2004 3-June to August

Breaking News Archives

Week of 8-30-04

Election 2004: Salon ... The widow of a Bush family confidant says her husband gave the future president an Alabama Senate campaign job as a favor to his worried father. Did they see him do any National Guard service?"Good lord, no." Linda Allison's story, never before published, contradicts the Bush campaign's assertion that George W. Bush transferred from the Texas Air National Guard to the Alabama National Guard in 1972 because he received an irresistible offer to gain high-level experience on the campaign of Bush family friend Winton"Red" Blount. In fact, according to what Allison says her late husband told her, the younger Bush had become a political liability for his father, who was then the United States ambassador to the United Nations, and the family wanted him out of Texas.... 60 Minutes plans on airing an interview next Wed. with former speaker of the Texas state House, Democrat Ben Barnes, who says he pulled strings to get W into the National Guard. Bush I is denouncing the charge.

Election 2004: Douglas Brinkley says Kerry is free to release his Vietnam diary."I don't mind if John Kerry shows anybody anything," he said."If he wants to let anybody in, that's his business. Go bug John Kerry, and leave me alone." The exclusivity agreement, he said, simply requires"that anybody quoting any of the material needs to cite my book." The Kerry campaign has refused to release Kerry's personal Vietnam archive, including his journals and letters, saying that the senator is contractually bound to grant Brinkley exclusive access to the material. Brinkley's book has now sold nearly 100,000 copies--his first bestseller. He says there will be minor revisions in the paperback.

Election 2004: U.S. President George W. Bush must overcome 48 years of history to win re-election over Democrat John Kerry. Since 1956, none of the three presidents who trailed in a Gallup Poll after February of a re-election year won a second term. Bush and Kerry are in a dead heat in the latest ABC News Washington Post poll released Monday as Bush prepares to accept his party's nomination at the Republican National Convention in New York. Because most undecided voters typically back the challengers, Bush must open enough of a lead to withstand an election-day shift to Kerry, said Frank Newport, the Gallup poll's editor in chief.

OAH Call for Action: From the Organization of American Historians ... The future of the National Historical Publications and Records Commission is in jeopardy and we need your help to restore funding to this important historical federal agency. We are sending this email to OAH members in the states whose U.S. senators sit on the Senate Transportation, Treasury, and General Government Subcommittee which has appropriations jurisdiction over the NHPRC. After reading the following message from National Coalition for History Director Bruce Craig, please contact your senator and request his/her support for funding the NHPRC at $8 million.

Scholar Denied Visa: Tariq Ramadan, the Swiss scholar denied a visa to the US, writes in an op ed in the NYT that there is no evidence that he is anti-Semitic or a supporter of terrorism.

Mexico: President Vicente Fox said in an interview on Tuesday that if Mexico's Supreme Court would not hear the genocide charges his government had filed against former President Luis Echeverría, he would call for the creation of a truth commission to investigate abuses committed by the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which used fraud and corruption to rule the country for more than seven decades.

Plagiarism: A Seattle Weekly examination of former Seattle Times columnist Stephen Dunphy's work finds he swiped nine paragraphs from a 1985 Washington Post article for his 2003 piece on China."He thieved from The New York Times as well, though apparently never from [Jayson] Blair," writes Philip Dawdy. Times executive editor Michael Fancher says his paper is wrapping up its own Dunphy probe and plans to publish the results on its website.

Bush 41: George HW Bush says he's"given up" on the New York Times."The thing that troubles me is, in my opinion, their news columns are getting to show a certain bias," he says."There is a new way you do it now: 'Reporter's Notebook.' That gives you a little chance to be an advocate in the news column. Or 'Washington Whispers' or something like that. And that relieves the reporter of objective reporting. ... I've given up on them."

Civil Rights Movement: The footprints of noted civil rights leaders including President Jimmy Carter, Congressman John Lewis, Justice Thurgood Marshall and Rosa Parks are embedded in cement at the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site. The International Civil Rights Walk of Fame was created to pay homage to the brave warriors of justice who sacrificed and struggled to make equality a reality for all and is expected to enhance the historic value of the area, enrich cultural heritage, and augment tourist attractions. The exhibit literally features the shoes of famous members of the movement.

Obituary: David A. Woodward, a British-born geographer, editor and historian of mapmaking who helped create an encyclopedic series of books re-examining the place of mapmaking in world history, died last Wednesday at his home in Madison, Wis., where he taught at the University of Wisconsin for two decades. He was 61. The cause was cancer of the bile duct, said his daughter, Jennifer Woodward. At his death, Dr. Woodward had been editing the multivolume History of Cartography Project, an effort begun at the university in 1981.

Japan History Textbook Controversy: South Korea's top diplomat on Wednesday criticized Japan for repeated attempts to distort history in its textbooks, affirming there cannot be dual truths in historical facts."Japan should face history as it is and develop future-oriented relations with South Korea based on a correct recognition of history," Foreign Affairs-Trade Minister Ban Ki-moon said in his weekly media briefing. He was responding to a question from a Japanese newspaper's Seoul correspondent, who argued he saw no problem with the recently endorsed Japanese textbook, which many historians have accused of glossing over wartime atrocities by imperial Japan.

Japanese Internment: Historians critical of Michelle Malkin's new book, In Defense of Internment, have formed a committee to protest the media attention being paid to her and her book. The Historians' Committee for Fairness, an organization of scholars and professional researchers, charges that her book represents a blatant violation of professional standards of objectivity and fairness. Malkin is not a historian, and she states that she relied almost exclusively on research conducted or collected by others.

Lord Nelson: Over a thousand unpublished letters shedding new light on the life and character of Admiral Lord Nelson have been unearthed during a five-year research project undertaken by the British National Maritime Museum. Amongst the new collection are private love notes written by Nelson to his mistress Emma Hamilton.

Indians: Sen. Dan Inouye said he has been an advocate for American Indian issues because of the United States'"shameful" history. But his involvement with the tribes happened by default. In 1978, as a leader of his party, it was Inouye's job to make committee appointments for Democrats in the Senate. The Senate Indian Affairs Committee had five members and was about to lose a senator. Inouye could find no one to fill the seat. At that point, then-Senate Majority Leader Robert Byrd, D-W.Va., suggested that because Inouye"looked" like an Indian, maybe he should take the post.

Korea/China History Dispute: A leading Japanese newspaper is accusing the Chinese of trying to rewrite history. The ancient kingdom of Koguryo, traditionally believed to have been founded in 37 B.C., ruled a vast region extending from Manchuria (northern provinces of China) to the Korean Peninsula until 668. Tumulus wall paintings in Nara, which was the capital of Japan in the 8th century, are said to reflect Koguryo's influence. Now, more than 13 centuries after its fall, China and South Korea are fighting a diplomatic battle over the kingdom's history. According to historians, the Sui dynasty in China collapsed as a result of its failed invasion of Koguryo. After that, Silla, one of the three kingdoms, united Korea under the unified Silla dynasty (668-935). One wonders how today's China looks at that episode in ancient history. [Ed. Note: Last week China was criticizing Japan for the approval of a sanitized history textbook in Tokyo.]

President Bush: President Bush said Saturday his favorite reading was the Bible, followed by books about history. On a campaign stop in Lima, Ohio, Bush took questions from his audience, including from a young boy who asked him what his favorite book was. To loud applause, the president replied:"The Bible." He said he was also a fan of history and had just read a biography of Alexander Hamilton, one of the founding fathers and the first treasury secretary."History is a way to understand the past so you can better see the future," Bush told the boy.

Francophobia: Among neoconservatives, especially since the Iraq war, French bashing has become quite a popular sport. The French, so the sentiment goes, are appeasers, elitists, cowards and (worst of all) stridently anti-American. Now comes distinguished historian Gertrude Himmelfarb (married to Irving Kristol, widely regarded as the godfather of the neoconservative movement) to add some intellectual heft to the right's Francophobia. Himmelfarb's basic contention, one she supports with great passion and wide-ranging scholarship, is that the great 18th century French Enlightenment has been vastly overrated and that the British and American Enlightenments have been comparatively underrated. Her goal in writing this book is to"reclaim the Enlightenment ... from the French who have dominated and usurped it" and restore it to the British and Americans.

