1516820187809000&amp;usg=AFQjCNExPA1qZzAfWOm_nv2CdFx-Di1TBQ" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(16, 60, 192);">Federalist 68</span></a><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;that the presidential chair should be “filled by characters pre-eminent for ability and virtue.” That described the consensus choice for president, George Washington.</span><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);"></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 13pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">Moral leadership is not moralistic but mission-driven, rooted in Biblical values and visions, mobilizing democratic citizens to improve their lives, their nation, the world. Americans embraced and perfected this liberal nationalism.</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">Washington’s presidency injected pragmatism into this idealism.&nbsp; In&nbsp;</span><a href="https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/inaugtxt.html" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/inaugtxt.html&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1516820187809000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEbn40B3j11kAbtjOJ5d1TVjwzSrw" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(16, 60, 192);">his first inaugural address</span></a><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">, defining America as a&nbsp;</span><a href="http://greatseal.com/mottoes/seclorum.html" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=http://greatseal.com/mottoes/seclorum.html&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1516820187809000&amp;usg=AFQjCNFaiLRm8LYLlWLHgqP-1b7p_Bjx9g" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);"><i><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(16, 60, 192);">novus ordo seclorum</span></i></a><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">, a New Order of the Ages, Washington vowed to “win the affections of its Citizens, and command the respect of the world.” The Republic’s “destiny” was to preserve “the sacred fire of liberty” through this grand “experiment.” Like the Alpine Swift, a bird that rarely stops flying, Washington – and his greatest successors -- saw democracy as forever progressing, perpetually seeking to soar.</span><span style="font-size: 13pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);"></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);"></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">Similarly, Abraham Lincoln appealed to&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">“The better angels of our nature,” p</span><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">romising “with malice toward none, with charity for all.” He too rooted lyrical rhetoric in muscular policies. Lincoln couldn’t have won the Civil War without being grounded; but Lincoln wouldn’t have been Lincoln without aiming higher.</span><span style="font-size: 13pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);"></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 13pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">Theodore Roosevelt built on the Washington-Lincoln foundation. Using the democratic legitimacy stemming from the president’s status as representing “the plain people,” TR became America’s high priest, shaping the nation’s conscience. Once, his publisher&nbsp;</span><a href="https://books.google.co.il/books?id=c4UoX6-Sv1AC&amp;pg=PA88&amp;lpg=PA88&amp;dq=haven+putnam+bully+pulpit&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=V2Ej6qryGp&amp;sig=5GXhECeOc5qmzlBfyvWfK0BhWIc&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwjQ3bu8xurRAhXGaRQKHdcJCosQ6AEINTAH#v=onepage&amp;q=haven%20putnam%20bully%20pulpit&amp;f=false" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=https://books.google.co.il/books?id%3Dc4UoX6-Sv1AC%26pg%3DPA88%26lpg%3DPA88%26dq%3Dhaven%2Bputnam%2Bbully%2Bpulpit%26source%3Dbl%26ots%3DV2Ej6qryGp%26sig%3D5GXhECeOc5qmzlBfyvWfK0BhWIc%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26ved%3D0ahUKEwjQ3bu8xurRAhXGaRQKHdcJCosQ6AEINTAH%23v%3Donepage%26q%3Dhaven%2520putnam%2520bully%2520pulpit%26f%3Dfalse&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1516820187809000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHN1q-pWtFamibOue4Ya29-hhz_jg" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(16, 60, 192);">George Haven Putnam</span></a><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;accused him of sermonizing. “Yes, Haven, most of us enjoy preaching,” TR confessed, “and I’ve got such a bully” – meaning excellent – “pulpit.”</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">Inspirational words inspire: to make America truly great, America’s presidents were expansive not just defensive. As the political scientist Erwin C. Hargrove&nbsp;</span><a href="https://www.amazon.com/President-Leader-Appealing-Better-Angels/dp/0700609962" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=https://www.amazon.com/President-Leader-Appealing-Better-Angels/dp/0700609962&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1516820187809000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGQT7wLuR2BgA88v_iHDfz2tn5ZPA" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(16, 60, 192);">wrote</span></a><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">&nbsp;of Franklin Roosevelt, “His leadership enhanced citizenship.”