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ID: 154056
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: W. Bourke Cockran, The Forgotten Democratic Congressman Who Championed Churchill & Free Trade
Source: The Daily Beast
Body: <p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">Winston Churchill learned to appreciate a good cigar, free trade, and fine oratory from an Irish-American orator who was his mother’s lover—and believed in young Winston more than his own father ever did.&nbsp;</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">The Oscar-nominated movie&nbsp;<em>Darkest Hour</em>, though compelling, misleads on this part of the British Bulldog’s biography. Winston Churchill never needed to wander around wartime London seeking his muse. He had found him 45 years earlier in Gay Nineties’ Manhattan.</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">Actually, Churchill was only one of many of W. Bourke Cockran’s seductions—and fans. When this Irish immigrant turned super-lawyer, spellbinder, and legislator died suddenly in Washington in March, 1923, two hours after a dinner celebrating his 69th&nbsp;birthday, the nationwide mourning had nothing to do with Churchill, who was by then a political has-been. Cockran’s mentorship of Churchill offers a relevant epilogue to a rich all-American life that dazzled turn-of-the-century Americans with colorful prose and crystal-clear logic delivered theatrically in a resonant Irish brogue....</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;"><a href="https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-forgotten-democratic-congressman-who-championed-churchill-and-free-trade?ref=author">Read whole article on The Daily Beast.</a></p><div><br></div>
ID: 154057
Uid: 31615
Author: 19
Category: 0
Title: Justice: Late, But Not Too Late
Source:
Body: <p>Larry Nassar, former doctor to young female athletes, will spend the rest of his life in prison. As she sentenced him to 40 to 175 years in jail, <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2018/01/24/us/judge-rosemarie-aquilina-full-statement/index.html">Judge Rosemarie Aquilina</a> said, “I just signed your death warrant.”</p> <p>Nassar may have been the most successful serial abuser of young women in history. Judge Aquilina invited 156 women to <a href="https://www.glamour.com/story/the-survivors-of-larry-nassar-in-their-own-words">testify in her courtroom</a> about their assault by the hands of Nassar, <a href="http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/michigan/2017/08/10/rise-fall-larry-nassar/104491508/">beginning in 1992</a>, 25 years ago. Over and over, he <a href="http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-heffernan-larry-nassar-20180126-story.html">penetrated their vaginas</a> with his fingers or his fist as part of his “therapy”. Some were younger than 10.</p> <p>Nassar earned his medical degree from Michigan State University and worked there as a sports doctor. He became famous as the doctor for USA Gymnastics for nearly 20 years, which is in charge of the Olympic gymnastics team. His life of crime began to unravel when Nassar was first publicly accused in September 2016 by former gymnast Rachael Denhollander. But his sexual abuse had been reported to authorities many times long before that.</p> <p>In 1997, Larissa Boyce reported what Nassar was doing to the MSU women’s gymnastics coach, <a href="http://www.detroitnews.com/story/tech/2018/01/18/msu-president-told-nassar-complaint-2014/1042071001/">Kathie Klages</a>, and another girl confirmed that she too had been “treated”. Both girls were shamed into silence. A women’s track coach was told in 1999. Athletic trainers were told in 2000. In 2004, clinical psychologist Dr. Gary Stollak was told. That same year, Brianne Randall, 17 years old, <a href="https://www.lansingstatejournal.com/story/news/local/2018/01/23/police-didnt-heed-nassar-complaint-2004-but-paid-victims-flight-speak-tuesday/1059402001/">told the police</a> in Meridian Township, near the Michigan State campus, that Nassar had touched her vagina and breasts. The police never told MSU.</p> <p>MSU President Lou Anna Simon was told in 2014 that a police report had been filed against a sports doctor. She let her subordinates handle it and never saw the report. The subordinates included 3 other MSU doctors and the athletic trainer, as well as Dr. William Strampel, dean of the College of Osteopathic Medicine, who decided Nassar’s actions were medically appropriate. At least 14 MSU employees were told about Nassar’s actions.</p> <p>USA Gymnastics paid star gymnast McKayla Maroney over $1 million to <a href="http://www.espn.com/olympics/gymnastics/story/_/id/21825575/usa-gymnastics-struck-agreement-mckayla-maroney-keep-larry-nassar-abuse-quiet-lawyer-says">keep quiet</a> about Nassar’s abuse. The agreement included a $100,000 fine <a href="http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5279575/McKayla-Maroney-speak-sex-abuse-Nassar-trial.html">if she revealed</a> what Nassar had done to her.