South Africa/Historiography: High school pupils are about to experience a turning point in learning about South Africa's rich history. The newly-written history book series for Grades 10 to 12 titled The Turning Points Of History Series was recently launched by the Department of Education. Series editor Professor Bill Nasson of the University of Cape Town said it was hoped that a democratic history - one in which more than one voice was heard - would be conveyed through the booklets and would be the best contribution to the struggle of memory against forgetting.

Iraq Antiquities: The destruction of the Bamiyan Buddhas by the Taliban was met with an outcry in the United States, Britain and the countries that form the coalition in Iraq. Yet the coalition forces can now claim, among other things, the destruction of the legendary city of Babylon. Ironically, the bombing campaign of 2003 had not damaged archeological sites. It was only in the aftermath, during the occupation, that the most extensive cultural destruction took place. At first there was the looting of the museums under the watch of coalition troops, but that was to be followed by more extensive and active destruction. Active damage of the historical record is ongoing at several archeological sites occupied as military camps. (Guardian)

Daniel Pipes: Tariq Ramadan, the Swiss scholar denied a visa by the Homeland Security Department, is blaming Daniel Pipes in part. Pipes says he only investigated Ramadan's suspected ties to Islamists after his visa had been denied. The Chicago Tribune publishes an article in which Ramadan addresses Pipes's allegations point by point.

Term Papers: The Wash Post reports ... Across the country, new emphasis on rigorous college-preparation programs has resulted in thousands of high school students succeeding at the kinds of scholarly research that master's degree candidates tackle, educators say, even as some worry about the strain placed on 17-year-olds.

Auction: The personal collection of historic autographs and documents collected by the late Senator Paul Simon will be put on auction in late September. An avid collector of Presidential autographs, Simon's extensive collection includes a 1781 war-date letter signed by George Washington and a military appointment signed by Abraham Lincoln.

Week of 8-23-04

Presidents: Neil McCalmont, 8, knows more about U.S. presidential history than most American adults. Hoping to boost awareness about America's past -- and maybe get rich, too -- he's created a trivia board game difficult enough to stump at least one acclaimed presidential historian, Robert Dallek. (NPR)

World War II: The bells of Notre Dame rang out today on the 60th anniversary of General Charles de Gaulle's emotional march from the Arc de Triomphe to the cathedral in the city's heart, closing a week of ceremonies to mark Paris's liberation from the Nazis.

Vietnam: The latest controversy involving Vietnam has reopened old wounds, say vets."It really upsets me, pitting one Vietnam veteran against another," said Frank Stephens, 55, of Granite Falls, Wash., who received a Purple Heart after being wounded during his Army tour in Vietnam in 1969."I feel like the politicians are using us. They just won't let that war go."

Election 2004: President Bush said on Thursday that he did not believe Senator John Kerry lied about his war record, but he declined to condemn the television commercial paid for by a veterans group alleging that Mr. Kerry came by his war medals dishonestly.

Lost Military Camp Found: Arrowheads that turn up in the mud after a heavy rain are common here, but now archaeologists are digging up broken bits of fine china, parts of military uniforms and even charred firewood, relics of one of the biggest Army camps in the earliest days of the republic that went unnoticed for two centuries. Known as Cantonment Wilkinson -- named after Gen. James Wilkinson, the man who ran it -- the camp housed as many as 1,500 soldiers in 1801-1802, about a third of the standing U.S. Army at the time, historians say.

NEH Controversy: Salon.com has published an expose of the NEH, claiming that behind the scenes Lynne Cheney is politicizing the agency. Historian Ira Berlin is said to have quit the NEH in anger over its new policies.

Art History: A fresh clash has surfaced over the painter David Hockney's three-year-old theory that early Renaissance painters used cameralike devices to paint with perfect perspective. In a paper being presented today at the International Conference on Pattern Recognition in Cambridge, England, a Microsoft researcher and a Stanford University computer scientist set out to refute the controversial theory proferred by Mr. Hockney.

Egyptian Sphinx: After years of fighting the critics of his controversial theory on the age of the Great Sphinx, John Anthony West wants them to join him. West - an author whose 1993 TV documentary,"Mystery of the Sphinx," laid out an unorthodox tale about Egypt's best-known sculpture - says he is trying to organize a panel of geologists to take an in-person look at the weathered limestone and render their judgment.

Guatemala: A traveling exhibition titled"Why Are We the Way We Are?" has opened in Guatemala's capital and will continue until next June, aimed at prompting a long-overdue national dialogue between the country's dominant non-Indian population and the Maya. Created by the Guatemala-based Center for Mesoamerican Research with the collaboration of some leading American museologists, the exhibition has drawn support from business groups, media and the government, elevating it to a national event. At the exhibition's inauguration, Vice President Eduardo Stein called it a"watershed in history."

Election 2004: Jamie Rubin, a top national security adviser to John F. Kerry said yesterday that he made a mistake when he said the Democratic nominee probably would have launched a military invasion to oust Saddam Hussein if he had been president during the past four years.

Crazy Horse Statue: The NYT features an update on the progress the family of Koczak Ziolkowski is making on te granite monument to Crazy Horse. Ziolkowski, who worked briefly on Mount Rushmore, just south of here in the Black Hills, started the sculpture in 1948 at the behest of Chief Henry Standing Bear, a Lakota leader intent on commemorating his people. It will be done when it's done, says his wife.

Revoked Visa for Scholar: Acting at the request of the Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. government has revoked the work visa of a Muslim scholar who had been scheduled to teach at the University of Notre Dame this fall. Tariq Ramadan, a Swiss citizen who has been criticized for links to Islamic militants and for remarks branded anti-Semitic, was supposed to begin teaching on Tuesday, the first day of the fall semester. State Department spokeswoman Kelly Shannon cited the Immigration and Nationality Act, part of which deals with aliens who have used a"position of prominence within any country to endorse or espouse terrorist activity." Another section bars aliens whose entry may have"potentially serious adverse foreign policy consequences for the United States." Notre Dame appointed Ramadan earlier this year to be its Henry B. Luce professor of religion, conflict and peacebuilding at the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies.

Gay History: A Houston museum on a mission to save local gay history. The No. 1 reason so much history of the gay and lesbian community is lost is that, as people die - because of AIDS a lot of people die and die young - families that don't necessarily understand their children or approve come in and throw stuff away. Personal diaries, letters - that history gets lost. We formed to let people know that there is a place for that stuff to be preserved."

Korean History: The Chinese government has revealed to the Korean government its position that it would not distort Koguryo history when it revises its elementary, middle and high school textbooks for use in the fall semester of next year, and said it would not try to distort Korguryo history at the central or regional government level. The two sides engaged in a 9 hour, 30 minute-long"relay negotiation" session Monday, working out a 5-article verbal compromise agreement, a high-ranking Foreign Ministry official said Tuesday. The high-ranking official said through an unofficial briefing Tuesday morning that the Korean government had initially looked to put the agreement in writing, but because of"realistic limitations," it has decided to continue solving the issue with the compromise as a first step. He also said the Chinese government allowed the Korean government to say that there would virtually be no distortions in school textbooks.

Iraq: After two weeks of fighting in Najaf, Iraq, Patrimoine sans Frontières solemnly appeals to all of the parties involved to respect the heritage of this Holy site for Shia Muslims. Patrimoine sans Frontières appeals also to the international community to mobilise against this situation which in effect is taking a cultural and sacred site hostage. This site is one of the jewels of Iraqi cultural heritage and its importance for the history of humanity makes it part of the common heritage of all mankind.