&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 13pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">FDR understood that moral leaders need not be choirboys. Instead, the presidency offers “a superb opportunity of reapplying, applying in new conditions, the simple rules of human conduct we always go back to.” FDR became the national teacher and preacher, performer and reformer – articulating a values-laden vision. Cynics today mock such aspirational leadership as grandiose. But big-hearted leaders know how far to stretch without breaking the bond with the people; smallminded leaders don’t even try.</span><span style="font-size: 13pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);"></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 13pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 24);">Donald Trump has consistently aimed low. His&nbsp;</span><a href="http://www.politico.com/story/2016/07/full-transcript-donald-trump-nomination-acceptance-speech-at-rnc-225974" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=http://www.politico.com/story/2016/07/full-transcript-donald-trump-nomination-acceptance-speech-at-rnc-225974&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1516820187809000&amp;usg=AFQjCNFCpUx99ec4hRh56p7Zjp-2p-zMsw" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(16, 60, 192);">Republican Convention acceptance</span></a><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 24);">&nbsp;boast that “nobody knows the system better than me,” offered a leadership model of the fox guarding the chicken coop not an angel propelling us heavenward. Trump’s “America First,” defense doesn’t give anyone else a second thought. Proclaiming “politics is tough” and the “world … an angry place,” he makes everything tougher and angrier. Rather than the exalted, John Kennedyesque “Ask what you can do for your country” tones, which have become the norm at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Trump is channeling Sergeant Stan Jablonski of the 1980s television series&nbsp;</span><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mvQmhMkXLBg" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v%3DmvQmhMkXLBg&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1516820187810000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGLgCeu-CLmLkJwLc4Lr5Z-j0hSiQ" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(16, 60, 192);">Hill Street Blues</span></a><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">, saying: “Let’s do it to them before they do it to us.”</span><span style="font-size: 13pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);"></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">The Trump presidency is not only testing Donald Trump but the American people. The Alpine Swift has crash-landed. Too many Americans, from left-to-right are acting like pigs slinging mud or moles burrowing ever deeper into their particular partisan tunnels, not noble birds flocking together, seeking to soar. The effect, alas, is toxic, not only within America – but globally.</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">&nbsp;</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);">Donald Trump’s leadership demeans citizenship; shame on so many of us, left and right, for racing him to the bottom.</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; color: rgb(15, 15, 15);"><br></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12.800000190734863px;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">&nbsp;</span><b style="font-size: 13px;"><i><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">Gil Troy&nbsp;</span></i></b><i style="font-size: 13px;"><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);">is the author of<b>&nbsp;</b></span></i><a href="http://giltroy.us6.list-manage.com/track/click?u=12bc4da52372e985504783f87&amp;id=9d2bbaebc2&amp;e=ef66bbdca2" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=http://giltroy.us6.list-manage.com/track/click?u%3D12bc4da52372e985504783f87%26id%3D9d2bbaebc2%26e%3Def66bbdca2&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1516820187810000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHzzzL_Y40glZkxEWv9SRBYal1COw" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204); font-size: 13px;"><i><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(16, 60, 192);">The Age of Clinton: America in the 1990s</span></i></a><span style="font-size: 13px;"><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(26, 26, 26);"><i>. His forthcoming book,&nbsp;</i><u><i><a href="https://www.amazon.com/Zionist-Ideas-Homeland_Then-Tomorrow-Anthologies/dp/0827612559/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1514193757&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=zionist+ideas" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=https://www.amazon.com/Zionist-Ideas-Homeland_Then-Tomorrow-Anthologies/dp/0827612559/ref%3Dsr_1_1?ie%3DUTF8%26qid%3D1514193757%26sr%3D8-1%26keywords%3Dzionist%2Bideas&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1516820187810000&amp;usg=AFQjCNECi5agspDR3A31paLErWfOg8jsmA" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);">The Zionist Ideas</a></i>,</u><i>&nbsp;which&nbsp;updates Arthur Hertzberg's classic work,&nbsp;will be published by The Jewish Publication Society in Spring 2018. He is a Distinguished Scholar of North American History at McGill University. Follow on Twitter&nbsp;</i></span></span><a href="http://giltroy.us6.list-manage.com/track/click?u=12bc4da52372e985504783f87&amp;id=8145712c88&amp;e=ef66bbdca2" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=http://giltroy.us6.list-manage.com/track/click?u%3D12bc4da52372e985504783f87%26id%3D8145712c88%26e%3Def66bbdca2&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1516820187810000&amp;usg=AFQjCNECD4Tg-YVkKiUDondVLWeCR2omhQ" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204); font-size: 13px;"><i><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(16, 60, 192);">@GilTroy</span></i></a></p>