</p> <p>The only thing that stopped Nassar’s abuse was the <a href="https://www.indystar.com/story/news/2016/09/12/former-usa-gymnastics-doctor-accused-abuse/89995734/">public accusation</a> by Rachael Denhollander last September. She was motivated by a story the month before in the “Indy Star” that USA Gymnastics had a <a href="https://www.indystar.com/story/news/investigations/2016/08/04/usa-gymnastics-sex-abuse-protected-coaches/85829732/">long history</a> of ignoring reports of sexual abuse by coaches.</p> <p>How do serial abusers manage to continue their criminal activity? One reason is that making such accusations is deeply painful. It is difficult for a teenager to complain about the nature of their treatment by a doctor, especially if he is advertised as a “miracle worker”. At a preliminary hearing, Shannon Smith, one of Nassar’s attorneys, asked Denhollander if she was coming forward <a href="https://www.redding.com/story/news/local/2018/01/24/denhollander-seeks-harsh-sentence-answers-tough-questions-nassar-sentencing/1060121001/">for the money</a>. Denhollander explained some of the cost of <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2018/01/24/us/rachael-denhollander-full-statement/index.html">telling the truth</a>. “My advocacy for sexual assault victims, something I cherished, cost me my church and our closest friends three weeks before I filed my police report. I was left alone and isolated.”</p> <p>The institutions who protect abusers circle the wagons against accusers. The vice chair of Michigan State’s board of trustees, <a href="https://www.wxyz.com/news/local-news/investigations/trustee-msu-will-look-great-in-nassar-gynmastics-scandal-investigation">Joel Ferguson</a>, called victims’ lawyers “folks chasing ambulances” looking for a “payday”. A famous former prosecutor, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/27/us/michigan-state-nassar-fitzgerald.html">Patrick Fitzgerald</a>, was hired to by MSU investigate, and President Lou Anna Simon claimed in April that MSU was conducting a “<a href="https://msu.edu/ourcommitment/news-information/2017-04-13.html">thorough internal review</a>”. In December, Fitzgerald exonerated the University by writing that nobody there knew what Nassar was doing. It turns out that Fitzgerald had been hired to defend the University against lawsuits. His team interviewed none of Nassar’s victims.</p> <p>The lifelong sexual abusers who have made news were all protected by a cone of silence. Penn State administrators <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penn_State_child_sex_abuse_scandal">looked the other way</a> when they heard about Jerry Sandusky’s abuse of boys. Reporting about Harvey Weinstein detailed the many people in Hollywood who knew about him and did nothing. Now a scandal has erupted in Germany about the star TV director Dieter Wedel, who was allowed to continue his predatory behavior by state-funded television channel Saarlaendischer Rundfunk, which <a href="https://www.geo.tv/latest/179056-metoo-moment-hits-germany-with-tv-director-abuse-scandal">knew about his abuse</a> in the 1980s.</p> <p><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/26/opinion/sunday/larry-nassar-rachael-denhollander.html">Denhollander wrote</a>,  “The first step toward changing the culture that led to this atrocity is to hold enablers of abuse accountable.” In Nassar’s case, the enablers are renowned institutions.</p> <p>Some Americans apparently feel that <a href="http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2017/01/17/toxic-masculinity-dude-now-americas-universities-are-turning-men-into-women.html">men are under attack</a>. I disagree – men who abuse women are under attack and it’s about time. But there may be a backlash from defenders of the male-dominated status quo, the patriarchal assumptions which allowed unpunished abuse to be so widespread. Trump was put into office because many white men and women feared that a world was crumbling where white male sexual dominance was a fundamental assumption. They didn’t care that he abused women and bragged about it; in fact, many supported him because he so openly violated new standards of correct behavior.</p> <p>Eventually he too will get what he deserves.</p> <p>Steve Hochstadt</p> <p>Berlin, Germany</p> <p>Published in the Jacksonville Journal-Courier, January 30, 2018</p>
ID: 154059
Uid: 78581
Author: 39
Category: 0
Title: The Nunes Memo, “Bias,” and the Skills of the Historian
Source:
Body: <p style="text-align: center;"><img src=" /sites/default/files/154059-pic.png"></p><p><i>Mark Byrnes is professor and chair of the Department of History at Wofford College in Spartanburg, SC.</i><br></p><p>It struck me while reading the instantly infamous <a href="http://apps.washingtonpost.com/g/documents/national/read-the-gop-memo/2746/">Nunes memo</a> that we’d be better off if we were all trained as historians.</p> <p>OK, I already thought that. Maybe it is just because I have been working on the syllabus for my historical research methods class, but the memo and the knee-jerk reactions to it both prove to me once again how important it is to have the historian’s understanding of how to use primary source information.</p> <p>The entire “argument” (such as it is) depends on the idea that a FISA warrant based—to any extent—on the so-called Steele dossier is inherently tainted, because the research done by the author, former British intelligence agent Christopher Steele, was paid for at some point by Democrats. Since the warrant targeted Carter Page, who had been part of the Trump campaign, the motive of the funders (not the researcher, it bears noting) to get “dirt” on Trump somehow discredits everything Steele found.</p> <p>The memo contains not a single argument that the evidence used to obtain the warrant against Carter Page was actually false—only that it is somehow untrustworthy due to the alleged motive behind the research that produced the evidence.</p> <p>In history, we deal with this problem all the time. We uncover evidence in primary sources, and must judge its credibility. Do we have reason to believe that the person who produced the evidence might have an agenda that should cause us to doubt the veracity of the evidence? What do we do if the answer to that question is “yes,” or even “maybe”?</p> <p>I do a primary source exercise in my methods class that does just this: presents the students with conflicting primary source accounts of an event. I then explain why the people who produced the evidence might have self-serving reasons for portraying the event in a particular light. </p> <p>Most students, when first faced with this dilemma, immediately say “bias!” and dismiss the evidence as worthless. That is the reaction the Nunes memo seems intended to produce among the general public. </p> <p>But that is not how the historian reacts. Yes, the source of the evidence may have some bias. That does not, however, by itself mean that the information is false. It does mean that when weighing its validity, the historian must look for other, independent, corroborating evidence before trusting it.</p> <p>It seems likely that is what the officials who used the Steele dossier to obtain the FISA warrant did: they compared what Steele wrote to other information they had about Carter Page to see if it lined up. </p> <p>People defending Nunes are pointing to this line in the memo as evidence that the allegedly flawed evidence from the dossier was used to unfairly target Page for surveillance: “Deputy Director McCabe testified before the committee in December 2017 that no surveillance warrant would have been sought from the FISC without the Steele dossier information.” </p> <p>While there is some dispute about whether this is an accurate characterization of McCabe’s testimony, it is hardly a smoking gun that proves the warrant had no factual, evidentiary basis. </p> <p>Let’s take the memo’s assertion about McCabe’s testimony at face value and assume it is completely accurate. If, as seems likely given <a href="https://www.wsj.com/articles/former-trump-aide-carter-page-was-on-u-s-counterintelligence-radar-before-russia-dossier-1517486401">other reporting on Page</a>, the intelligence community had other, independently-sourced evidence causing them to suspect Page of suspicious contacts with Russian intelligence, then Steele’s information may have been the corroboration they needed to move forward with the warrant. Thus, there would not have been a warrant without it.</p> <p>But the logic of that also works <i>the other way</i>: if <i>all</i> they had was the Steele dossier information—without corroboration—then there also would be no warrant. Unless McCabe said that the warrant request was based <i>solely</i> on the Steele information, this actually shows that the information in the dossier had corroboration that legitimately outweighed any potential taint due to the funding source of Steele’s research. It shows that the charge that the FBI failed to take into account any potential political bias is false. And then the whole flimsy assertion behind the memo falls apart completely.</p> <p>If you’ve been trained in evaluating evidence, this way of thinking comes naturally. The uninformed, however, fall for the incredibly flawed assertions in the Nunes memo. People who don’t understand anything about law or evidence dismiss the dossier as the “fruit of the poisonous tree,” but in fact that phrase refers to evidence that is obtained illegally. It has nothing to do with potential bias. The charge is not that Steele's evidence was obtained illegally, but that it is was somehow "biased" and thus untrustworthy. Every legal case, like every historical case, involves judging the trustworthiness of evidence. Yes, you need to consider from whence the evidence comes. But you do not dismiss it out of hand just because there might be some whiff of “bias” from the source of the information.</p> <p>That’s a skill that historical training imparts. The inability of a large number of Americans—including ostensibly well-educated ones—to understand that shows how much we suffer from our historical illiteracy.</p>
ID: 154060
Uid: 341
Author: 40
Category: 0
Title: Trump's War?