Election 2004: The Kerry campaign ratcheted up its defense of the Democrat's military record yesterday, producing three veterans to attest to John F. Kerry's valor in Vietnam while pointing reporters to other veterans who expressed disgust at the attacks on the presidential nominee. In a conference call with reporters arranged by the campaign, three Navy Swift boat officers who served with Kerry 35 years ago but who said they have not been in touch with him for years defended his service and his bravery. Rich McCann, Jim Russell and Rich Baker said Kerry served honorably and took issue with questions raised by the group Swift Boat Veterans for Truth about his commendations. (Wash Post)

Genocide: Both the Republican congressional leadership and the Department of State have come out strongly against House and Senate resolutions expressing official American acknowledgment of the pre meditated murder, mostly in 1915, of an estimated 1 to 1.5 million Armenians by the armies of the Ottoman empire.

George Washington: Scientists to flesh out GW's appearance. Most people have little idea what the nation's first president really looked like beyond this stock image. Researchers are hoping to change that by embarking on a massive detective hunt to flesh out his appearance in every detail. Specialists at Washington's home in Mount Vernon are gathering dozens of artifacts including snippets of hair and clothing that will be analyzed over the next year. Based on that information, they will make lifesize models of the former president at three different points in his life, which will go on display in 2006 as part of a new $85 million education center and museum at Mount Vernon.

World War II: The French celebrate the liberation of Paris, Aug. 24, 1944."There's so much that the French had been bottling up in hatred of their enemy," said David Wingeate Pike, a British World War II expert at the American University of Paris."Paris had come to a humiliation it could never imagine before." The average Parisian lost 44 pounds during the Nazi occupation, which began June 14, 1940, he said.

World War II: An amateur Italian historian has found the preserved bodies of three Austro-Hungarian soldiers in an Alpine glacier, 86 years after they were killed in World War One. Maurizio Vincenzi, president of a local war museum and an amateur historian, said Monday that the three were shot dead in a battle to retake the peak of San Matteo on Sept. 3, 1918, when Austro-Hungarian troops were repelled by Italian fire as they left their mountaintop trenches.

Archives Fight: Historians and collectors are carefully watching a legal fight between South Carolina and a man who wants to auction more than 440 letters and records from the Civil War. A brief filed by the state last week claimed the letters were part of the state archives because the law at the time of the war required all public documents be preserved. The papers are said to be valued at more than 2 million dollars.

Korean History: A leading opposition party leader on Monday underlined the necessity of joining forces with Asian countries or territories, including Tibet, to deal with China's attempt to distort the history of the ancient Korean kingdom of Koguryo.

Olympics: A roll-call of shamed athletes has left Athens in danger of becoming remembered as the dirtiest Olympics in history, something officials had warned was a possibility before the Games began.

Genghis Khan: A Chinese historian says he has evidence that Genghis Khan was as masterful with the pen as he was with the sword. Historians have long assumed the Mongolian ruler was illiterate, primarily because the Mongolian written language was created in the early 13th century, when Genghis Khan would have been in his 40s, the official Xinhua news agency said. However, Tengus Bayaryn, a professor at China's Inner Mongolia University, said he had found an"autographic edict" written by Genghis Khan in 1219.

Iraq: Kidnapped journalist Micah Garen says he plans to continue his work investigating the looting of ancient archaeological sites in the Nasiriya area.

Week of 8-16-04

Election 2004: Former Republican Sen. Bob Dole suggested Sunday that John Kerry apologize for past testimony before Congress about alleged atrocities during the Vietnam War and joined critics of the Democratic presidential candidate who say he received an early exit from combat for “superficial wounds.”

Election 2004: Washington Post ..."Both sides have withheld information about Kerry's events in March 1969, a Post investigation shows." Post finds fault with Douglas Brinkley's account in his biography of Kerry.

Election 2004: A Vietnam veteran who served with Senator John Kerry on a Swift boat mission broke a 35-year silence this weekend to support Mr. Kerry's version of events from one of their operations together and to chastise veterans critical of the senator as having"splashed doubt on all of us."

Neo-Nazi Rally in Germany: Citing the right of freedom of assembly, a Bavarian appeals court ruled that thousands of neo-Nazis from across Europe will be allowed to march today near the tomb of Rudolf Hess, Hitler's deputy. The authorities in the Bavarian town of Wunsiedel had banned the march, fearing it could turn into a riot. Last year, nearly 3,000 far-right sympathizers gathered near the town's cemetery to mark the anniversary of Hess's death.

Slavery: Archaeologists are set to begin an expedition this month in hopes of finding a Spanish ship that wrecked along the jagged reefs off the Turks and Caicos Islands in 1841 carrying a cargo of African slaves. The story of the Trouvadore is unusual because all 193 slaves made it to shore, and all but one survived to see their freedom granted by a British government that had just outlawed slavery. Most settled in the arid, low-lying islands and began new lives working its salt ponds and raising families.

Korean History Dispute: Partisan feud deepens in Korea over history. The ruling and opposition parties on Friday continued to lock horns over the establishment of a committee to explore the truth of the nation's modern history a day after Uri Party leader Shin Ki-nam resigned because of his father's pro-Japanese activities.

Tiananmen Square Massacre: Speaking this week to a forum in Singapore, the city state he founded as an independent entity in 1965, Lee Kuan Yew stood by his previous assertions that China would not be better off today had the students managed to overthrow the Communist Party and build a democracy."I didn't think so then, and I don't think so now," he averred.

Egyptian Relic: A stolen Egyptian relief from 380-280 B.C. that was spotted in a Christie's auction house catalog has been seized by the United States government and is to return to Cairo today.

Election 2004: According to the NYT, the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth--the group behind the TV ads and a book blasting John Kerry's record in Vietnam--have strong ties to the Republican Party and Karl Rove. The Times also points out that the five key figures in the group are now either contradicting their own past statements made in support of Kerry or extant military records. The vets claim that it was the publication of Douglas Brinkley's biography of Kerry which provoked them and led to their campaign. Brinkley lionizes Kerry's service. In he book one of the vets, commander Roy Hoffmann, is compared to the demented commander in Apocalypse Now.

Election 2004: War stories collide as Kerry's Vietnam War record comes under atack. A summary of the arguments on both sides by the Cleveland Plain Dealer.

Texas: A Yale law school graduate in the WSJ advocates splitting Texas into 5 states to increase the power of conservatives. He notes that Texas can undertake this action without the approval of Congress as it was given this right as the price of admission to the union.

Geronimo: An anthropology professor at the University of Tulsa, Garrick Bailey, a member of the board that oversees the return of Indian remains under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, has asked the National Park Service to investigate claims that Geronimo's skull resides in Yale's Skull and Bones headquarters. Prescott Bush, the president's grandfather, is said to have lead a foray into Geronimo's tomb in Fort Sill, Okla., to take the leader's skull back to New Haven and stash it inside the Skull and Bones Tomb - a windowless building on High Street - as a trophy.

Holocaust: The Swedish government is refusing to allow full access to archives containing records of the country's involvement with World War II war criminals, a Swedish historical researcher contends. According to Mats Deland, a researcher for the Center for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations, the Swedish government has made many files inaccessible and also takes an exceptionally long time to process requests, thus hindering research. Ephraim Zuroff, director of the Simon Wiesenthal Center's Jerusalem office, said Deland's challenges have given a new face to the"great humanitarian country Sweden.""They have a lot to hide," Zuroff said."They try to project an image of being one of the leaders in human rights, but it's just not true."

Election 2004: The WSJ charges that Sen. om Harkin lied about his record in Vietnam. The charge follows Harkin's attack on Cheney as a" coward" for not serving in Vietnam.

Election 2004: Newly obtained military records of one of Sen. John F. Kerry's most vocal critics, who has accused the Democratic presidential candidate of lying about his wartime record to win medals, contradict his own version of events. In newspaper interviews and a best-selling book, Larry Thurlow, who commanded a Navy Swift boat alongside Kerry in Vietnam, has strongly disputed Kerry's claim that the Massachusetts Democrat's boat came under fire during a mission in Viet Cong-controlled territory on March 13, 1969. Kerry won a Bronze Star for his actions that day. But Thurlow's military records, portions of which were released yesterday to The Washington Post under the Freedom of Information Act, contain several references to"enemy small arms and automatic weapons fire" directed at"all units" of the five-boat flotilla. Thurlow won his own Bronze Star that day, and the citation praises him for providing assistance to a damaged Swift boat"despite enemy bullets flying about him."

