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ID: 153956
Uid: 31615
Author: 19
Category: 0
Title: Gay Equality is Coming Quickly
Source:
Body: <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Usually public opinion on important and emotional subjects shifts gradually. The realization that discrimination against African Americans and women was wrong came very slowly. For more than a century, Americans spoke out against sexism and racism. In the 19<sup>th</sup> century, they were considered radicals, advocating unpopular political positions against traditional beliefs in white male superiority. By the 20<sup>th</sup> century, opinion in America was split and some discriminatory laws were changed, but common practices based in prejudice persisted.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Only after World War II did majority public opinion shift away from entrenched discrimination, but even then progress was halting. The two Supreme Court decisions that declared school segregation (1954) and laws against mixed-race marriages (1967) unconstitutional were 13 years apart, and they were just way stations along a much longer journey toward equality. In both cases, defenders of discrimination used religious arguments to oppose equal treatment for blacks and women, citing Biblical verses written thousands of years ago to claim that God had declared the superiority of white men for all time.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Change comes more quickly in modern society, as we can see in the technological innovations which replace each other with bewildering rapidity. In 1999, Ray Kurzweil proposed the “The Law of Accelerating Returns”; he believed that change in a wide variety of evolutionary systems, including technology, would come with </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accelerating_change"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">accelerated speed</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt">. We might see this “law” operating in the third great shift in public opinion about traditional discriminatory practices, the acceptance of homosexual people as normal and deserving of equal rights.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Data from the Pew Research Center shows a </span><a href="http://www.pewforum.org/fact-sheet/changing-attitudes-on-gay-marriage/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">dramatic recent shift</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> in American public opinion on same-sex marriage, which may be taken as an indicator of more general attitudes about homosexuality. After years of relative stability, in the last 8 years the proportion of Americans who oppose gay marriage dropped from 54% to 32%, as the number who favor it rose from 37% to 62%. That same amount of opinion shift on inter-racial marriage took about </span><a href="http://www.gallup.com/poll/28417/most-americans-approve-interracial-marriages.aspx"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">twice as long</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The popular shift has been rapid, but not smooth. After Massachusetts became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage in 2003, 12 states passed constitutional amendments outlawing it in the next year alone, and eventually 30 states passed such </span><a href="http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/13/opinion/coontz-same-sex-marriage/index.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">backlash legislation</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt">. The Supreme Court decision in 2015 that rights guaranteed by the Constitution to all citizens included the </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obergefell_v._Hodges"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">right to get married</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt"> came four years after support for same-sex marriage reached majority status.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Like many shifts in social attitudes, this was led by young people. The </span><a href="http://www.people-press.org/2017/06/26/same-sex-marriage-detailed-tables-2017/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">latest Pew survey</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt"> shows 18- to 29-year-olds against discrimination by 79% to 19%, while Americans over 72 remain opposed to this change by 49% to 41%. But every demographic group, whatever their attitudes were a few years ago, has shifted towards acceptance. Opposition remains concentrated among white evangelical Protestants, conservative Republicans, and the oldest Americans, groups which considerably overlap. Those who demonize their neighbors who have a different sexual orientation continue to use arguments derived from Christian tradition as justification.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">What caused this rapid shift in public opinion? When Pew asked why people had changed their minds, the most common answer was that </span><a href="http://www.people-press.org/2013/03/20/growing-support-for-gay-marriage-changed-minds-and-changing-demographics/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">they knew someone</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt"> who is homosexual. Visibility has been a significant factor in the increasing acceptance of gays in America. While race and gender are usually obvious, homosexuality was not.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">I grew up in an America where homosexuality was queer, meaning strange and unnatural. It was dangerous for a gay person to reveal their orientation, which could cost them their jobs. Homosexual relations were criminal across the country, until Illinois was the first state to </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LGBT_history_in_the_United_States#1900-1965"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">decriminalize same-sex relations</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> in 1962. So I didn’t know any homosexuals. I, like most Americans, had no evidence from life experience that gay people were not as they were portrayed in medical practice (sick), in official propaganda (dangerous), and in common talk (weird).</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Over the course of 30 years, the proportion of Americans who said that someone they knew revealed to them that they were gay </span><a href="http://www.gallup.com/poll/162569/americans-gay-lesbian-orientation-birth-factor.aspx"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">rose</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> from 24% in 1985 to 75% in 2013. Since it is unlikely that the incidence of homosexuality has changed significantly, what did change was the realization that there are gay people in everyone’s social circle.