Source:
Body: <p><i>Murray Polner is the author of </i><a href="https://www.amazon.com/No-victory-parades-Vietnam-veteran/dp/0030860113"><i>No Victory Parades: The Return of the Vietnam Veteran</i></a><i>,</i><a href="https://www.amazon.com/Branch-Rickey-Biography-Murray-Polner/dp/0786426438/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8"><i> Branch Rickey: A Biography,</i></a><i>&nbsp;and co-editor of&nbsp;</i><a href="https://www.amazon.com/We-Who-Dared-Say-War/dp/1568583850"><i>We Who Dared Say No To War</i></a><i>.</i></p><p>As I wrote several years ago, after our intelligence community warned us to prepare for the possibility of a Soviet attack, the Postal Service blissfully announced plans to distribute emergency change-of-address cards in the event of a nuclear war. </p> <p>So it wouldn't surprise me if fear of the Russians and North Koreans repeated that sort of idiocy and politicians and special pleaders will soon start demanding more and more nukes while a few geniuses will tell us how a nuclear war can be won and, failing that, how we can survive an attack.</p> <p>Meanwhile, whether Donald Trump is nuts enough to order an attack against North Korea remains a mystery. A worrying, ominous paragraph buried deep in a NY Times article in early February reported, "At multiple Army bases across the country this month, more than 1000 reserve officers are practicing how to set up so-called mobilization centers, which move reservists overseas in a hurry." You have to wonder why the Pentagon is playing real life war games. </p> <p>Regrettably, the Democrats, many of whom were once&nbsp; doggedly antiwar, have become silent about a war against the North, obsessed as they are with blaming Russia for Hillary's defeat and perhaps triggering Cold War 2, while clearly trying to hasten Trump's impeachment, a very difficult task given&nbsp; the way the system works&nbsp; Talk about diplomacy, deterrence, even living side by side a nuclear-armed North, is rarely if ever heard from the Democrats and their long list of wannabe candidates for the White House and Congress.</p> <p>The truth is that many Americans, insiders too, have probably sensibly concluded that a nuclear attack on North Korea cannot be won. Period. While our planes and bombs can destroy the North and most of &nbsp;its men, women and children &nbsp;it will also certainly result in nuclear and chemical retaliation, causing millions of earth-shattering casualties in South Korea and Japan where &nbsp;tens of thousands of &nbsp;civilian and military Americans also live, work and are stationed. Whether our hotheaded President likes it or not, North Korea has believed since the end of the Korean War in 1953 that it needed nuclear bombs to defend itself from the Americans. Above all, it will never surrender its nuclear weapons no matter how much our president insults the North's dear leader.</p> <p>In the meantime, should Trump ever give the Pentagon a green light can anyone stop him? And how will Americans respond? With flag-waving sloganeering by our living room chicken hawks? With supportive editorials and Op Eds by liberal and conservative pundits as happened when Bush Two unforgivably invaded Iraq in 2003 and set off the forever Greater Middle East wars? 0r with the hope that some officers, trained to obey orders, will somehow refuse to act in so pointless a suicidal war. And by the way, whatever happened to the peace movement in the USA? </p> <p>And, before nuclear bombs ever make their reappearance, does anyone inside the power structure really care enough to say NO! &nbsp;Anyone courageous enough to publicly condemn a looming catastrophe? Anyone?</p>
ID: 154061
Uid: 292
Author: 11
Category: 0
Title: Florida Is Doing the Right Thing. May Other States Follow Quickly.
Source:
Body: <p><i> Sociologist James W. Loewen is the author of <a href="http://www.amazon.com/Lies-My-Teacher-Told-Everything/dp/0743296281"> Lies My Teacher Told Me</a>.</i></p><p>On January 31, 2018, the Florida Senate voted to replace Confederate Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith with educator Mary McLeod Bethune in the United States Capitol. Smith's removal is certain. The Alachua County (Florida) Public School District has also stripped Smith's name from their administrative building, formerly Kirby Smith Elementary School. Since the Senate vote was unanimous, we can assume the substitution of Bethune in the Capitol will be made.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/sites/default/files/154061-statue.png" "="" style="float:left;margin:15px;"> The United States gains by the exchange. The Capitol loses a war criminal and gets a humanitarian who founded a college and played a major role in what we might call "the long Civil Rights Movement." </p> <p>Probably you already know about Bethune. Ironically, she already has a statue in Washington, D.C., just twelve blocks east of the Capitol in Lincoln Park. In this essay, I want briefly to suggest that Smith should never have been honored. His selection disgraced Florida and speaks volumes about the sorry state of race relations in the United States in 1922.</p><p>From January, 1863, to war's end, Edmund Kirby Smith was in charge of all Confederate forces west of the Mississippi River. After taking Vicksburg, Mississippi, on July 4, 1863, and Port Hudson, Louisiana, five days later, the United States controlled the river. After that, Smith operated largely on his own. His forces comprised the national Confederate government in the trans-Mississippi. What Smith did or approved amounted to Confederate policy in Texas, Arkansas, the parts of Louisiana under Confederate control, and most of Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. Smith did not set pretty policy. </p><p>In June, 1863, in a skirmish connected with the battle at Milliken’s Bend, Louisiana, troops under the command Confederate general Richard Taylor captured fifty black soldiers. Milliken’s Bend was perhaps the first major battle in which black troops had participated. Here is how Taylor reported to Smith: "A very large number of the negroes were killed and wounded, and, unfortunately, some 50, with 2 of their white officers, captured. I respectfully ask instructions as to the disposition of these prisoners."</p><p>In his own report to the Confederate War Department, Smith used the same word, "unfortunately":&nbsp;"Unfortunately such captures were made by some of Major-General Taylor's subordinates."</p><p>Smith went on: "I have heard unofficially that the last Congress did not adopt any retaliatory legislation on the subject of armed negroes and their officers, but left the President to dispose of this delicate and important question. In the absence of any legislation and of any orders except those referred to in the inclosed letters, I saw no other proper and legal course for me to pursue except the one I adopted."