Iraq: A self-executing slideshow illustrating accomplishments at Baghdad U. Dept. of Archaeology as of early June has been released on the web.

9-11 Report: For the 2nd week in a row the 9-11 Report tops the bestseller lists. Nineteen months ago, when historian Philip Zelikow was named executive director of the 9/11 Commission, his goal was to produce an authoritative report so clearly written that any American could understand it -- and would want to read it."It's a report, above all, to the American people. It should be readable," Zelikow says."In a way, having material like this was both horrifying and a precious opportunity. This is a very important story in American history. We had an almost unique public trust in telling that story to the American people." Less than a month after the release of the report, it's clear that Zelikow, his staff of 80 and the 10 commission members -- who collectively wrote, edited, rewrote and structured the document -- succeeded far beyond their expectations.

Slavery Reparations: Republican Alan Keyes added to his now familiar talking points his stance on slavery reparations. Prompted by a reporter's question, Keyes gave a brief tutorial on Roman history and said that in regard to reparations for slavery, the U.S. should do what the Romans did:"When a city had been devastated [in the Roman empire], for a certain length of time--a generation or two--they exempted the damaged city from taxation." Keyes proposed that for a generation or two, African-Americans of slave heritage should be exempted from federal taxes--federal because slavery"was an egregious failure on the part of the federal establishment." In calling for the tax relief, Keyes appeared to be reaching out to capture the black vote,

Slavery: Insurance policies taken out on slaves before the Civil War were posted on an Illinois state Web site for the first time Tuesday, part of a broad new effort to help African-Americans research their past. Illinois is the second state to require insurance companies to search records and report archival data about coverage of slaves, a development that genealogists say could help fill in gaps in knowledge about the black experience in the United States.

Lincoln: briefcase that historians believe Abraham Lincoln used to carry official papers was donated Tuesday to the state of Illinois."Other than the celebrated stovepipe hat, probably no other object has closer association with the Lincoln story than this portfolio," said Richard Norton Smith, library and museum director.

Historic Site: A forgotten Roman town has been unearthed in Gloucestershire after remaining buried under a farmer’s fields for hundreds of years, archaeologists said today. The fortified town, which is thought to have been established in the 1st century, could have been home to 1,000 people. Archaeologists believe the 10 hectare settlement was large enough to have been a regional centre for trade and industry.

History Museum Opening: The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center will open in Ohio on August 23.

Job Opening: The Organization of American Historians (OAH) and the Indiana University (IU) Department of History seek a new editor for the Journal of American History (JAH), effective August 1, 2005.

John Kerry: One of the key leaders in the campaign to discredit John Kerry's war record has given an interview with Frontpagemag.com in which he charges that Kerry did not rescue Jim Rassmann during a firefight.

Ralph Nader: Anti-Nader website features electoral map showing the impact Nader could have on the election. Nader's presence in the race is currently taking Kerry from Electoral College victory to a dead heat with Bush. As shown by the “Nader 04 Impact Map,” Nader costs Kerry slight leads in Minnesota and Missouri, and gives Bush slight leads in Ohio and Nevada. No less crucial, Nader may also tip the balance in several states that are essentially tied (Iowa, West Virginia, New Hampshire, and Maine), where his support equals or exceeds the margin between Bush and Kerry.

Anglo-Saxon Princess: Members of the public will come face to face with Anglo-Saxon royalty when the reconstructed head of a sixth century princess goes on display at Cirencester's Corinium Museum on September 15. Facial anthropologist Caroline Wilkinson from the University of Manchester has spent two years working on the complex wax reconstruction, known as 'Mrs Getty' after the oil tycoon, because she was found buried with more than 500 individual pieces of jewellery and ornamentation.

Slavery: Final design plans for the African Burial Ground Memorial will be put on display in October in New York City. Construction of the memorial is expected to be completed by the end of 2005. The memorial will mark the place where the remains of 20,000 former slaves were first discovered 13 years ago, an archaeological discovery that many historians have called one of the greatest finds of the 20th century.

Olympics: Olympia was host to the original Games, a much different affair from the 21st-century pageant of sport and commerce in Athens, 190 miles to the northeast. Athletes then raced chariots, not bicycles. They slathered on olive oil instead of slipping on spandex. There were no medals, just olive wreaths. To recapture a bit of that long-ago flavor, the organizers of this year's Olympics in Athens will stage one sporting event in Olympia. The men's and women's shot-put competition will be held on the old packed-dirt field where the fleet-footed Leonidas of Rhodes wowed audiences in the first century B.C.

Iraqi Antiquities: Micah Garen, an American journalist who was investigating the looting of ancient artifacts in Iraq, was missing along with his Iraqi interpreter on Monday after the two were led at gunpoint on Friday from a shop in the southern city of Nasiriya, according to news reports and the men's families.

Serbia: Serbia restored its 19th-century anthem and ancient coat of arms Tuesday, harkening back to its royal history as its people struggle with economic and social hardships. The emblems represented Serbia before it merged in 1918 with its Balkan neighbors to form Yugoslavia. The 183 lawmakers in Parliament voted unanimously to adopt the once-royal symbols, despite criticism they were inappropriate for the republic sharing sovereignty with Montenegro.

Art History: A vast digital library of world art has gone online with its first 300,000 images. The project — known as ARTstor and financed by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation — could eventually revolutionize the way art history is taught and studied. It is available for nonprofit institutions only.

Origin of Man in North America: Robert D. Wall is too careful a scientist to say he's on the verge of a sensational discovery. But the soybean field where the Towson University anthropologist has been digging for more than a decade is yielding hints that someone camped there, on the banks of the Potomac River, as early as 14,000 B.C.

Russian History Sanitized: If you can judge a book by its cover, then the"History of Russia and the World in the 20th Century" tells students the Soviet past was all pride and glory - three of four cover photos invoke Soviet propaganda images. That goes for what's inside too: the textbook for Russian high school seniors touts the Soviet system's achievements - but treads lightly, if at all, on its failures and abuses. It is virtually mute on the deportation of ethnic groups under Josef Stalin that left hundreds of thousands dead and sowed the resentment that exploded in Chechnya a half-century later. The Gulag labor camp system gets scant attention and anti-Semitism the barest of mentions.

Japan View of Korean History Controversy: Ultranationalistsin Japan are pointing to the Korean-Chinese debate about the history of Goguryo to justify their own claims about Japanese interventionism. They seem to be arguing:"It is only natural to record history in the perspective of the country accounting for it."

History in India: Columnist in India claims:"India's loss of knowledge of its history is a double disaster, because it turns out India's history is almost unimaginably lustrous: in fact, within the first order of approximation, one could claim that India invented almost everything worth knowing in the ancient world."

Olympics: Iranian judo star who refused to participate in a match with an Israeli is taken to task by a columnist who compares what the Iranian did to what black sprinters did in 1968 in Mexico City ... and asks:"What if Jesse Owens hadn't run before the Fuhrer?"

Olympics: The first medallists in Athens were crowned with olive wreaths on Saturday, reviving a tradition going back to the Olympics' ancient Greek origins.In the ancient Olympics, a crown of olive leaves was the winners' only prize. Later laurel wreathes were used. When the Games were revived in Athens in 1896, champions also received an olive wreath as well as a silver medal and a diploma. The familiar Olympic gold, silver and bronze medals were introduced eight years later in St Louis.

Korean History: President Roh Moo-hyun proposed setting up a special committee in the National Assembly to carry out a comprehensive review of the nation¡¯s modern history, stressing the need to correct distortions such as the status of pro-Japanese collaborators. In a speech to commemorate National Liberation Day, which marked the 59th anniversary of Korea¡¯s liberation from Japanese colonial rule in 1945, Roh said the country must unearth the truth and correct past wrongdoings in order to achieve unity and pave the way to a bright future.