ID: 154054
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: America’s First Jewish Sex Symbol
Source: The Daily Beast
Body: <p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">John Garfield was a handsome actor, a controversial artist, and a Communist fellow traveler who inspired “the talent” in Hollywood to produce themselves and become super-rich capitalists – like Oprah.</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">In May, 1952, more than 10,000 people massed outside New York’s Riverside Memorial Chapel for what many considered “the biggest celebrity funeral” since Rudolph Valentino’s in 1926. Devastated fans hailed Garfield’s sultry performances in&nbsp;Body and Soul&nbsp;and&nbsp;The Postman Always Rings Twice. &nbsp;Fellow liberals seethed that the Communist Witch-Hunt killed him. And gossips tittered because the married Garfield died as the&nbsp;Los Angeles Times&nbsp;headlined: “in N.Y. Home of Actress.”&nbsp;</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">As Broadway Method Actor, America’s first Jewish sex symbol, Blacklisted Liberal, and Hollywood’s pioneering independent producer, “Garfield was the star for the whole world, the romantic rebel himself,” the once-blacklisted screenwriter Abraham Polonsky&nbsp;<a class="LinkWrapper LinkWrapper--external" href="https://books.google.co.il/books?id=ifemCXR53E0C&amp;pg=PA150&amp;lpg=PA150&amp;dq=garfield+star+for+the+whole+world&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=oGiDtx_KvY&amp;sig=UyDWmvavgnrvLzaiJ4i4Sa7AB6A&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwigkMfwkuTYAhUDY1AKHdvUBuEQ6AEIODAF#v=onepage&amp;q&amp;f=false" style="color: inherit; transition: color 0.15s ease;">recalled</a>. Born Jacob Julius Garfinkle in 1913, he neutered his name Hollywood-style but not his staccato New Yawk-talk – or his politics. This pretty boy was a tough guy too...</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;"><a href="https://www.thedailybeast.com/americas-first-jewish-sex-symbol?ref=author">Read whole article on The Daily Beast.</a></p>
ID: 154055
Uid: 78565
Author: 38
Category: 0
Title: Why Stories Are so Important in Politics
Source:
Body: <div style="text-align: center;"><img src="/sites/default/files/154055-stories.png"></div><div style="text-align: center;"><br></div><em>Rick Shenkman is the publisher of the History News Network and the author of <a href="http://stoneagebrain.com" target="_hplink">Political Animals:&nbsp; How Our Stone-Age Brain Gets in the Way of Smart Politics </a>(Basic Books, January 2016), from which this article is drawn. You can <a href="https://twitter.com/rickshenkman" target="_hplink">follow</a> him on Twitter. He blogs at <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/blog/author/38" target="_hplink">stoneagebrain.</a></em><div><i><br></i> <p><a href="https://www.amazon.com/Political-Animals-Stone-Age-Brain-Politics/dp/0465033008/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8 "><img src="/sites/default/files/160130-PA-shenkman-sm.png" "="" style="float:left;margin:15px;"></a> Years ago, the distinguished Harvard social scientist Howard Gardner wanted to discover what highly successful leaders have in common. After reviewing the lives of eleven luminaries, from Margaret Thatcher to Martin Luther King Jr., Gardner concluded that their success depended to a great deal on their ability to communicate a compelling story, “narratives that help individuals think about and feel who they are, where they come from, and where they are headed.” These stories, he found, “constitute the single most powerful weapon in the leader’s literary arsenal.” And what did these stories in turn often share? A &nbsp;five-year-old’s binary view of the world as a place of lightness and darkness. Why was that critical? Because, Gardner reported, “Adults never lose their sensitivity to these basic narratives.” </p> <p>It was no coincidence, Gardner suggested, that Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), a missile defense system, instantly came to be known as Star Wars. While his critics hoped to discredit SDI by associating it with a movie featuring a simple good-versus-evil formula, the imagery brilliantly worked in SDI’s favor. Reagan, like Luke Skywalker, was fighting the good fight. </p> <p>The reason stories are particularly attractive to leaders is that they are easily understood. Politics is about nding issues susceptible to public de- bate, issues that don’t require a college education, which most voters lack. By using stories, especially children’s stories that feature good guys and bad guys, politicians can reach 100 percent of the audience. How does a voter feel in the presence of a politician who bases his appeal on stories? Smart. For everybody understands stories. And as we learned earlier, what’s im- portant in politics is not what politicians look like or sound like, but how they make voters feel. </p> <p>Stories are important in another way that’s worth noting. Like myths they help us adapt and change. The historian Yuval Noah Harari asks us to imagine a woman born in Germany in 1900 who lives to 100. In the course of her single lifetime, she would have lived through the Hohenzollern Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Nazi Third Reich, the&nbsp;division of Germany into East and West Germany, and the unification of Germany. Despite living through “very different sociopolitical systems,” her DNA would have “remained exactly the same.” What changed each time was not her or anybody’s DNA, but the story citizens living under those systems believed about themselves. Change the story, and our behavior changes. Germans living under Hitler behaved differently than they do today.