</p><p>What exactly had Smith told Taylor to do?</p><p>"I have been unofficially informed that some of your troops have captured negroes in arms. I hope this may not be so, and that your subordinates who may have been in command of capturing parties may have recognized the propriety of giving no quarter to armed negroes and their officers."</p><p>"Giving no quarter" means killing all black POWs at once. This is of course a war crime. POWs by definition are no longer enemy combatants and are not to be murdered. There are reasons for this policy, not least the fact that soldiers know they might not always be victorious and do not want to be murdered if captured in a future battle. Even Hitler's forces did not kill black or Jewish soldiers when they captured them during World War II. </p><p>"If they are taken, however," Smith went on, they are to be turned over to civilian authorities "to be tried for crimes against the State." Another letter, this one by S.S. Anderson, Assistant Adjutant-General to Smith, makes clear that this policy amounts to a sure death sentence. However, it carries a veneer of law. This was important, because the United States was insisting that all its soldiers be treated alike, regardless of race. "Should negroes thus taken be executed by the military authorities capturing them it would certainly provoke retaliation," Anderson noted. Indeed, General U.S. Grant, commander of the Vicksburg campaign of which this battle was a part, as well as his boss, President Lincoln, threatened to execute Confederate POWs if the Confederacy continued to execute black POWs. Having civilians do this work, however, would guarantee that "no exceptions can be taken," Anderson wrote.</p><p>It turned out that Smith's policy was not confined to the wild and woolly trans-Mississippi west. It comported with Confederate national policy. Even before Lincoln's "Emancipation Proclamation" took effect on January 1, 1863, providing for the recruitment of black troops, African Americans had been volunteering for military service. In November. 1862, Confederate raiders seized four African Americans in U.S. uniforms on a South Carolina island and asked Richmond what to do with them. President Davis and his secretary of war approved their "summary execution." After the "Emancipation Proclamation," Davis sent a "Message to the Confederate Congress" proposing to:&nbsp;"deliver to the several State authorities all commissioned officers of the Unites States that may hereafter be captured by our forces in any of the States embraced in the proclamation, that they may be dealt with in accordance with the laws of those States providing for the punishment of criminals engaged in exciting servile insurrection."</p><p>That penalty was of course death. </p><p>Later Confederate war crimes, such as the murder of black POWs after the Battle of Poison Springs in Arkansas and the Fort Pillow massacre in West Tennessee, were in keeping with this tradition established by Smith and Davis.</p><p>After Smith comes down, the rest of the Confederates in the Capitol should go, too. They include Mississippi's James Z. George; Wade Hampton of South Carolina; Alexander Stephens of Georgia, Vice-President of the Confederacy; and the arch conspirator of them all, war criminal Jefferson Davis of Mississippi.</p><p>Perhaps a case can be made for Alabama's Joseph Wheeler and North Carolina's Zebulon Vance. That would depend upon whether they were chosen because of or despite their Confederate credentials. But South Carolina cannot rehabilitate John C. Calhoun, the theorist justifying slavery and secession. His bust needs to find another resting place, one that does not intrinsically connote honor and praise.<a href="#_ftn1">[1]</a></p><hr> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[1]See Brendan Farrington, "<a href="http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/florida-moves-replace-confederate-statue-us-capitol-52743530">Fla. Moves to Replace Confederate Statue in US Capitol,</a>" AP, 1/31/2018. All quotations by or about Smith and Davis are from Loewen and Sebesta, <i><a href="https://www.amazon.com/Confederate-Neo-Confederate-Reader-Great-Truth/dp/1604732199">The Confederate and Neo-Confederate Reader</a></i>, with Edward H. Sebesta, co-editor (Jackson:&nbsp; Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2010), 198-205.&nbsp; </p><p style="margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 17px; line-height: normal; font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;; color: rgb(69, 69, 69);">Copyright James W. Loewen&nbsp;</p><p><br></p>
ID: 154062
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: The Man Who Named the Super Bowl After His Kid’s Toy
Source: The Daily Beast
Body: <p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">Lamar Hunt, America’s super duper Sixties’ serial sports franchiser and league founder, used his daddy’s oil fortune to launch the American Football League, World Championship Tennis, the North American Soccer League, the Kansas City Chiefs, and the Chicago Bulls, while naming football’s do-or-die World Series after his kids’ incredibly-bouncy Superball.</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">In winning their record-breaking tenth American Football Conference Championship Game this January, the New England Patriots won yet another Lamar Hunt Trophy. Sadly, few remember Hunt – or hail him for America’s football obsession, and for the estimated 4.9 billion potato chips, 1.3 billion chicken wings, and 1.2 billion beer bottles we will consume on Super Bowl Sunday.&nbsp;</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">Born in 1932, Lamar was the tenth child of&nbsp;<a class="LinkWrapper LinkWrapper--external" href="https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fhu59" style="color: inherit; transition: color 0.15s ease;">Haroldson Lafayette Hunt</a>&nbsp;(1889-1974), the Illinois-born Arkansas gambler who used his poker winnings to buy the East Texas Oil Fields, and become a super-rich, cartoonish Texas tycoon. Living in a super-sized Mount Vernon knockoff, H.L. Hunt fathered fifteen children with three overlapping wives. His roguish hypocrisy fed rumors that he inspired the J.R. Ewing character on TV’s&nbsp;Dallas¸ while his kooky conservatism fed darker whisperings that he bankrolled President John F. Kennedy’s assassination in Dallas...</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;"><a href="https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-man-who-named-the-super-bowl-after-his-kids-toy?ref=author">Read whole article on The Daily Beast.</a></p>
ID: 154063
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: Is Harriet Jacobs The Black Anne Frank?