Baseball: Hank Greenberg and Sandy Koufax are already in the Hall of Fame. The other 141 Jewish major leaguers will get their due this month. The Cooperstown, N.Y., shrine will host “A celebration of Jews in baseball” Aug. 29-30 in conjunction with the 350th anniversary of Jews in America.

British Soldiers: The death records of over a million British soldiers killed on the first half of the 20th century are accessible online from today. The official index of war dead records is kept at the General Register Office (GRO) archive, which registers British births, deaths and marriages, and the documents have been digitally scanned and placed on the website www.1837online.com.

Donner Party: It was an unmarked grave for 130 years.On Sunday afternoon in San Jose, under the patchy shade of a deodara pine, a piece of tragic California history was reclaimed and marked with a white granite memorial and the name ``Donner.'' The 700-pound polished granite memorial marks the grave site of George Donner Jr., one of 46 survivors of the Donner Party, a group of early California settlers caught in a deadly blizzard trying to cross the Sierra in the winter of 1846. Some of the survivors later recounted eating their own dead to survive.

Smithsonian Indian History Museum: When the National Museum of the American Indian opens Sept. 21, it will seek to give the appropriate weight to injustices suffered at the hands of white settlers -- but will not make that the focus of a history that sweeps over millennia."The truth is what it is," said West, who is of Southern Cheyenne extraction."The history between Native Americans and Euro-Americans has been quite tragic. We do not propose to skirt that tragedy." But, he said, the museum will show"so much good and so much positive along with the tragedy."

John the Baptist: Archaeologists think they've found a cave where John the Baptist baptized many of his followers - basing their theory on thousands of shards from ritual jugs, a stone used for foot cleansing and wall carvings telling the story of the biblical preacher. Only a few artifacts linked to New Testament figures have ever been found in the Holy Land, and the cave is potentially a major discovery in biblical archaeology.

Week of 8-9-04

Neo-Nazis: Thwarted in Germany, hundreds of neo-Nazis have moved into France.

World War II: The possibility that British intelligence sent scores of its own agents to almost certain death in occupied Holland during the Second World War has been raised by the release of Foreign Office files kept secret for 60 years. The disclosure that more than 50 Dutch agents working for the Special Operations Executive (SOE) may have been sacrificed as part of a complicated"double double agent" game played against the Germans is likely to provoke heated debate in the Netherlands. The files suggest that the British were engaged in a complicated"double double agent" sting, in which they used their knowledge of the agents' capture to feed false information to the enemy and gain an insight into his thinking through analysis of false intelligence sent back to Britain.

John Kerry: Conservatives are charging that John Kerry did not fight in Cambodia during the Vietnam War, as he reportedly has claimed. The Kerry campaign says the senator said he fought near Cambodia, not in it.

Iraqi Antiquities: President Bush has issued a new Executive Order which extends the national emergency with respect to Iraq as a result of the continuing insurgencies disrupting the reconstruction. The Executive Order continues the prohibition on dealing in Iraqi cultural property for another year. Specifically, it states that"the trade in or transfer of ownership or possession of Iraqi cultural property or other items of archeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific, and religious importance that were illegally removed, or for which a reasonable suspicion exists that they were illegally removed, from the Iraq National Museum, the National Library, and other locations in Iraq since August 6, 1990, is prohibited."

Higher Education: Britain's university system is in terminal decline, according to one of the country's most prominent academics, Dr David Starkey, fellow of Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge and star TV historian. Starkey says that standards are being driven downwards in the struggle for funds and that universities risked destroying their international reputation by awarding degrees to substandard foreign students in return for lucrative fees.

Nixon Legacy: A conference held at the Nixon Center to remember the 30th anniversary of his resignation from the presidency featured Len Colodny, co-author of"Silent Coup," University of Pennsylvania historian Walter McDougall.

Museums: Washington Post writer says that the new museum for DC is a snore. Compares it unfavorably with the new Smithsonian air and space museum at Dulles airport. City museum has drawn 33,000 visitors in a year; the new Smithsonian museum over a million.

Olympics: An ancient sporting star unbeaten throughout his career has been discovered after an analysis of stones inscribed with his successes. Dr Jason König of the University of St Andrews, while compiling a book on the sport in ancient Greece, discovered the athlete Marcus Aurelius Asklepiades enjoyed remarkable triumphs. The stones recording his victories were found in Rome a century ago and they detail the successes of the Roman Empire at the Olympics in AD 181.

Barbara Tuchman: Herits to the estate of Barbara Tuchman have taken their battle to court. She left her multi-million Ct. estate to her three daughters.

Museums: The Smithsonian Institution wanted the atrium of its new National Museum of the American Indian in Washington to exude cultural significance from top to bottom. So it commissioned a Minnesota Indian to quarry, shape and polish pipestone to cement into the floor. But the museum soon realized that one Indian's craft is another Indian's sacrilege. After the museum installed the circle of four reddish stones in June, it received calls and e-mails from a half-dozen Indians who complained that the arrangement was disrespectful of the spiritual nature of a substance that has been used for years to build sacred pipes.

Ezra Pound: English Heritage recognises poets' poet whose pivotal role in 20th century literature was overshadowed by his anti-semitic views.

African Colonial Reparations: A German minister left for Namibia on Wednesday amid calls by Namibia's government and human rights advocates for Germany to pay compensation for a massacre of Herero tribesmen in 1904 by its colonial troops. Germany's development minister, Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, will attend a ceremony in Okakarara on Saturday marking the 100th anniversary of a revolt by the Herero people in southwest Africa against Kaiser Wilhelm's troops in which 65,000 of the 80,000 Hereros died.

Chile: Before the conquistadors arrived, and even for centuries afterward, the lush, verdant forests of southern Chile belonged to the Mapuche people. Today, though, tree farms stretch in all directions here, property of timber companies that supply lumber to the United States, Japan and Europe. But now the Mapuches, complaining of false land titles and damage to the environment and their traditional way of life, are struggling to take back the land they say is still theirs.

Nazi Hunters: Ever since the Carter administration of the late 1970s, a team of government lawyers and researchers has been hunting former Nazis in America, many of whom served as teenage prison guards at concentration camps. One of those, the federal government said this week, is Anton Geiser, a retired steel worker in Sharon, Mercer County, who could become the next former Nazi to lose his citizenship if the government can prove its case.

Daniel Boone: Daniel Boone and his family ate their meals off tin plates like the ones the'49ers used, right? Nope. They used English china. Archaeologists from the field school at Lindenwood University have found china fragments, other artifacts and the foundations of one of the original Boone log cabins, next to the Daniel Boone Home in Defiance.

School Busing: Thirty years after forced busing began in Boston, a dilapidated old elementary school in the far reaches of Readville is helping to relegate the trauma of the time to history. Fueled by a federal grant, a three-person team of archivists began the project with records hauled out of the Boston Public Schools 26 Court St. headquarters. Another city warehouse in Dorchester yielded more. Archivists hope to start an oral history program.

US Flag: Cleaned and restored ... the 13-foot by seven-foot Liberty flag--which feaures broad red and white stripes and was possibly the model for the American flag, is folded in a display case in the Old Statehouse, the original seat of state government which now serves as the museum for The Bostonian Society, the city's historical society.

Napoleon and Nelson: The British National Maritime Museum will honor both Napoleon and Nelson next year to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar. The aim of the exhibition - which will run from July to November as part of a series of events across the country including a gathering of warships from around the world - is to compare and contrast the two men.

Mormons: The National Historical Publications and Records Commission has endorsed an ongoing project sponsored by the Joseph F. Smith Institute at Brigham Young University. In conjunction with the archives of the LDS Church, the institute is compiling more than 5,000 documents pertinent to Smith. The completed project will not be traditionally published or available through the National Archives, according to the Smith Institute, but the accreditation will ensure the research is conducted with a high level of scholarly professionalism.