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The end of discrimination against homosexuality is determined by changing public opinion and political practice, which differ from country to country. Germany, in many ways more officially opposed to discrimination of all kinds than the US, just </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/30/world/europe/germany-gay-marriage.html?_r=0"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">legalized gay marriage</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> last week. A recent poll showed that 83% of Germans approved of same-sex marriage, much </span><a href="http://www.dw.com/en/germans-not-opposed-to-same-sex-marriage/a-37110913"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">higher than in the US</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">. But the politics of the conservative party, the Christian Democrats, who have led the government since 2005, prevented any vote on the issue until now.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Bigots will keep using religion as a cover for prejudice, as in the </span><a href="http://www.cnn.com/2016/04/06/us/religious-freedom-laws-why-now/index.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">so-called religious freedom laws.</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> But the shift toward acceptance of homosexuality will continue, as older opponents are replaced by younger advocates. Because our gay relatives and friends do not fit the prejudicial stereotypes, discriminatory impulses will lose their persuasive power. Happy birthday, America.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Steve Hochstadt</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Springbrook, WI</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Published in the Jacksonville Journal-Courier, July 4, 2017</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> 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ID: 153957
Uid: 31615
Author: 19
Category: 0
Title: Why Americans Voted For Trump
Source:
Body: <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">I have been reading about why so many Americans voted for Trump. Simple ignorance is a partial answer. Many Medicaid recipients who voted for Trump <a href="https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2017/02/why-did-medicaid-beneficiaries-vote-for-trump/517584/">did not know</a> that their benefits were due to the Democrats’ health care legislation that he vowed to repeal.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Some voters just <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/plum-line/wp/2017/05/01/why-did-trump-win-new-research-by-democrats-offers-a-worrisome-answer/?utm_term=.0017050e1790">believed Trump’s promises</a> to help Americans who suffered economically, even though there was no evidence in his history or the history of the Republican Party that he actually help cared about them. Many former Obama voters who switched to Trump thought that Democrats were more likely to enact policies that favored the wealthy. Now that we can see what Trump and congressional Republicans want to do about taxes and health care, it’s clear how wrong they were.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">But support for Trump is about more than ignorance or deluded hopes. An extensive analysis of white working-class voters, about one-third of Americans and a group who <a href="https://www.prri.org/research/white-working-class-attitudes-economy-trade-immigration-election-donald-trump">favored Trump by a 2-1 margin</a>, shows their unhappiness with today’s America. About two-thirds of them believe “American culture and way of life has deteriorated since the 1950s.” That time frame coincides with the civil rights and women’s movements that have shifted power away from traditionally dominant white men. They express this idea by saying that the US is losing its identity, that immigrants threaten American culture. They believe that America’s best days are in the past. No wonder Trump’s slogan about making America great again had such resonance.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Perhaps related to this pessimism about their country is a tendency to favor authoritarian leaders. A remarkable 56% of white working-class evangelical Protestants were rated as “high authoritarian”, another explanation for supporting Trump. An earlier survey confirms the <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/201702/childrearing-beliefs-were-best-predictor-trump-support">authoritarian tendencies of Trump voters</a>. People who wanted to raise their children to be “respectful, obedient, well-behaved and well-mannered” were much more likely to be Trump voters than those who wanted children to be “independent, self-reliant, considerate and curious”.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Although the views of the white working class are often labeled racist, I think this misses the mark. About half of them believe that discrimination against whites is as bad as discrimination against minorities, with older people even more sure of this idea. Nearly half of white working-class seniors believe that Christians face a lot of discrimination. This is nonsense, as shown by every study which actually compares treatment of white versus black. But it has this kernel of truth – black Americans and non-Christians have more power than they did in the 1950s. This may be the source of white belief that America has lost its identity and American culture has deteriorated.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">A survey taken more than a year ago during the primaries already showed these <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/04/05/9-out-of-10-trump-voters-think-that-their-beliefs-and-values-are-under-attack/?utm_term=.836986def368">characteristics of Trump voters</a>: nearly all of them agreed that “my beliefs and values are under attack in America”. The label of “values voters” for white evangelicals was perhaps never accurate. Their votes for Trump, whose personal life represents a rejection of these values, show they are better named “<a href="https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/02/the-trump-revelation/470559/">nostalgia voters</a>”, whose vision of a white-male-dominated America no longer represents reality.