Source: The Daily Beast
Body: <p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">Is&nbsp;<a class="LinkWrapper LinkWrapper--external" href="https://www.dallasnews.com/news/news/2016/06/17/harriet-jacobs-a-slavery-tale-with-echoes-of-anne-frank" style="color: inherit; transition: color 0.15s ease;">calling</a>&nbsp;Harriet Ann Jacobs, a teenage runaway slave who hid in a crawl space for nearly seven years, a black “<a class="LinkWrapper LinkWrapper--external" href="http://www.nytimes.com/2004/07/11/books/to-be-a-slave.html" style="color: inherit; transition: color 0.15s ease;">Anne Frank</a>,” helpful or disrespectful?</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">The answer is “yes, both.” &nbsp;Analogies are like medicines—most have side effects. Historians like using the familiar to access the unfamiliar, yet dislike reducing complex events to one dimension that resonates—and risks implying that fame always predominates.&nbsp;</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;">Anne Frank died seven months after the Nazis raided the “Secret Annex” where she hid for two years. &nbsp;She was fifteen. Harriet Jacobs escaped her oppressors and lived until 84. She became, er, a black Harriet Beecher Stowe, and a female Frederick Douglass. Her searing memoir<a class="LinkWrapper LinkWrapper--external" href="https://www.amazon.com/Incidents-Life-Slave-Chump-Change/dp/164032030X" style="color: inherit; transition: color 0.15s ease;">&nbsp;Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl</a>&nbsp;defied America’s proprieties to expose what happened when men treated women as property...</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, Times, serif;"><a href="https://www.thedailybeast.com/is-harriet-jacobs-the-black-anne-frank?ref=author">Read whole article on The Daily Beast.</a></p>
ID: 154064
Uid: 78568
Author: 36
Category: 0
Title: What You Don't Know About Abolitionism: An Interview with Manisha Sinha on Her Groundbreaking Study
Source:
Body: Click <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/168091">here</a> for the interview.
ID: 154065
Uid: 78565
Author: 38
Category: 0
Title: Americans Have Again Ranked JFK Among the 3 Best Modern Presidents
Source:
Body: <p></p><p style="text-align: center;"><img src="/sites/default/files/154065-JFK_and_family_in_Hyannis_Port,_04_August_1962.jpg "></p><p><i><br></i></p><p><b>Related Link </b><a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/21954">HNN Hot Topic: &nbsp;President's Day</a></p><p> <i>Rick Shenkman is the publisher of the History News Network and the author of <a href="http://stoneagebrain.com">Political Animals:&nbsp; How Our Stone-Age Brain Gets in the Way of Smart Politics </a>(Basic Books, January 2016), from which this article is adapted. You can <a href="https://twitter.com/rickshenkman">follow</a> him on Twitter. He blogs at <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/blog/author/38">stoneagebrain.</a></i> </p><p>Let’s try a thought experiment. Think for a moment about John F. Kennedy. What comes to mind, excluding the assassination, which obviously is memorable, and the stories of his adultery, which I just mentioned, and which are therefore easily called up from memory? I will guess that it is an image of some kind: Kennedy on his sailboat, his hair flying in the wind. Or&nbsp;Kennedy playing touch football on the lawn of the family estate in Hyannis Port. Or Jack and Jackie out for a stroll. Or Kennedy (hatless) delivering his inaugural address: “Ask not what your country can do for you. . . .” Or, my favorite, a tanned Kennedy wearing his Ray-Bans and an Izod Lacoste open-collar shirt.</p> <p><a href="https://www.amazon.com/Political-Animals-Stone-Age-Brain-Politics/dp/0465033008/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8 "><img src="/sites/default/files/160130-PA-shenkman-sm.png" "="" style="float:left;margin:15px;"></a> Why is it important what images come to mind? I think it helps us understand something that is almost incomprehensible. When Americans are asked—today—to name the greatest presidents of the United States, they routinely mention Kennedy among the top three. This is difficult to understand. Any fair estimate of his legacy is that it was modest. The only major legislation he got passed was a tax cut lowering the top rate from 90 percent to 70 percent. His foreign policy record included one out-and-out disaster (the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba, which had to be abandoned); one near-disaster (the Cuban Missile Crisis, which he successfully defused but inadvertently triggered, partly as a result of a &nbsp;flawed performance at a summit months earlier with the Soviet leader, who concluded that Kennedy could be bullied); and a disaster-in-waiting (Vietnam, to which Kennedy sent 16,000 “advisers”). The civil rights laws, with which he is closely associated, were actually passed by Lyndon Johnson. </p><p style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://www.centerforpolitics.org/crystalball/articles/public-rates-presidents-jfk-reagan-obama-at-top-nixon-lbj-trump-at-bottom/"><img src=" /sites/default/files/154065-chart.png"></a></p><p style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size: smaller;">Larry Sabato survey 2018</span></p> <p>So what can account for Kennedy’s enduring popularity more than fifty years after his death? Historians tell us it’s owing to many factors, which they cited in the numerous studies and articles that appeared in 2013, on the fiftieth anniversary of his assassination. These include, they said, his charisma, his soaring rhetoric, his support for the civil rights movement (which Democrats like), his advocacy of tax cuts (which Republicans like), his identification with the prosperous 1960s economy, his peace speech at American University in 1963, his commitment to inspiring national projects, including the moon landing and the Peace Corps, and, of course, sadness at his gruesome assassination.