Obituary: Wolfgang Mommsen, a historian who chronicled Germany's imperial past and took part in a"historians' battle" over whether the Nazis' crimes were unique, has died, his twin brother told The Associated Press on Thursday. He was 73. Mommsen, descendant of a famous line of German historians, suffered a heart attack Wednesday while swimming in the Baltic Sea off the island of Usedom. Mommsen taught at the University of Duesseldorf, led the German Historical Institute in London from 1977 to 1985 and chaired the German Association of Historians from 1988 to 1992. For the past year, he was a fellow at the University of Erfurt in eastern Germany.

New France: Acadians reunited in Nova Scotia to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the arrival of the French in North America.

Hollywood: 20th Century Fox is planning a release next year for"Kingdom of Heaven," a $130 million production by the Oscar-nominated director Ridley Scott, shot in Morocco with hundreds of extras, horses and elaborate costumes. The script, by William Monahan, is based on real characters of the three-century Crusades, including Balian of Ibelin, a Crusader knight who led the defense of Jerusalem in 1187, and the Muslim leader Saladin, who defeated him.

Michael Moore's Movie: An extended session is now being planned on the significance and impact of Fahrenheit 9/11 as a documentary, an historical film, and a popular phenomenon at the upcoming 3rd biennial conference on film and history. The conference will be held at the Dolce International Conference Center in Dallas, Texas.

Korea: Foreign Minister Ban Ki-moon said Wednesday that,"The government will firmly tackle any attempts by China to incorporate Koguryo history into the history of China." Ban said at a regular briefing at Foreign Ministry headquarters that,"The government will press China to stop its distortions of Koguryo history and correct those distortions."

Teaching History on Television: The Corporation for Public Broadcasting yesterday named James MacGuire, a veteran television and educational publishing executive, to be Managing Director of its upcoming American History and Civics programming initiative. The initiative, details of which will be announced this December, will identify and fund promising and innovative content approaches for middle and high school students to learn about American history and civics in video, Internet, interactive and print formats. MacGuire will oversee CPB's request for proposals from producers and will play a central role in the selection of winning projects.

Books: A new book championed by conservatives defends the Roosevelt administraion's decision to intern Japanese during World War II--and suggests that profiling today is a sensible response to Islamist terrorism.

Books: After 15 years and interviews with nearly 800 authors, C-SPAN founder and CEO Brian Lamb has decided to close the covers on Booknotes, the Sunday-evening program devoted to authors and their books on history and politics. C-SPAN spokeswoman Robin Scullin said Lamb wanted to reclaim some personal time, noting that each one-hour program required 20 hours of preparation.

Asia: The budding"war of history" among China, Japan and South Korea is set to threaten the diplomatic landscape in the Northeast Asian region already hit by territorial disputes. Analysts warn the deepening disputes over historical records can damage the future relations among the three Asian neighbors, who can form the world's biggest regional trade bloc in terms of population.

Relics: Europe's oldest altar found. A recently unearthed sacrificial altar where ancient villagers left offerings to their gods may be up to 8,000-years-old, making it the oldest of its kind found in Europe, a Bulgarian archeologist said Thursday. The altar was discovered earlier this week in a mound that contained many traces of Stone and Copper Age settlements near the village of Kapitan Dimitrievo, some 100 kilometres southeast of the capital, Sofia.

Old South: Two Hundred years of history went up in smoke Monday night in Vacherie, Louisiana. The back of the main house at Laura Plantation was gutted by fire. It's one of the last creole plantation's in Louisiana.

Inquisition: A 17th-century prison in Sicily where hundreds were tortured during the Inquisition is being turned into a museum, featuring the anguished graffiti of those once tormented there.

Civil Rights Movement: The August 1963 March on Washington is remembered."We tend to remember this as a sunny and upbeat day where the American dream was invoked and everyone dangled their feet in the water of the Reflecting Pool," said historian Taylor Branch, author of"Parting the Waters," a widely acclaimed chronicle of the civil rights movement."In fact, what made it so memorable was the sharp disparity between the expectations and the way things turned out. The expectation was terror, and the result, comparatively, was a picnic."

White Supremacy: Grant Bristow, who infiltrated the white supremacist movement as a paid informant for Canada's spy service, has broken his long silence, saying he took on the unsavoury task because it was"the right thing to do." Bristow's comments mark the first time he has publicly discussed his controversial role as an undercover operative for the Canadian Security Intelligence Service since being exposed in the media 10 years ago. He tells his side of the spy saga in the September issue of The Walrus magazine, to be published Thursday.

Olympics: Ancient Olympians followed"Atkins" diet, scholar says. Researchers have been able to uncover food remains from ancient Egyptian sites, thanks to the region's arid climate, said Louis Grivetti, a food historian.

Historic Sites: BBC voters have chosen a 15th century grammar school in Birmingham to be restored with £3m raised from a television programme appeal.

Nuclear Sites: The residents of two towns that were evacuated to build the Hanford nuclear reservation in 1943 are returning to the site to recall their forced relocation.

Civil Rights Movement: As part of a sudden surge of interest in the civil rights movement, events both major and minor are being memorialized in states across the South.

Holocaust: Controversial historian and holocaust denier David Irving views are based on"vomit-inducing" paranoid theories, New Zealand Acting Prime Minister Michael Cullen said today. Irving has offered a US$1000 ($1550) reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of vandals behind the desecration of Jewish graves in a Wellington cemetery last Friday.

Middle East: A recent program on official PA TV claims that the biblical Hebrews were actually Muslim Arabs and that Solomon's Temple was built by Arab Canaanites. ”The central component of this Palestinian myth,” says Itamar Marcus, of Palestinian Media Watch, “consists of turning the Biblical [people of] Israel into Muslim Arabs, while teaching that the Palestinians are the descendents of the Biblical Canaanites, who are also turned into Arabs. With both the Canaanites and Israelites becoming Arabs and the religion of ancient Israel becoming Islam, the PA takes authentic Jewish history, documented by thousands of years of continuous literature, and crosses out the word Jewish and replaced it with the word Arab.”

Film History: Laurel and Hardy, masters of foreign languages? German film historians have tracked a long-lost copy of Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy's early sound work to an archive in Moscow housing a 1931 film the comedy duo performed entirely in German, the Munich Film Museum said Monday. But lest anyone get too impressed, Germans who have seen clips from the film are far more approving of the comedy - some of it unintentional - than by the pair's accents.

Slavery: Researchers at Baltimore's Coppin State University are hoping to uncover new details about what life might have been like for slaves. They are comparing logs of 27,000 slave ship voyages with NASA satellite data on speeds of ocean winds and currents.

Newton: Scholars have long known that Newton dabbled in the occult, but the sheer magnitude of his devotion to such matters has only recently come to light, bolstered by a British-led project trying to put all of his writings -- about 10 million words in all -- on the World Wide Web.

John Kerry: They call themselves Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, but they are no"band of brothers" to John Kerry. Last week, the group launched a scathing 60-second TV ad accusing the Democratic nominee of lying about his Vietnam War record. This week, the group releases Unfit for Command: Swift Boat Veterans Speak Out Against John Kerry. On Sunday, the book was already No. 3 on Amazon.com's best-seller list. They say they spoke out because they were angered after reading historian Douglas Brinkley's book about Kerry's service, Tour of Duty: John Kerry and the Vietnam War. Hoffman says the biography is"replete with gross exaggerations, distortions of fact and outright lies."

McCormick Controversy: Rutgers University president Richard L. McCormick, who acknowledged he had an affair with a woman in the University of Washington's administration while he was president there, has announced he and his wife plan to divorce. McCormick and his wife, history professor Suzanne Lebsock, sent a two-paragraph letter to members of the state university's governing boards on Thursday."We want to share with friends and colleagues our decision, made mutually and amicably, to end our marriage," the letter read."While we wish to maintain our privacy regarding this decision, we wanted you to hear of it directly from us."

Terrorism and the Election: A wellcoordinated terrorist attack close to or on Election Day could throw the entire political system into chaos, many scholars and political analysts say. Charles Jones, government scholar at the Brookings Institution, a Washington think tank, calls it"a scary proposition — but also one difficult to analyze."