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">A <a href="https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2979591">more complex comparison</a> of presidential votes and moral beliefs shows that Trump voters were likely to be motivated by ideas of group loyalty, respect for authority, male dominance, and traditional social norms than by compassion for those who are suffering and desire for equal justice.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The other side of Trump supporters’ worries about fading white male power is their disparaging attitude about people different from them. The calls at his rallies to lock up Hillary Clinton and attack journalists, the desire to deport millions of immigrants, the anger at the legalization of gay marriage are signs of a meanness of spirit that Trump himself exemplifies.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Here is a local example of meanness. Catholic Bishop Thomas Paprocki in Springfield issued a <a href="https://newwaysministryblog.files.wordpress.com/2017/06/same-sex-marriage-policies-decree-6-12-2017.pdf">“Same Sex Marriage” decree</a> in June: people in same-sex marriages may not participate in communion or receive a Catholic funeral. Paprocki’s decree does not punish adulterers, thieves, liars, or those who disobey their parents. His isolation of gay couples is political malice, unique among American bishops. Bishop Patrick McGrath of San Jose explicitly rejected Paprocki’s nasty version of <a href="https://newwaysministryblog.wordpress.com/2017/07/02/bishop-counters-paprockis-decree-against-married-lesbiangay-couples/?utm_content=buffer06a90&amp;utm_medium=social&amp;utm_source=facebook.com&amp;utm_campaign=buffer">religious intolerance</a>.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">It is possible to value self-reliance and hard work without trying to cut food stamp aid to poor families. One can believe in the virtue of raising oneself out of poverty without trying to cut Medicaid for poor people in bad health. Taking a hard line on punishing criminals does not require assuming that all immigrants are law-breakers. We can deplore terrorists without discriminating against Muslims.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Too many Trump supporters take their beliefs in what is right as license to be hateful toward people who are not like them. Combine that with nostalgia for a time when blacks had to defer to whites, men could grope women, and gays stayed in the closet, and you have a Republican Party which cuts health insurance for millions of Americans, which keeps foreign students from returning to their American universities, which cuts federal programs for Americans in need. So far these attempts have failed, but Trump and his allies show no signs of letting up.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">That’s what I call mean.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Steve Hochstadt</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Springbrook, WI</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Published in the Jacksonville Journal-Courier, July 11, 2017</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Print</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:HyphenationZone>46</w:HyphenationZone> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> 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ID: 153958
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: How the Great Yankee Wife Swap Scandalized—and Changed—America
Source:
Body: <p style="margin: 0px 0px 15px; line-height: 29.5px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">As America’s unofficial national pastime, baseball has traditionally steered clear of sex, America’s real pastime.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 15px; line-height: 29.5px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Even if Babe Ruth and Mickey Mantle scored both on and off the field, the game long had a G-rated quality. Baseball’s virginity lasted until March 4, 1973 at 10 a.m. That’s when Mike Kekich announced his “wife swap” with another Yankee pitcher, Fritz Peterson. Baseball—and America—have yet to recover.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 15px; line-height: 29.5px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Peterson followed with a press conference at 4. They were switching it all—houses, wives, kids, dogs.&nbsp;<a href="https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=uscuAAAAIBAJ&amp;sjid=f6EFAAAAIBAJ&amp;pg=7086,1770267&amp;dq=mike+kekich+fritz+peterson+trade&amp;hl=en" style="transition: color 0.15s ease; background-color: transparent;">“I have nothing to hide,”</a>&nbsp;Peterson said, insisting “It’s not a smutty thing”—when everybody thought it was....</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 15px; line-height: 29.5px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/how-the-great-yankee-wife-swap-scandalizedand-changedamerica">Read whole article on The Daily Beast.</a></p>
ID: 153960
Uid: 78576
Author: 32
Category: 0
Title: Nancy MacLean's Segregationist Sins of Omission and Commission
Source: Phillip Magness is an Adjunct Professor of Public Policy in the Schar School of Policy & Government at George Mason University.
Body: <p></p><p> One of the most inflammatory charges of Nancy MacLean's new book&nbsp;<em>Democracy in Chains</em> holds that James M. Buchanan, and by extension his department and research center at the University of Virginia, served as something of an intellectual buttress to the segregationist forces of 1950s and 1960s Virginia politics after&nbsp;<em>Brown v. Board.</em> MacLean has very little direct evidence for this charge - in fact she's even conceded in a couple of interviews that she has no direct documentation of Buchanan ever writing anything in favor of segregation. Her footnotes are similarly flimsy on this point and she resorts to misreading and misrepresenting Buchanan's work on school choice to make her argument (<a href="http://bleedingheartlibertarians.com/2017/06/maclean-nutter-buchanan-universal-education/">Steve Horwitz documents the issues here</a>).</p><p>To bolster her non-existent case, MacLean resorts to playing a game of <a href="http://www.libertylawsite.org/2017/06/27/six-degrees-of-jim-buchanan/">six degrees of separation</a> in which she deploys a heavy stream of innuendo and unfounded supposition to write Buchanan into the pro-segregation political apparatus of Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. and a Richmond newspaper editor. As I've documented in my previous posts, she also fabricates claims out of thin air that allege Buchanan's intellectual debts to the <a href="http://philmagness.com/?p=2074">pro-segregation Vanderbilt Agrarians</a> and to the 19th century pro-slavery politician <a href="http://philmagness.com/?p=2088">John C. Calhoun</a>. Remarkably, there's almost no evidence for any of these claims - just a fanciful tale that is increasingly <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2017/07/11/nancy-macleans-conspiratorial-response-to-criticism-of-democracy-in-chains/?utm_term=.e9c5a3b615af">taking on conspiratorial overtones</a> in the way that MacLean has mounted her defense.