&nbsp;</p><p>A poll commissioned by the political scientist Larry Sabato, the author of one of the anniversary assassination books, found that older Americans who have living memories of Kennedy rank him a little higher than those who don’t, which suggests that his presidential record, hazy as it may be, is probably affecting the way these older Americans think about Kennedy. But both young and old Americans hold roughly the same views. Asked to state which American president they’d want living in the White House today, Kennedy was the pick in 2013 of 16 percent of those over 54 and 11 percent of those 54 and under. A 2018 survey found that JFK was ranked the best of all modern presidents. (See chart above.)</p> <p>But could the historians be making this more complicated than it actually is? Is how we think about Kennedy really influenced by a deep knowledge of his achievements? Recall what came to mind in our thought&nbsp;experiment a moment ago. It wasn’t Kennedy’s achievements, it was those regnant images. This suggests that Kennedy is remembered by ordinary Americans as a great president because the pictures of him in our head are compelling and positive and mythical. It’s not his accomplishments that matter so much—most people, after all, don’t know much of anything about his record—but all those images.&nbsp;</p><p>John F. Kennedy looked convincing as a leader. That’s why he became Hollywood’s idea of a president. Presidents in the movies don’t look like Dwight D. Eisenhower (though historians rank him a better president), they look like John Kennedy. The man and the myth come together in pictures. And the pictures in our head come easily to mind because the pictures are readily available to us. We don’t have to struggle to call up flattering images of Kennedy. The human brain allows us to call them to mind quickly because our brain readily digests information in the form of images. Around 50 percent of our brain is devoted to visual tasks. Pictures are readily recalled. This leads us to trust them as a source of good information.</p> <p>What all this suggests is that Kennedy cannot be considered apart from his images. They are a powerful part of his legacy. Indeed, it is hard to imagine that Kennedy would be lionized by young people today but for these images. Vision is that critical. And that's a bit frightening.&nbsp;</p>
ID: 154066
Uid: 31615
Author: 19
Category: 0
Title: President Trump Versus Trump Voters
Source:
Body: <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Donald Trump became President because millions of Americans believed him when he promised to protect their financial health. Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid keep the budgets of most Americans, especially the elderly, above water. Trump promised over and over again not to cut them.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">He did this loud and clear, as a way of differentiating himself from other Republicans. Even before he officially announced his candidacy, he told the conservative “Daily Signal” in <a href="http://dailysignal.com/2015/05/21/why-donald-trump-wont-touch-your-entitlements/?utm_source=twitterfeed&amp;utm_medium=twitter">May 2015</a>: “I’m not going to cut Social Security like every other Republican and I’m not going to cut Medicare or Medicaid. Every other Republican is going to cut, and even if they wouldn’t, they don’t know what to do because they don’t know where the money is. I do.” His <a href="http://time.com/3923128/donald-trump-announcement-speech/">announcement</a> that he was a candidate the next month included “Save Medicare, Medicaid and Social Security without cuts. Have to do it.” In July 2015, he said, “The Republicans who want to cut SS &amp; Medicaid are wrong.” In <a href="https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2017/6/23/15862312/trump-medicaid-promise">October 2015</a>, he said, “I am going to save Medicare and Medicaid.” In <a href="http://www.wtvm.com/story/31343747/donald-trump-rallies-in-valdosta">February 2016</a>, he said, “We're gonna save your Social Security without making any cuts. Mark my words.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Trump’s promise not to cut Social Security included explicit statements that he would not raise the retirement age, as he said in the Republican debate in March 2016. “And it’s my absolute intention to leave Social Security the way it is. Not increase the age and to leave it as is.