Iraq Historic Sites: Two major historic sites in Mosul dating back to the 8th century B.C. are being restored with help from the 416th Civil Affairs Battalion. Maj. Wayne Bowen, head of the 416th’s Higher Education and Antiquities Team, is working with Ninevah Director of Antiquities, Muzahim Mahmood, to facilitate restoration projects at the Nergal Gate and King Sennacheribe’s palace.

Campaign 2004: Did the Bush administration launch a July Surprise? istorian Tom Engelhardt assembles the evidence and suggests the answer may be yes. He notes that the announcment of a major terrorist arrest in Pakistan came just after John Kerry's acceptance speech--midnight Pakistan time."Actually, to be yet more accurate, the arrest itself had been made not that day but four days earlier. What's surprising here is not the four-day lag, but the speed with which the announcement was made -- a kind of unseemly tip-off to any al-Qaeda figures."

JFK Assassination: ABC News notes that the 1963 Dallas police dictabelt that scientists are testing--at the behest of the National Archives--almost certainly is useless as a source of information about the assassination. Although scientists in 1979 claimed at a congressional hearing that they could hear shots from a second shooter on the recording, the recording was made by a motorcycle cop who was not in a position where such shots could be heard.

Week of 8-2-04

Vietnam: Three months before the 1972 presidential election, Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger huddled together in the Oval Office to discuss when and how to get out of Vietnam. Despite a massive bombing campaign during the spring and summer in the north, the Republican president had concluded that U.S.-backed"South Vietnam probably can never even survive anyway."

Korean History: Chinese concerns about territorial integrity are behind its move to claim the history of the ancient kingdom of Koguryo as its own, experts in Seoul argue. Park Sang-seek, rector of Kyung Hee University Graduate Institute of Peace Studies, said it appears that China is worried about losing sovereignty over the eastern part of Manchuria, which was once within the Koguryo kingdom and is still home to millions of ethnic Koreans."A reunified Korea may claim that area in the long-term that is China's fear," he said. Park explained that by deleting references to Koguryo from its official account of Korean history, Beijing is attempting to preempt any assertions that the territory should be returned to Korea.

Young Scholar Killed in Iraq Memorialized: In a break with tradition, several professors at the Naval Academy have established a memorial prize to honor Lt. Kylan Jones-Huffman, a young scholar who planned to get a Ph.D. in Middle East Studies but was killed in Iraq in 2003."The Prize for Cultural Studies is for people who stand on the frontier and see the other side," said professor Richard Abels, a History Department colleague.

Babylon: Foreign forces in Iraq have caused severe damage to the site of ancient Babylon, one of the world's most renowned archaeological treasures, and need to leave the area as soon as possible, Iraq's Culture Minister Mofeed al-Jazaeri said. Heavy equipment, helicopters and other machinery used by Polish-led forces based at Babylon, 100 kilometres south of Baghdad, are causing irreparable harm, Mr Jazaeri said."Just their presence, with their heavy equipment, is harmful in and of itself," the minister told Reuters, saying that helicopters landing and taking off were a particular problem.

Search for First Submarine: Naval historians and archaeologists will put to sea this month in search of a nautical needle in a haystack. With luck and the latest technology, they hope to find the remains of the U.S. Navy's first submarine. The target of the search by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Office of Naval Research is one of the most innovative, least celebrated vessels of the Civil War: the USS Alligator.

Extreme History: Polar historian Susie Cox leapt at the chance to recreate a Victorian expedition, even though she'll be the only woman on board. At just 5ft 2in tall, Cox is a good 7ft 10in smaller than some of the polar bears of the Boothia Peninsula in the high Arctic. When she arrives there this week to retrace the steps of Scottish explorer Sir John Ross and his nephew Sir James Clark Ross during their 1829-1833 expedition in six weeks, these polar bears will never be far from her thoughts.

Holocaust: The mayor of Munich has refused to install plaques outside the former homes of Holocaust victims saying that the city - once the heartland of Hitler's National Socialist movement - has enough memorials already. Thousands of raised brass plaques known as"stumbling stones" - because they are fixed to the pavement and designed to remind passers-by of the victims - have been laid in 35 other German cities. They are placed outside the homes of people murdered or deported by the Third Reich. The mayor, Christian Ude, however, urged Munich's council to reject the plaques because he feared that the city would be overwhelmed by a"surfeit of memorials". He pointed to a planned Jewish Museum, annual ceremonies for victims of the 1938 Kristallnacht, a memorial naming all the city's Holocaust victims and the presence of Dachau, the former concentration camp, 12 miles away.

Mona Lisa Mystery: Leonardo Da Vinci's Mona Lisa, the world's most enduring symbol of feminine mystique, is actually a portrait of the virtuous wife of a family friend, who had five children including two daughters who became nuns. After four centuries in which historians have debated the identity of the artist's subject - with theories ranging from his mother to a Florentine prostitute - new research has supported the claim first made in 1550: that she was Lisa Gherardini, the wife of a wealthy silk merchant. Giuseppe Pallanti, a teacher from Florence who has spent 25 years researching the city's archives, has discovered the first clear evidence that da Vinci's family was closely connected to the silk trader, Ser Francesco del Giocondo, who married Lisa Gherardini in 1495.

World War II: Polish veterans who fought to help Britain defeat Nazism backed their Prime Minister's call last night for Britain to apologise for failing to assist the Warsaw Uprising during the Second World War. As politicians and veterans gathered in Warsaw to mark today's 60th anniversary of the uprising by the Polish Resistance against German occupation, a diplomatic row was simmering after the British government admitted it could have done more but stopped short of an apology.

Obituary: Joseph Rovan was regarded as the doyen of Franco-German post-war friendship. He advised Presidents Charles de Gaulle and Jacques Chirac on Franco- German issues and also Chancellor Helmut Kohl of Germany. His books on Germany influenced generations of French students attempting to understand their country's former enemy.

Slavery: A black history scholar has accused an archaeological team of distorting racial history in its study of a once-promising Illinois frontier town. Juliet E.K. Walker, a professor at the University of Texas at Austin, has condemned the premise of a federally funded archaeological excavation of New Philadelphia, Ill., an integrated, pre-Civil War community in Pike County. New Philadelphia is generally considered to be the first town in the country founded by an African-American. Walker, a great-great granddaughter of a founder of the community, said the archaeology team distorted that history - exaggerating the significance of New Philadelphia's"racial harmony" - in an effort to get federal funding for the dig.

Trafalgar: The National Maritime Museum has begun work on a series of projects to mark the 200th anniversary of Nelson's victory at the Battle of Trafalgar, four years from today, which will culminate in public events across the country in 2005. The Museum has appointed a renowned Nelson expert--Colin White--to devise and co-ordinate the national and international public commemorations of the bicentenary, in 2005, of Nelson's last, but greatest, victory.

British Archive Films Discovered: THE EARLIEST known footage of Manchester United and the first filmed reconstruction of the arrest of a fraudster are among gems in an extraordinary archive discovered in metal urns in a Blackburn shop and about to be shown for the first time on television. Experts at the British Film Institute (BFI) have spent more than three years restoring the 850 recovered films to recreate a remarkable record of Britain in the first decade of the 20th century. The footage is the work of two Lancastrian entrepreneurs, Sagar Mitchell and James Kenyon, pioneers of British film making who used the earliest camera equipment. For 13 years, from 1900 till 1913, they toured the great Victorian cities in Britain, recording the momentous events of the time and the everyday lives of working people. A three-part BBC2 series, called The Lost World of Mitchell and Kenyon, planned for the autumn meant more than a million frames of film had to be carefully restored to the highest quality by the BFI and the BBC.