</p><p>Sadly, a number of historians have displayed a <a href="https://twitter.com/jacremes/status/885129876012969985">remarkable credulity for MacLean's claims</a> on this point, even refusing to engage the evidence. One recent exception appears on the <a href="https://altrightorigins.com/2017/07/13/was-james-buchanan-a-racist-libertarians-and-historical-research/#comment-39">blog of John P. Jackson</a>, who at least attempts to mount an actual defense of MacLean's interpretation of Buchanan's time at UVA. The whole piece is worth reading and engaging, but the core of Jackson's argument on&nbsp;<em>Brown</em> and segregation appears in the following excerpt:</p><blockquote style="margin: 0 0 0 40px; border: none; padding: 0px;"><blockquote style="margin: 0 0 0 40px; border: none; padding: 0px;"><p>"So, if we take the book as a whole, we find that MacLean shows that Buchanan was embedded in a&nbsp;<a href="https://altrightorigins.com/2017/02/28/notes-and-news-from-the-archive/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">state power structure&nbsp;</a>where only those folks who were reliably segregationist were allowed to work (the famed “Byrd Machine” of Virginia), that he did nothing to rock that boat, and that his theories and arguments were welcomed by those looking to preserve segregation."</p></blockquote></blockquote><div><br></div><p></p><p> In assessing this argument, it's important to recognize that Jackson accepts MacLean's own portrayal of her evidence at face value. He does not get into the matter of whether she's even proven her case, or whether her footnotes support her claims. He treats them as if they have been demonstrated as true.</p><p>It's a problematic position for him to begin with and again I'd encourage any reader to review the aforementioned links in which MacLean's misuse of evidence is documented. But I want to focus on another aspect of Jackson's argument, as I believe it does raise an important point: what was Buchanan's relationship to the segregationist political environment around him in 1950s and 1960s Virginia? Jackson appears to believe that Buchanan lent it support through a combination of indirect policies such as school choice and silent acquiescence to the political machine around him. His source for this claim is, again, a mostly uncritical acceptance of MacLean's own narrative, which asserts more or less the same thing.</p><p>&nbsp;There's another problem though: MacLean's narrative about UVA is badly flawed. In order to portray Buchanan as a collusive and acquiescing partner of Virginia's segregationist political machine, she omitted a critical piece of evidence that contradicts her narrative.</p><p>In 1965&nbsp;Buchanan recruited an economist by the name of William H. Hutt to serve as a visiting professor at the Thomas Jefferson Center, his hub of operations at UVA. Hutt was a natural fit for the role. He had recently retired from his position as chair of the economics department at the University of Capetown in South Africa. He was also an early contributor to the public choice school of thought, and his work drew heavily upon Buchanan and Gordon Tullock's&nbsp;<em>The Calculus of Consent.</em> Hutt's own academic reputation is noteworthy though because he was one of the leading academic opponents in South Africa of that country's notorious Apartheid regime.</p><p>Before he came to UVA, Hutt spent almost three decades criticizing the Apartheid government of his own country. His work repeatedly drew the ire of the South African government. In one notable instance from 1955, the Apartheid regime even suspended Hutt's passport in an attempt to prevent him from presenting on the barbarism of this policy abroad. He regained his travel rights after a public controversy over his academic freedom, and remained undeterred in criticizing the South African government. Hutt's work on Apartheid eventually culminated in a book length treatment of the subject entitled&nbsp;<em><a href="https://mises.org/library/economics-colour-bar">The Economics of the Colour Bar</a>,</em>&nbsp;which he published in 1964. The work notably employs an early version of public choice theory to explain the origins of Apartheid in South Africa as a form of regulatory capture to the benefit of white labor unions over black workers.</p><p>When Buchanan recruited Hutt the following year, his international reputation as an Apartheid critic was near its peak. Hutt joined the department at UVA over the winter of 1965-66 and remained there for about two years on an extended stay. Drawing upon his recent book, Hutt delivered multiple lectures at Virginia and other universities in the region about the economics of Apartheid. During his stay Hutt also noticed an alarming similarity between the Apartheid regime in South Africa and the segregation in the southern United States. His home country's brutal laws were more overt and severe, but the two only differed in degree. In fact, Hutt noticed that many segregationist laws had similar origins to South Africa. Both aimed to keep the black workforce out of competition and other forms of economic association with whites, and both used race to achieve this end.</p><p>In short order, Hutt began extending his analysis of Apartheid to what he saw around him in the segregationist United States. While under Buchanan's sponsorship at Virginia, he gave multiple lectures on this subject and penned a short article for the journal&nbsp;<em>Modern Age</em> describing their similarities. A &nbsp;choice excerpt follows:</p><blockquote style="margin: 0 0 0 40px; border: none; padding: 0px;"><blockquote style="margin: 0 0 0 40px; border: none; padding: 0px;"><p>"My own contribution to the gathering was a comparison of the not altogether dissimilar situation in my own country (the Republic of South Africa). I explained the origins of injustices to which the non-whites of South Africa have for long been subject; and general discussion suggested that, in several respects, the real disabilities of the American Negro population can be traced to the identical ultimate causes."