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">In fact, that was never his intention. In his book “The America We Deserve” in 2000, Trump compared Social Security to a Ponzi scheme and suggested that the <a href="https://www.snopes.com/trump-social-security/">retirement age be raised to 70</a>. In a private conversation with Paul Ryan after he won the nomination, Trump responded to Ryan’s plans to cut Social Security: “From a moral standpoint, <a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/features/2016-reince-priebus/">I believe in it</a>. But you also have to get elected. And there’s no way a Republican is going to beat a Democrat when the Republican is saying, ‘We’re going to cut your Social Security’ and the Democrat is saying, ‘We’re going to keep it and give you more.’”</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">And that’s what happened. Trump convinced voters he would protect government programs which insured that average Americans would be able to get health care and retire with some financial dignity. Once he was President, he returned to his “moral standpoint”, the exact opposite of what he had promised.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">As soon as he was elected, he appointed former Dallas mayor Tom Leppert as his Social Security advisor. Leppert is in favor of <a href="http://money.cnn.com/2016/11/21/news/economy/kfile-trump-social-security/index.html">privatizing Social Security and Medicare</a>. Trump’s budget director Mick Mulvaney also <a href="http://social.fool.com/blog/43832531720">favors privatization</a>.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">In May 2017, Trump’s budget plan for 2018 proposed <a href="https://www.calhospital.org/cha-news-article/trump-budget-proposal-significantly-cuts-medicaid-other-safety-net-programs">drastic cuts in Medicaid</a>. In June, he supported the Republican Senate health care bill, which made <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/22/us/politics/senate-health-care-bill.html">big cuts to Medicaid</a>.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Now the White House has released a <a href="https://thinkprogress.org/trump-promises-cuts-medicare-medicaid-social-security-36a0e8a57ae0/">new Trump budget</a>, which makes huge cuts in Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid. Under the heading “Reform disability programs”, Trump proposes cuts in Social Security programs which support <a href="https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/budget-fy2019.pdf">poor and disabled Americans</a>, totaling $9 billion over the next four years and $72 billion over the next ten years. On the issue of how people will be affected, nobody could be clearer than budget director Mulvaney. When asked in the White House press room, “Will any of those individuals who receive SSDI receive less from this budget?” Mulvaney replied, <a href="http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/economy-budget/335618-the-trump-budget-cuts-social-security-plain-and-simple">“I hope so.”</a></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Funding for Medicare will be cut by $266 billion, mainly for patients who still need care after being discharged from hospitals. Medicaid will be cut by $1.1 trillion over ten years, by putting a cap on how much will be spent on individual patients.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Other <a href="http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/politics/ct-trump-budget-20180212-story.html">cuts in Trump’s budget</a>: Meals on Wheels, home heating assistance, and teacher training. He wants to eliminate the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, the National Endowment for the Arts and National Endowment for the Humanities.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Every poll shows that <a href="https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/economy/news/2018/02/12/446453/trumps-budget-reveals-wants-everyday-americans-pay-tax-cuts-wealthy/">most Americans are opposed</a> to cutting Medicaid, Social Security, and the other welfare programs that Trump wants to cut or eliminate. So why is Trump ditching his promises not to cut these programs?</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">A poll of voters before the 2016 election showed that Republicans, even more than Democrats, said they wanted a <a href="http://fortune.com/2016/04/01/poll-qualities-leadership/">leader with honesty</a>, and that was most true for voters with incomes under $50,000 a year. After the election, over 90% of Republican voters believed that Trump was “a strong and decisive leader” who <a href="http://news.gallup.com/poll/203915/americans-say-trump-keeps-promises-strong-leader.aspx">“keeps his promises”.</a></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">It is hard to imagine a leader who is less honest than Trump. He has broken his promises about issues which hit Americans right in the wallet and pocketbook. It does take a “strong and decisive” person to repeatedly promise Americans that he will protect their interests in order to get elected, when he had no intention of doing so.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Will Trump’s so-called “base” ever wake up? Does he have to shoot someone in the middle of Fifth Avenue before his supporters recognize who he is? Or was he right that even that won’t hurt him?</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Steve Hochstadt<span style="mso-tab-count:7">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Berlin, Germany</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Published in the Jacksonville Journal-Courier, February 20, 2018</span></p>