</p> <p>One of our chief advantages over animals has to do with our storytelling (and story-believing) ability. Animals by and large do not change their behavior, and they certainly cannot do so quickly. They need thousands of years to evolve. We don’t—and it’s because of stories. We don’t need to evolve to change. We can just tell ourselves a new story. </p> <p>Politicians avail themselves of our susceptibility to stories by changing their own stories to suit our desires. If one election year what we seem to want is an outsider, they’ll emphasize milestones in their life story that suggest they’re outsiders. If four years later it seems more opportune for them to present themselves as experienced insiders, they’ll simply rebrand themselves by changing their story. </p> <p>Who wins elections? Well, that’s a complicated question, to be sure. But one of the central factors that is often critical is the ability of a politician to tell a convincing story. The reason for this is that stories unify us. A politician with a compelling story can unite people behind them.&nbsp;</p> </div>
ID: 154056
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: W. Bourke Cockran, The Forgotten Democratic Congressman Who Championed Churchill & Free Trade
Source: The Daily Beast
Body: <p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">Winston Churchill learned to appreciate a good cigar, free trade, and fine oratory from an Irish-American orator who was his mother’s lover—and believed in young Winston more than his own father ever did.&nbsp;</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">The Oscar-nominated movie&nbsp;<em>Darkest Hour</em>, though compelling, misleads on this part of the British Bulldog’s biography. Winston Churchill never needed to wander around wartime London seeking his muse. He had found him 45 years earlier in Gay Nineties’ Manhattan.</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">Actually, Churchill was only one of many of W. Bourke Cockran’s seductions—and fans. When this Irish immigrant turned super-lawyer, spellbinder, and legislator died suddenly in Washington in March, 1923, two hours after a dinner celebrating his 69th&nbsp;birthday, the nationwide mourning had nothing to do with Churchill, who was by then a political has-been. Cockran’s mentorship of Churchill offers a relevant epilogue to a rich all-American life that dazzled turn-of-the-century Americans with colorful prose and crystal-clear logic delivered theatrically in a resonant Irish brogue....</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;"><a href="https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-forgotten-democratic-congressman-who-championed-churchill-and-free-trade?ref=author">Read whole article on The Daily Beast.</a></p><div><br></div>
ID: 154057
Uid: 31615
Author: 19
Category: 0
Title: Justice: Late, But Not Too Late
Source:
Body: <p>Larry Nassar, former doctor to young female athletes, will spend the rest of his life in prison. As she sentenced him to 40 to 175 years in jail, <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2018/01/24/us/judge-rosemarie-aquilina-full-statement/index.html">Judge Rosemarie Aquilina</a> said, “I just signed your death warrant.”</p> <p>Nassar may have been the most successful serial abuser of young women in history. Judge Aquilina invited 156 women to <a href="https://www.glamour.com/story/the-survivors-of-larry-nassar-in-their-own-words">testify in her courtroom</a> about their assault by the hands of Nassar, <a href="http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/michigan/2017/08/10/rise-fall-larry-nassar/104491508/">beginning in 1992</a>, 25 years ago. Over and over, he <a href="http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-heffernan-larry-nassar-20180126-story.html">penetrated their vaginas</a> with his fingers or his fist as part of his “therapy”. Some were younger than 10.</p> <p>Nassar earned his medical degree from Michigan State University and worked there as a sports doctor. He became famous as the doctor for USA Gymnastics for nearly 20 years, which is in charge of the Olympic gymnastics team. His life of crime began to unravel when Nassar was first publicly accused in September 2016 by former gymnast Rachael Denhollander. But his sexual abuse had been reported to authorities many times long before that.</p> <p>In 1997, Larissa Boyce reported what Nassar was doing to the MSU women’s gymnastics coach, <a href="http://www.detroitnews.com/story/tech/2018/01/18/msu-president-told-nassar-complaint-2014/1042071001/">Kathie Klages</a>, and another girl confirmed that she too had been “treated”. Both girls were shamed into silence. A women’s track coach was told in 1999. Athletic trainers were told in 2000. In 2004, clinical psychologist Dr. Gary Stollak was told. That same year, Brianne Randall, 17 years old, <a href="https://www.lansingstatejournal.com/story/news/local/2018/01/23/police-didnt-heed-nassar-complaint-2004-but-paid-victims-flight-speak-tuesday/1059402001/">told the police</a> in Meridian Township, near the Michigan State campus, that Nassar had touched her vagina and breasts. The police never told MSU.