</p></blockquote></blockquote><p><br></p><p>Hutt preceded to explain the differences of the two countries. Importantly, South Africa was majority-black while blacks were a minority in the United States. This, in part, explained the severity and virulent racism of the former regime when compared to the latter's preference for more indirect forms of discrimination, among them the "separate but equal" doctrine. The similarities were nonetheless pronounced. Hutt continued:</p><blockquote style="margin: 0 0 0 40px; border: none; padding: 0px;"><blockquote style="margin: 0 0 0 40px; border: none; padding: 0px;"><p>"These and other differences do not prevent us, however, from recognizing that in both countries, and for not very different reasons, non-whites are condemned to inferiority of productive opportunities, income, status, and respect. The reasons are rooted deeply in history. Yet many of the whites of this generation must share responsibility for perpetuation of the inferiority; for there are deliberately imposed man-made barriers to equality of economic opportunity barriers which are, I suggest, by all odds the most important ultimate cause of inequality of civil rights."</p></blockquote></blockquote><p><br></p><p>MacLean is certainly aware of Hutt's presence at UVA because she mentions that Buchanan recruited him on p. 59 of her book. But she also conveniently leaves out any references whatsoever to Hutt's research and activities during his time the Jefferson Center. In fact, she twists and contorts it in an opposite direction that even goes so far as to imply Hutt's&nbsp;complicity in the same blatantly fabricated segregationist conspiracy she uses to tar Buchanan. Note the underlined segments in the excerpt below:</p><div><br></div><div style="text-align: center;">&nbsp; <a href="http://philmagness.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/MacLean-Hutt.jpg"><img class="aligncenter size-medium wp-image-2099" src="http://philmagness.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/MacLean-Hutt-300x103.jpg" alt="" width="300" height="103"></a></div><div><br></div><p></p><p> MacLean makes no mention of Hutt's better-known book on Apartheid, or the fact that his academic work and lectures while at UVA explicitly targeted both Apartheid and the parallel segregation regime in the United States.&nbsp;Not content to stop at this sin of omission though, MacLean converts it into a sin of commission. She highlights Hutt's criticism of labor unions in a decade-old book and contorts it into an implicit nod of support for Virginia's segregationist political class.</p><p>Even this charge is absurd on its face. As Hutt repeatedly noted in his work, white labor unions were a major source of political support for Apartheid in South Africa. But MacLean subscribes to a worldview where labor unions are sacrosanct. And that, apparently, includes a license to violate the most basic evidentiary norms of the historian's trade out of service to her political argument.</p>
ID: 153963
Uid: 78576
Author: 32
Category: 0
Title: On Buchanan's Intellectual History and MacLean's Missing Leviathan
Source:
Body: <p>I'll offer one more quick observation on the ongoing controversy about Nancy MacLean's <em>Democracy in Chains.</em></p><p>In several recent interviews MacLean has presented her work as an "intellectual history" of James Buchanan. <a href="http://www.publicseminar.org/2017/07/the-controversy-over-democracy-in-chains/#.WW5CsIjytPY">A few historians have come to her defense as well</a>, taking a similar line and also suggesting that MacLean's critics either don't understand or are "misreading" the methods and "best practices" of intellectual history by focusing upon her thin documentation of the figures she presents as Buchanan's intellectual influences.</p><p>This line of argument unintentionally reveals a critical oversight in MacLean's treatment of Buchanan. It also shows that the claim about "intellectual history" methods is largely hollow. That oversight is the 17th century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes.</p><p>If you are even minimally familiar with the work of Buchanan, you should know that one of the most important, recurring, and indeed ubiquitous thinkers that he engages across his vast body of scholarship is Thomas Hobbes. I'd even go so far as to suggest that it's impossible to accurately write an intellectual history of Buchanan without understanding the deep complexities of his decades-long engagement with Hobbes' work and his adopted role as Hobbes' frequent interlocutor (yes, there are other figures like Frank Knight and Knut Wicksell who warrant similar notice for their formative influences on Buchanan's political economy. Hobbes is a central figure - both utilized and engaged - in Buchanan's political theory).</p><p>Nor is any of this a big secret. Buchanan probably refers to Hobbes a hundred times or more in his collected academic works, and three of his major books centrally engage what he calls the Leviathan model of government in a direct and obvious reference to Hobbes' famous work.</p><p>So where is Hobbes in Nancy MacLean's purported "intellectual history" of James M. Buchanan? Almost completely absent.&nbsp;He appears only once - a passing reference on page 33, where he is quickly cast aside and replaced by a <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/blog/153952">completely imaginary connection to the obscure segregationist Agrarian poet Donald Davidson</a>&nbsp;as the supposed source of Buchanan's Leviathan concept.</p><p>So not only does MacLean appear to have invented a non-existent connection to Davidson. In doing so she unintentionally jettisoned a central figure - Hobbes - from Buchanan's corpus of scholarship.</p>
ID: 153964
Uid: 31615
Author: 19
Category: 0
Title: The Republican Way of Governing
Source:
Body: <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Lately I worry that our political system is threatened. One of the basic ideas of our democracy, pushed especially by conservatives, has been that Americans at the local level should be able to control local issues. Of course this idea has limits. Local school districts should not be allowed to discriminate on the basis of race, because the Constitution says that is illegal. State laws should not discriminate against women, because that is also illegal. But what about trying to deal with plastic shopping bags? Are communities allowed to require that local construction contracts include local workers?</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Republican-dominated state legislatures have passed laws <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/06/upshot/blue-cities-want-to-make-their-own-rules-red-states-wont-let-them.html?_r=0">preventing communities</a> from controlling these and many other issues as a way of preventing many policies they don’t like: adding gender identity to non-discrimination laws, setting higher minimum wages, restricting the height of cellphone towers. Later this month, a special session of the Texas legislature will consider proposals to block cities from regulating trees on private land and restricting cellphone use while driving. <a href="https://iowastartingline.com/2017/03/13/iowa-republicans-hypocritical-flip-flop-local-control/">Iowa Republicans</a> want to take away control from local water boards. Many states with Republican majorities are forbidding local control: <a href="http://www.crainsdetroit.com/article/20170630/news/632971/michigan-republican-lawmakers-drop-mantle-local-control">Michigan</a>, <a href="http://theconstantcommoner.blogspot.com/2017/01/are-republicans-party-of-local-control.html">South Dakota</a>, <a href="http://washingtonmonthly.com/2016/12/22/republicans-increasingly-rely-on-preemption-to-fight-local-control/">Ohio</a>, <a href="http://www.concordmonitor.com/Republicans-farmers-and-local-control-8119839">New Hampshire</a>, <a href="http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2016/mar/16/idaho-lawmakers-forbid-local-plastic-bag-bans/">Idaho</a>, and <a href="http://azcapitoltimes.com/news/2016/10/14/court-halts-lawsuit-over-plastic-bag-ban/">Arizona</a>. The non-partisan Legislative Fiscal Bureau counted 128 measures recently passed by the Republican legislature in <a href="http://host.madison.com/wsj/news/local/govt-and-politics/memo-gop-lawmakers-passed-measures-limiting-local-control-since/article_c0fe024d-59f8-5a2c-bb4e-95c3a8cc3e50.html">Wisconsin</a> that restricted local control. Twenty-five states have passed laws <a href="http://www.nelp.org/publication/fighting-preemption-local-minimum-wage-laws/">preventing localities</a> from raising their minimum wages.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Republican legislatures have backed up these so-called “preemption laws” with a big stick. If a local government in Arizona is found to have acted against the wishes of the legislature, it could lose all of its state aid. Many states now have laws which <a href="http://smartgunlaws.org/gun-laws/policy-areas/other-laws-policies/preemption-of-local-laws/">personally punish</a> local legislators for not obeying preemption rules.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Both parties have long traditions of abusing our political system for partisan ends. Gerrymandering election districts by creative redrawing of boundaries is a key example of parties subverting democracy. Republicans have gone further than ever before in abusing their power to redraw boundaries based on their dominance in state legislatures. In <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/03/01/this-is-the-best-explanation-of-gerrymandering-you-will-ever-see/?utm_term=.86b338d9ce09">Pennsylvania</a> in 2012, Republicans lost the popular vote, but won 13 of 18 House seats. <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/19/us/gerrymandering-wisconsin-pennsylvania-maryland-supremecourt.html">Wisconsin</a>’s gerrymandered districts will be reviewed by the Supreme Court, which threw out <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2017/05/22/politics/north-carolina-gerrymander/index.html">North Carolina</a> Republicans’ efforts to concentrate minority voters in the fewest number of districts.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The Senate filibuster is another undemocratic method by which a minority tries to rule. Again, both parties have used the filibuster to stifle the majority, but Republicans took this tactic to <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2013/11/charts-explain-why-democrats-went-nuclear-filibuster/">unprecedented extremes</a> to try to prevent President Obama from nominating judges. Eventually Republicans threatened to filibuster every judicial nomination made by Obama.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">In recent years, Republicans have so distorted our government structures that our democracy is threatened. Republican Senators refused to consider Obama’s Supreme Court nominee in 2016. North Carolina Republicans are trying to <a href="http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_slatest/2017/06/21/north_carolina_republicans_budget_prevents_governor_from_suing.html">remove normal powers of their Governor</a>, a Democrat. And now Republican legislatures are forbidding voters in Democratic cities from controlling their local politics.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">When Senator Joe McCarthy tried to use hysterical fears of communism to attack all liberals, he was following a playbook used by both Democrats and Republicans. When Richard Nixon tried to corrupt our governmental structures to elect and then protect himself, I didn’t think his dishonesty was especially Republican. But the current “anything we can get away with” method of governing appears to have become standard Republican practice.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Our political system is not perfect. Changes in its structure are certainly worth discussing, such as doing something about the Electoral College. But structural changes should come out of debates about principles of good governance.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">For all my life, conservatives have argued for local control, for example when they wanted to preserve segregated schools, as opposed to “big government”. Republicans constantly quote Thomas Jefferson: “Government closest to the people governs best.” Reagan did it in 1967. The Oklahoma Republican Party has those words on its website. Chapters of College Republicans use it as part of a “<a href="https://ourfuture.org/20160518/what-will-local-control-hypocrisy-cost-the-gop-in-north-carolina">Republican Oath</a>”. But when local government does something that Republicans don’t like, they forbid it.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Such principles appear to be merely window-dressing, designed to distract us from Republican partisan efforts to invalidate legitimate election results which favored Democrats. Republicans are twisting our Constitution to create the “permanent majority” that they can’t win at the ballot box.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">What will Republicans do next? And will enough Americans care as our institutions are subverted from within?</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Steve Hochstadt</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Springbrook WI</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Published in the Jacksonville Journal-Courier, July 18, 2017</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> 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ID: 153965
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: How Nikola Tesla Sparked the Electric Age
Source: The Daily Beast
Body: <p style="margin: 0px 0px 15px; line-height: 29.5px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">With the launch of Tesla’s Model 3 electric sedan, inventor Nikola Tesla is about to become more famous than ever—and for all the wrong reasons, being compared to Henry Ford, the car guy, not Thomas Edison, the electricity guru.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 15px; line-height: 29.5px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Tesla may have outdone Edison in wizardry, but not in business—Tesla died broke and broken. In a small, well-played part in&nbsp;<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PF76qlwWM8s" style="transition: color 0.15s ease; background-color: transparent;"><em>The Prestige</em></a>, David Bowie captured the eccentric, tortured, moralistic, futuristic Tesla. Today, as we wander around, swimming in invisible waves transmitting energy all around us, as we spend our lives addicted to wireless devices catching a hail of transparent messages, we live in Tesla’s world.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 15px; line-height: 29.5px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Although many say Tesla&nbsp;<a href="http://topyaps.com/7-badass-geeks-ever-lived" style="transition: color 0.15s ease; background-color: transparent;">invented the twentieth century</a>, it is more fitting to say he invented the twenty-first century, Kenny Breuer, Professor of Engineering at Brown University, explains. Breuer says most of Tesla’s inventions became “winners” later, “so for years no one really appreciated his achievements. Electric motors, wireless communication, wireless powering, those are all Tesla’s ideas that didn’t really dominate until the rest of technology could catch up with his brilliance"...</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 15px; line-height: 29.5px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/how-nikola-tesla-sparked-the-electric-age">Read whole article on The Daily Beast.</a></p>
ID: 153966
Uid: 341
Author: 40
Category: 0
Title: "Kill Jpan" or My High School Life During WWII
Source:
Body: <p><img src="/sites/default/files/153966-pearlharbor-lrg.png" alt="153966-pearlharbor-lrg.png"></p><p style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size: smaller;">USS&nbsp;<i>Arizona</i>&nbsp;during the attack</span></p><p><i>Post by Murray Polner, the author of </i><a href="https://www.amazon.com/No-victory-parades-Vietnam-veteran/dp/0030860113"><i>No Victory Parades: The Return of the Vietnam Veteran</i></a><i>,</i><a href="https://www.amazon.com/Branch-Rickey-Biography-Murray-Polner/dp/0786426438/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8"><i> Branch Rickey: A Biography,</i></a><i>&nbsp;and co-editor of&nbsp;</i><a href="https://www.amazon.com/We-Who-Dared-Say-War/dp/1568583850"><i>We Who Dared Say No To War</i></a><i>.</i></p><p>On the morning of December 8, 194, my 8th grade pal Marvin, livid at what the Japanese "rats" has done to his country in a place he had never before heard of, carried a can of black paint and a brush to the sidewalk in front of Gibalovitz's pharmacy on Herzl Street in Brooklyn's Brownsville neighborhood and inscribed his immortal if ephemeral fighting words: "Kill Jpan."</p> <p>We both attended P.S. 165 in Brownsville, an overwhelmingly Jewish neighborhood not far from Irish Flatbush, Italian Canarsie and Ocean Hill and a scattering of blacks living in shabby tenements. If Marvin couldn't spell he was nonetheless on to something. We were on our way to high school. It was 1942, the war was on, and by the time we graduated four years later, older neighborhood boys &nbsp;like Irving Starr, whose family owned a delicatessen, had died somewhere over the Ploesti oilfields in Romania and Phil Drazen, the son of our grocery store owner as well as a 19 year old rifleman who lived new door to us, were dead somewhere in Europe. My sister's husband was drafted and spent four years on the lookout for Japanese planes. Moe, the only non-Jew I knew in the neighborhood, managed to get home but his body and mind were shattered forever.</p> <p>I cared, I guess, when I heard the radio reports of death and devastation. And my father never forgot that he had been a combat veteran of WWI's Tsarist army who deserted after the Revolution and was later shanghaied by an anti-Semitic band of White renegades under General Kornilov, who forced him to fight on their side during the devastating, if largely unknown, 1918-21 civil wars when Reds, Whites, Poles and Ukrainians tried to kill each other and their civilians, until he again deserted. &nbsp;Still, during the four years I was in Samuel J. Tilden High School, like my classmates, I was more or less oblivious to the fighting and killing. I acted in plays including a musical. I was on the football team and a school newspaper editor. I may be wrong, but I can't recall a single article any of us wrote in Tilden Topics about the war or politics. &nbsp;It's not that war wasn't discussed in my home. After all, we were Jewish and deeply concerned about relatives still left behind after Operation Barbarossa, when the Wehrmacht stormed into Russia and people like my father's younger sister and her family were killed and his parents and niece fled for their lives to Kazakhstan. </p> <p>But the war insisted on intruding into our rather innocent, sheltered lives of ball playing, girl-chasing and indifference. People like Gunther would suddenly appear. Short, muscular, curly-haired, he and his mother had somehow escaped from Europe&nbsp;– Germany to France-to-Latin America – after his father was taken by the Nazis. But once here, never another word from him or us. One of our Irish Catholic bachelor women teachers tried to get him to share his experiences, but Gunther refused, even objecting to his mother showing up on Open School Week. So the silence continued.