</p> <p>MSU President Lou Anna Simon was told in 2014 that a police report had been filed against a sports doctor. She let her subordinates handle it and never saw the report. The subordinates included 3 other MSU doctors and the athletic trainer, as well as Dr. William Strampel, dean of the College of Osteopathic Medicine, who decided Nassar’s actions were medically appropriate. At least 14 MSU employees were told about Nassar’s actions.</p> <p>USA Gymnastics paid star gymnast McKayla Maroney over $1 million to <a href="http://www.espn.com/olympics/gymnastics/story/_/id/21825575/usa-gymnastics-struck-agreement-mckayla-maroney-keep-larry-nassar-abuse-quiet-lawyer-says">keep quiet</a> about Nassar’s abuse. The agreement included a $100,000 fine <a href="http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5279575/McKayla-Maroney-speak-sex-abuse-Nassar-trial.html">if she revealed</a> what Nassar had done to her.</p> <p>The only thing that stopped Nassar’s abuse was the <a href="https://www.indystar.com/story/news/2016/09/12/former-usa-gymnastics-doctor-accused-abuse/89995734/">public accusation</a> by Rachael Denhollander last September. She was motivated by a story the month before in the “Indy Star” that USA Gymnastics had a <a href="https://www.indystar.com/story/news/investigations/2016/08/04/usa-gymnastics-sex-abuse-protected-coaches/85829732/">long history</a> of ignoring reports of sexual abuse by coaches.</p> <p>How do serial abusers manage to continue their criminal activity? One reason is that making such accusations is deeply painful. It is difficult for a teenager to complain about the nature of their treatment by a doctor, especially if he is advertised as a “miracle worker”. At a preliminary hearing, Shannon Smith, one of Nassar’s attorneys, asked Denhollander if she was coming forward <a href="https://www.redding.com/story/news/local/2018/01/24/denhollander-seeks-harsh-sentence-answers-tough-questions-nassar-sentencing/1060121001/">for the money</a>. Denhollander explained some of the cost of <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2018/01/24/us/rachael-denhollander-full-statement/index.html">telling the truth</a>. “My advocacy for sexual assault victims, something I cherished, cost me my church and our closest friends three weeks before I filed my police report. I was left alone and isolated.”</p> <p>The institutions who protect abusers circle the wagons against accusers. The vice chair of Michigan State’s board of trustees, <a href="https://www.wxyz.com/news/local-news/investigations/trustee-msu-will-look-great-in-nassar-gynmastics-scandal-investigation">Joel Ferguson</a>, called victims’ lawyers “folks chasing ambulances” looking for a “payday”. A famous former prosecutor, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/27/us/michigan-state-nassar-fitzgerald.html">Patrick Fitzgerald</a>, was hired to by MSU investigate, and President Lou Anna Simon claimed in April that MSU was conducting a “<a href="https://msu.edu/ourcommitment/news-information/2017-04-13.html">thorough internal review</a>”. In December, Fitzgerald exonerated the University by writing that nobody there knew what Nassar was doing. It turns out that Fitzgerald had been hired to defend the University against lawsuits. His team interviewed none of Nassar’s victims.</p> <p>The lifelong sexual abusers who have made news were all protected by a cone of silence. Penn State administrators <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penn_State_child_sex_abuse_scandal">looked the other way</a> when they heard about Jerry Sandusky’s abuse of boys. Reporting about Harvey Weinstein detailed the many people in Hollywood who knew about him and did nothing. Now a scandal has erupted in Germany about the star TV director Dieter Wedel, who was allowed to continue his predatory behavior by state-funded television channel Saarlaendischer Rundfunk, which <a href="https://www.geo.tv/latest/179056-metoo-moment-hits-germany-with-tv-director-abuse-scandal">knew about his abuse</a> in the 1980s.</p> <p><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/26/opinion/sunday/larry-nassar-rachael-denhollander.html">Denhollander wrote</a>,  “The first step toward changing the culture that led to this atrocity is to hold enablers of abuse accountable.” In Nassar’s case, the enablers are renowned institutions.</p> <p>Some Americans apparently feel that <a href="http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2017/01/17/toxic-masculinity-dude-now-americas-universities-are-turning-men-into-women.html">men are under attack</a>. I disagree – men who abuse women are under attack and it’s about time. But there may be a backlash from defenders of the male-dominated status quo, the patriarchal assumptions which allowed unpunished abuse to be so widespread. Trump was put into office because many white men and women feared that a world was crumbling where white male sexual dominance was a fundamental assumption. They didn’t care that he abused women and bragged about it; in fact, many supported him because he so openly violated new standards of correct behavior.</p> <p>Eventually he too will get what he deserves.</p> <p>Steve Hochstadt</p> <p>Berlin, Germany</p> <p>Published in the Jacksonville Journal-Courier, January 30, 2018</p>
ID: 154059
Uid: 78581
Author: 39
Category: 0
Title: The Nunes Memo, “Bias,” and the Skills of the Historian
Source:
Body: <p style="text-align: center;"><img src=" /sites/default/files/154059-pic.png"></p><p><i>Mark Byrnes is professor and chair of the Department of History at Wofford College in Spartanburg, SC.</i><br></p><p>It struck me while reading the instantly infamous <a href="http://apps.washingtonpost.com/g/documents/national/read-the-gop-memo/2746/">Nunes memo</a> that we’d be better off if we were all trained as historians.</p> <p>OK, I already thought that. Maybe it is just because I have been working on the syllabus for my historical research methods class, but the memo and the knee-jerk reactions to it both prove to me once again how important it is to have the historian’s understanding of how to use primary source information.</p> <p>The entire “argument” (such as it is) depends on the idea that a FISA warrant based—to any extent—on the so-called Steele dossier is inherently tainted, because the research done by the author, former British intelligence agent Christopher Steele, was paid for at some point by Democrats. Since the warrant targeted Carter Page, who had been part of the Trump campaign, the motive of the funders (not the researcher, it bears noting) to get “dirt” on Trump somehow discredits everything Steele found.</p> <p>The memo contains not a single argument that the evidence used to obtain the warrant against Carter Page was actually false—only that it is somehow untrustworthy due to the alleged motive behind the research that produced the evidence.</p> <p>In history, we deal with this problem all the time. We uncover evidence in primary sources, and must judge its credibility. Do we have reason to believe that the person who produced the evidence might have an agenda that should cause us to doubt the veracity of the evidence? What do we do if the answer to that question is “yes,” or even “maybe”?</p> <p>I do a primary source exercise in my methods class that does just this: presents the students with conflicting primary source accounts of an event. I then explain why the people who produced the evidence might have self-serving reasons for portraying the event in a particular light. </p> <p>Most students, when first faced with this dilemma, immediately say “bias!” and dismiss the evidence as worthless. That is the reaction the Nunes memo seems intended to produce among the general public. </p> <p>But that is not how the historian reacts. Yes, the source of the evidence may have some bias. That does not, however, by itself mean that the information is false. It does mean that when weighing its validity, the historian must look for other, independent, corroborating evidence before trusting it.</p> <p>It seems likely that is what the officials who used the Steele dossier to obtain the FISA warrant did: they compared what Steele wrote to other information they had about Carter Page to see if it lined up. </p> <p>People defending Nunes are pointing to this line in the memo as evidence that the allegedly flawed evidence from the dossier was used to unfairly target Page for surveillance: “Deputy Director McCabe testified before the committee in December 2017 that no surveillance warrant would have been sought from the FISC without the Steele dossier information.” </p> <p>While there is some dispute about whether this is an accurate characterization of McCabe’s testimony, it is hardly a smoking gun that proves the warrant had no factual, evidentiary basis. </p> <p>Let’s take the memo’s assertion about McCabe’s testimony at face value and assume it is completely accurate. If, as seems likely given <a href="https://www.wsj.com/articles/former-trump-aide-carter-page-was-on-u-s-counterintelligence-radar-before-russia-dossier-1517486401">other reporting on Page</a>, the intelligence community had other, independently-sourced evidence causing them to suspect Page of suspicious contacts with Russian intelligence, then Steele’s information may have been the corroboration they needed to move forward with the warrant. Thus, there would not have been a warrant without it.</p> <p>But the logic of that also works <i>the other way</i>: if <i>all</i> they had was the Steele dossier information—without corroboration—then there also would be no warrant. Unless McCabe said that the warrant request was based <i>solely</i> on the Steele information, this actually shows that the information in the dossier had corroboration that legitimately outweighed any potential taint due to the funding source of Steele’s research. It shows that the charge that the FBI failed to take into account any potential political bias is false. And then the whole flimsy assertion behind the memo falls apart completely.</p> <p>If you’ve been trained in evaluating evidence, this way of thinking comes naturally. The uninformed, however, fall for the incredibly flawed assertions in the Nunes memo. People who don’t understand anything about law or evidence dismiss the dossier as the “fruit of the poisonous tree,” but in fact that phrase refers to evidence that is obtained illegally. It has nothing to do with potential bias. The charge is not that Steele's evidence was obtained illegally, but that it is was somehow "biased" and thus untrustworthy. Every legal case, like every historical case, involves judging the trustworthiness of evidence. Yes, you need to consider from whence the evidence comes. But you do not dismiss it out of hand just because there might be some whiff of “bias” from the source of the information.</p> <p>That’s a skill that historical training imparts. The inability of a large number of Americans—including ostensibly well-educated ones—to understand that shows how much we suffer from our historical illiteracy.</p>
ID: 154060
Uid: 341
Author: 40
Category: 0
Title: Trump's War?