</p> <p>Quite unknown to us, we were unconsciously preparing for our future. Eugene would become an air force officer, Jerry a school principal, Marty a musician, Norm a businessman, Milt a state trooper, and most of us, me included, were eventually drafted. I never saw Gunther or Marvin again though another boy, a running back who played on our winless football team, told me years after that I was the only one on the team who ever read a book. </p> <p>But above all we were unquestioning patriots, like Marvin. We trusted our government, our politicians and our leaders. Whenever the Movietone Newsreel would show a U.S. naval ship on the screen of our local movie theater situated&nbsp; close by the entrance to the Saratoga Avenue IRT EL and a few years earlier the hangout for our local mobsters and murderers, we'd stand, reverently, and cheer; a few even saluted. We collected metal products and left them at curbside so someone somewhere would melt it down and turn it into more weapons to kill Marvin's "rats." I joined the Air Raid Wardens as a Messenger, proudly wearing a white helmet and a blue arm band and loved running down the streets yelling for people to shut their lights because I imagined the Luftwaffe was heading for us. One older woman refused. "How else I can see the blackout?" she yelled back. </p> <p>One rainy Saturday morning in October 1944, I watched an obviously frail FDR wearing a black cloak being driven down Pitkin Avenue in an open car on his way to Ebbets Field to speak. Everyone I knew adored FDR though when I dared say to my friends that Wendell Willkie, his Republican rival, wasn't a bad guy (though I changed my mind when he supported conscription) they took turns punching me. Mr. Miller, who lived across the street in an apartment house and was the local Democratic Party's top man, hurled invectives at anyone not in love with FDR. A man once screamed at me because I was not in uniform fighting FDR's war. His son, he shouted, was in the army. Why wasn't I too? "I'm only 15, mister," I screamed back and he advised me to do something to myself physically impossible. </p> <p>There were few dissenters; the Communists were our pals until the Cold War split the two erstwhile allies. The Japanese, alleged subversives, were interned in camps scattered through the western deserts. And the Democratic loyalists, virtually none of whom said anything about 100,000 Japanese-American citizens imprisoned behind FDR's barbed wires, were out every Election Day eve speaking on Saratoga and Pitkin avenues for every party but the Republicans (the only Republican I ever knew was a lawyer, a perennial losing candidate for a congressional seat, whose office beneath my friends' parents' dress store drew lots of tenants suing their landlords).</p> <p>After I graduated, the Cold War and the anti-Red crusade began to take its toll, on America and Tilden HS. My apolitical sister told me that her favorite high school typing-steno teacher had been fired from Tilden by the NYC Board of Education. Why she didn't know. I also I heard that her fired teacher's Marine son had been killed on Guadalcanal during the war and also that our school's teacher of Spanish, the comedian Sam Levinson, who had named his son in honor of the fired teacher's dead Marine son and also wrote a humor column for a left-wing newspaper came close to being "exposed" by one of the for-profit rags that earned its dirty keep by outing Communists and left-leaning liberals. Later I heard allegations that he had taken the smart way out and paid them some money so he could be "cleared" and allowed to continue teaching, writing and of course telling very funny jokes.</p> <p>Another of my favorite high school teachers &nbsp;– whose name I've sadly forgotten &nbsp;– was kicked out for his political views, which I never heard him express in my social studies classroom. I did hear rumors that he took a job delivering milk to support his family. Anyway, by the time I graduated, the war was over.</p>
ID: 153967
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: This Anti-Slavery Crusader Was The Enemy of Lincoln
Source: The Daily Beast
Body: <p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Fremont, California is once again shorthand for pioneering—as the<a href="https://www.tesla.com/factory" style="transition: color 0.15s ease; background-color: transparent;">&nbsp;factory headquarters</a>&nbsp;of the Tesla, the pathbreaking electric car.</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Sometimes, geography is destiny: Mastercard, fittingly, is headquartered in Purchase, New York. John C. Frémont, the man after whom Tesla’s hometown of 233,000 was named in 1956, was America’s Pathfinder. As a pioneer, he helped popularize the settling of the West. As a soldier, he helped expand America. And as a politician, he helped hew the path for America to become the land of the free.</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">But Tesla stockholders beware: Frémont’s biography, like California’s history, was rocked by earthquakes. The army arrested and court-martialed him. Abraham Lincoln fired him. The Panic of 1873 bankrupted him.</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px 0px 15px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/this-anti-slavery-crusader-was-the-enemy-of-lincoln">Read whole article on The Daily Beast.&nbsp;</a></p>
ID: 153968
Uid: 16
Author: 32
Category: 0
Title: Of McLain and "Of Mess and Men"
Source:
Body: <div class="_5pbx userContent" id="js_1yq" data-ft="{&quot;tn&quot;:&quot;K&quot;}"><div class="_5pbx userContent" id="js_1yq" data-ft="{&quot;tn&quot;:&quot;K&quot;}"><p>The odds are fairly strong that while Nancy MacLean was a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, she read <a href="https://www.jstor.org/stable/2110433?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents">"Of Mess and Men: The Boardinghouse and Congressional Voting, 1821-1842</a>," co-authored by my mentor, Allan G. Bogue in his well-attended seminar on political history </p><p>&nbsp;Bogue had a habit of assigning&nbsp;this article (a critique of historian James Sterling Young's methods) for his students . It was intended as a cautionary tale illustrating the dangers of academic misconduct. </p><p> Bogue particularly called our attention to pages 225-26 (see below) which featured Young's edited quotation of the words of Rep. Josiah Quincy alongside the full original quotation. The upshot, as emphasized by Bogue, was that Young had misled his readers by twisting the actual meaning to fit his thesis. I doubt that anyone who sat through this seminar would have forgotten it. </p><p> During other weeks of the seminar, Bogue reeled off similar examples of academic misconduct. These were more than classroom exercises. As a leader of the profession (he was a past president of the Organization of American Historians), Bogue often went out of his way to expose colleagues guilty of similar offenses, even when it risked the loss of long-time friends.</p></div></div>