Source:
Body: <p><i>Murray Polner is the author of </i><a href="https://www.amazon.com/No-victory-parades-Vietnam-veteran/dp/0030860113"><i>No Victory Parades: The Return of the Vietnam Veteran</i></a><i>,</i><a href="https://www.amazon.com/Branch-Rickey-Biography-Murray-Polner/dp/0786426438/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8"><i> Branch Rickey: A Biography,</i></a><i>&nbsp;and co-editor of&nbsp;</i><a href="https://www.amazon.com/We-Who-Dared-Say-War/dp/1568583850"><i>We Who Dared Say No To War</i></a><i>.</i></p><p>As I wrote several years ago, after our intelligence community warned us to prepare for the possibility of a Soviet attack, the Postal Service blissfully announced plans to distribute emergency change-of-address cards in the event of a nuclear war. </p> <p>So it wouldn't surprise me if fear of the Russians and North Koreans repeated that sort of idiocy and politicians and special pleaders will soon start demanding more and more nukes while a few geniuses will tell us how a nuclear war can be won and, failing that, how we can survive an attack.</p> <p>Meanwhile, whether Donald Trump is nuts enough to order an attack against North Korea remains a mystery. A worrying, ominous paragraph buried deep in a NY Times article in early February reported, "At multiple Army bases across the country this month, more than 1000 reserve officers are practicing how to set up so-called mobilization centers, which move reservists overseas in a hurry." You have to wonder why the Pentagon is playing real life war games. </p> <p>Regrettably, the Democrats, many of whom were once&nbsp; doggedly antiwar, have become silent about a war against the North, obsessed as they are with blaming Russia for Hillary's defeat and perhaps triggering Cold War 2, while clearly trying to hasten Trump's impeachment, a very difficult task given&nbsp; the way the system works&nbsp; Talk about diplomacy, deterrence, even living side by side a nuclear-armed North, is rarely if ever heard from the Democrats and their long list of wannabe candidates for the White House and Congress.</p> <p>The truth is that many Americans, insiders too, have probably sensibly concluded that a nuclear attack on North Korea cannot be won. Period. While our planes and bombs can destroy the North and most of &nbsp;its men, women and children &nbsp;it will also certainly result in nuclear and chemical retaliation, causing millions of earth-shattering casualties in South Korea and Japan where &nbsp;tens of thousands of &nbsp;civilian and military Americans also live, work and are stationed. Whether our hotheaded President likes it or not, North Korea has believed since the end of the Korean War in 1953 that it needed nuclear bombs to defend itself from the Americans. Above all, it will never surrender its nuclear weapons no matter how much our president insults the North's dear leader.</p> <p>In the meantime, should Trump ever give the Pentagon a green light can anyone stop him? And how will Americans respond? With flag-waving sloganeering by our living room chicken hawks? With supportive editorials and Op Eds by liberal and conservative pundits as happened when Bush Two unforgivably invaded Iraq in 2003 and set off the forever Greater Middle East wars? 0r with the hope that some officers, trained to obey orders, will somehow refuse to act in so pointless a suicidal war. And by the way, whatever happened to the peace movement in the USA? </p> <p>And, before nuclear bombs ever make their reappearance, does anyone inside the power structure really care enough to say NO! &nbsp;Anyone courageous enough to publicly condemn a looming catastrophe? Anyone?</p>
ID: 154061
Uid: 292
Author: 11
Category: 0
Title: Florida Is Doing the Right Thing. May Other States Follow Quickly.
Source:
Body: <p><i> Sociologist James W. Loewen is the author of <a href="http://www.amazon.com/Lies-My-Teacher-Told-Everything/dp/0743296281"> Lies My Teacher Told Me</a>.</i></p><p>On January 31, 2018, the Florida Senate voted to replace Confederate Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith with educator Mary McLeod Bethune in the United States Capitol. Smith's removal is certain. The Alachua County (Florida) Public School District has also stripped Smith's name from their administrative building, formerly Kirby Smith Elementary School. Since the Senate vote was unanimous, we can assume the substitution of Bethune in the Capitol will be made.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/sites/default/files/154061-statue.png" "="" style="float:left;margin:15px;"> The United States gains by the exchange. The Capitol loses a war criminal and gets a humanitarian who founded a college and played a major role in what we might call "the long Civil Rights Movement." </p> <p>Probably you already know about Bethune. Ironically, she already has a statue in Washington, D.C., just twelve blocks east of the Capitol in Lincoln Park. In this essay, I want briefly to suggest that Smith should never have been honored. His selection disgraced Florida and speaks volumes about the sorry state of race relations in the United States in 1922.</p><p>From January, 1863, to war's end, Edmund Kirby Smith was in charge of all Confederate forces west of the Mississippi River. After taking Vicksburg, Mississippi, on July 4, 1863, and Port Hudson, Louisiana, five days later, the United States controlled the river. After that, Smith operated largely on his own. His forces comprised the national Confederate government in the trans-Mississippi. What Smith did or approved amounted to Confederate policy in Texas, Arkansas, the parts of Louisiana under Confederate control, and most of Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. Smith did not set pretty policy. </p><p>In June, 1863, in a skirmish connected with the battle at Milliken’s Bend, Louisiana, troops under the command Confederate general Richard Taylor captured fifty black soldiers. Milliken’s Bend was perhaps the first major battle in which black troops had participated. Here is how Taylor reported to Smith: "A very large number of the negroes were killed and wounded, and, unfortunately, some 50, with 2 of their white officers, captured. I respectfully ask instructions as to the disposition of these prisoners."</p><p>In his own report to the Confederate War Department, Smith used the same word, "unfortunately":&nbsp;"Unfortunately such captures were made by some of Major-General Taylor's subordinates."</p><p>Smith went on: "I have heard unofficially that the last Congress did not adopt any retaliatory legislation on the subject of armed negroes and their officers, but left the President to dispose of this delicate and important question. In the absence of any legislation and of any orders except those referred to in the inclosed letters, I saw no other proper and legal course for me to pursue except the one I adopted."</p><p>What exactly had Smith told Taylor to do?</p><p>"I have been unofficially informed that some of your troops have captured negroes in arms. I hope this may not be so, and that your subordinates who may have been in command of capturing parties may have recognized the propriety of giving no quarter to armed negroes and their officers."</p><p>"Giving no quarter" means killing all black POWs at once. This is of course a war crime. POWs by definition are no longer enemy combatants and are not to be murdered. There are reasons for this policy, not least the fact that soldiers know they might not always be victorious and do not want to be murdered if captured in a future battle. Even Hitler's forces did not kill black or Jewish soldiers when they captured them during World War II. </p><p>"If they are taken, however," Smith went on, they are to be turned over to civilian authorities "to be tried for crimes against the State." Another letter, this one by S.S. Anderson, Assistant Adjutant-General to Smith, makes clear that this policy amounts to a sure death sentence. However, it carries a veneer of law. This was important, because the United States was insisting that all its soldiers be treated alike, regardless of race. "Should negroes thus taken be executed by the military authorities capturing them it would certainly provoke retaliation," Anderson noted. Indeed, General U.S. Grant, commander of the Vicksburg campaign of which this battle was a part, as well as his boss, President Lincoln, threatened to execute Confederate POWs if the Confederacy continued to execute black POWs. Having civilians do this work, however, would guarantee that "no exceptions can be taken," Anderson wrote.</p><p>It turned out that Smith's policy was not confined to the wild and woolly trans-Mississippi west. It comported with Confederate national policy. Even before Lincoln's "Emancipation Proclamation" took effect on January 1, 1863, providing for the recruitment of black troops, African Americans had been volunteering for military service. In November. 1862, Confederate raiders seized four African Americans in U.S. uniforms on a South Carolina island and asked Richmond what to do with them. President Davis and his secretary of war approved their "summary execution." After the "Emancipation Proclamation," Davis sent a "Message to the Confederate Congress" proposing to:&nbsp;"deliver to the several State authorities all commissioned officers of the Unites States that may hereafter be captured by our forces in any of the States embraced in the proclamation, that they may be dealt with in accordance with the laws of those States providing for the punishment of criminals engaged in exciting servile insurrection."</p><p>That penalty was of course death. </p><p>Later Confederate war crimes, such as the murder of black POWs after the Battle of Poison Springs in Arkansas and the Fort Pillow massacre in West Tennessee, were in keeping with this tradition established by Smith and Davis.</p><p>After Smith comes down, the rest of the Confederates in the Capitol should go, too. They include Mississippi's James Z. George; Wade Hampton of South Carolina; Alexander Stephens of Georgia, Vice-President of the Confederacy; and the arch conspirator of them all, war criminal Jefferson Davis of Mississippi.</p><p>Perhaps a case can be made for Alabama's Joseph Wheeler and North Carolina's Zebulon Vance. That would depend upon whether they were chosen because of or despite their Confederate credentials. But South Carolina cannot rehabilitate John C. Calhoun, the theorist justifying slavery and secession. His bust needs to find another resting place, one that does not intrinsically connote honor and praise.<a href="#_ftn1">[1]</a></p><hr> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[1]See Brendan Farrington, "<a href="http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/florida-moves-replace-confederate-statue-us-capitol-52743530">Fla. Moves to Replace Confederate Statue in US Capitol,</a>" AP, 1/31/2018. All quotations by or about Smith and Davis are from Loewen and Sebesta, <i><a href="https://www.amazon.com/Confederate-Neo-Confederate-Reader-Great-Truth/dp/1604732199">The Confederate and Neo-Confederate Reader</a></i>, with Edward H. Sebesta, co-editor (Jackson:&nbsp; Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2010), 198-205.&nbsp; </p><p style="margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 17px; line-height: normal; font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;; color: rgb(69, 69, 69);">Copyright James W. Loewen&nbsp;</p><p><br></p>