China/Japan: The bitter history between China and Japan has set the stage for a fiery sports showdown. From territorial claims, to war atrocities and outrage over sex orgies, tensions between China and Japan are never far from bubbling to the surface. And now there's the boo boys at the Asian Cup, whose antics threaten to escalate into yet another diplomatic spat between the Asian giants. When China and Japan meet in the final of Asia's most prestigious football tournament in Beijing on tomorrow, there will be more at stake that lifting the silverware – national pride will be in play. Japan defeating China on home soil may not go down well with the hordes of rowdy fans who have heckled Japan throughout the tournament, booing their players and national anthem, still incensed over World War II atrocities. Many Chinese believe Japan has never fully faced up to its wartime past and its brutal occupation of Chinese territory before and during World War II.

Historical Ignorance: Many British youngsters think J J R Tolkien's wizard Gandalf, fictional sailor Horatio Hornblower or explorer Christopher Columbus led English forces that defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588, according to a survey published yesterday. Less than half identified Sir Francis Drake as a key figure in one of the most famous sea battles in British history, the poll for the BBC showed. A third of 16 to 34-year-olds did not know that William the Conqueror won the Battle of Hastings in 1066, while more than a fifth of 16- to 24-year-olds thought Britain had been conquered by the Germans, the Americans or the Spanish at some point, the poll found.

British Traditions: Wanted: Court jester. English Heritage, guardian of various historic sites in Britain, is advertising for someone to be the nation's first court jester since 1649. An ad appearing in today's editions of The Times laid out the qualifications:"Must be mirthful and prepared to work summer weekends in 2005. Must have own outfit (with bells). Bladder on stick provided if required."

Korean History: China removed all accounts of pre-1948 Korean history, including Goguryo history, from the website of the Chinese Foreign Ministry on Thursday. The Chinese government, having received strong protests from the Korean government concerning distortions of Goguryo history, decided on this course of action Monday and informed the Korean government through diplomatic channels. The Chinese government, however, is not acceding to strong Korean demands that it restore the section on Goguryo history back to the description of Korean history on the Chinese Foreign Ministry website (www.fmprc.gov.cn), and it's latest response measure of deleting all Korean history prior to the foundation of the Republic of Korea on August 15, 1948 is being condemned as an attempt to"evade the truth."

Olympics: Just in time for the Olympics, food historian Francine Segan delivers a modern take on the cuisine of ancient Greece and Rome."The Philosopher's Kitchen" (Random House, $35) takes a"what would Plato eat?" approach, presenting simple recipes that some of the original Olympians might recognize.

Intelligence Services: Some of the most important intelligence reforms proposed by the 9-11 Commission, including the creation of a Director of National Intelligence (DNI), might have been adopted over a decade ago if not for the opposition of the Secretary of Defense at the time, Dick Cheney. In a March 1992 letter to Congress, Secretary Cheney defended the status quo and objected to proposed intelligence reform legislation, particularly the DNI position.

Peggy Noonan: Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, is leaving the WSJ for 3 months to help the Republican Party win in November."Every four years everyone says"this is the most important election of my lifetime," but this year I believe it is true."

Army Museum: Doors are open at the new U.S. Army Military History Institute in Cumberland County, Middlesex Township, PA. The new building holds millions of documents and other important information that helps tell the Army's story, one soldier at a time."We anticipate that many thousands of people will come here each year," said Richard Sommers, chief of patron services.

Civil Rights Movement: The bus pulled out of the nation's capital Tuesday, southbound for memories of the Movement. Over the coming 70 days, the bus will visit 35 cities to collect oral histories from"ordinary people with extraordinary stories" about their personal experiences in the civil rights movement. When assembled by the Library of Congress, these stories are expected to become the world's largest archive of firsthand accounts of this momentous era."Today we begin a freedom ride," declared Marie Smith. She is the president of AARP, which has established an Internet site on the project at www.voicesofcivilrights.org."But it is not just a stroll down memory lane."

George W. Bush: In a new book arriving in September,"In His Father's Shadow" (Palgrave/Macmillan), Stanley Renshon, a psychologist and political scientist at the City University of New York Graduate Center, argues that President Bush has a rare capacity to"stand apart," even from friends and supporters, and withstand abuse and criticism when he believes a policy course is the right one.

Philip Zelikow: At a Senate hearing on the commission's findings, the commission's staff director, Philip D. Zelikow, said Tuesday that Mr. Bush's proposals were a" constructive opening for the development of important ideas into concrete detail." But Mr. Zelikow, a Republican historian who served on Mr. Bush's 2001 transition team for the National Security Council, suggested that the commission believed that there was little room for compromise on the essential powers that needed to be granted an intelligence director."Creating a national intelligence director that just superimposes a chief above the other chiefs,'' he said,"without taking on the fundamental management issues we identify, is a step that could be worse than useless."

National Archives: The National Archives and Records Administration announced Tuesday that it had chosen two teams of companies to produce competing designs for a system that will preserve the federal government's electronic records in the face of changes in computer hardware and software. The two teams are led by the Government Communications Systems Division of the Harris Corporation and the Transportation and Security Solutions Division of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Harris's team will receive a one-year, $10.6-million contract from the archives to develop a detailed design for the system that it proposed. Lockheed Martin's team will receive a $9.5-million contract.

Mussolini: A sub-machinegun in a museum in Albania is thought to have been the weapon that killed Benito Mussolini.

Hollywood: Hollywood film studios are guilty of a"grotesque distortion of history" which is destroying Britain's national identity, a newspaper Sunday quoted British historians as saying. The chief executive of English Heritage, the government body responsible for the historic environment, told the Independent Sunday film-makers'"sloppy" and"formulaic" approach to history had left a generation of children confused."One of my principal concerns is that the majority of children now leave school with the sketchiest of chronology about English history," Simon Thurley said, adding that they turned to films for knowledge. Antony Beevor, Britain's best-selling author of popular history, told the newspaper the Americanization of British history was a particular problem."You can't turn every hero in the world into an American," he said. The historians singled out"Saving Private Ryan," based on the Normandy World War II landings,"U-571" about submariners, and"Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves" as prime offenders. In"Saving Private Ryan" all mention of British or Allied troops was omitted, while the British submariners at the heart of the real action were replaced by Americans in the film"U-571."

Rewriting History of Spain in North America: In a fallow farm field in the Appalachian foothills, archaeologists are rewriting the history of early European settlement in North Carolina. Very slowly they are unearthing what they believe are remnants of a 16th-century Spanish outpost known as Fort San Juan, which disappeared after Indians burned it to the ground. Historical records say the fort was built in 1567. That predates England's Lost Colony on Roanoke Island by nearly 20 years and Jamestown, Va. -- North America's first permanent English settlement -- by four decades.

South Korea and History: The president of South Korea has called on the country to rewrite the history of the country. His party has backed a plan to create a Truth, Reconciliation and Future Committee to consider a total of 15 controversial events including the May 18 democratization movement. Some object that there's no sense in a plan that groups together diverse incidents. Others say politics is driving the agenda.

Africa: Ghana's EGLE opposition party declared that the United States should render financial assistance to the African country to compensate for its role in the 1966 coup that overthrew the government of Kwame Nkrumah.

Intelligence Reorganization: The Congressional Research Service has published a new retrospective on the series of proposals made to reorganize intelligence services of the US government from 1949 to 2004.

Kennedy Assassination: About a year from now, one of the most vexing mysteries in American history may finally be solved: Did Lee Harvey Oswald act alone? Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have begun work on a digital scanning apparatus that they believe will be able to reproduce sound from the only known audio recording of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on Nov. 22, 1963, in Dallas. The recording was made through an open microphone on a police motorcycle during Kennedy's motorcade into Dealey Plaza, where the president was shot to death.

Holocaust: Another chapter in the ineffably sad tale of Holocaust reparations was written yesterday with an announcement in New York that 130,681 Jewish survivors of the Holocaust would receive $401 million from a restitution fund created by the German government and industry. It comes to roughly $3,000 per person, hardly a fortune but for some a helping hand.

Petition to Protest the Assassination of Iraqi Academics: A PETITION BEING CIRCULATED by an academic group is calling on the United States and its allies in Iraq to do more to stop the killings of Iraqi professors. The International Coalition of Academics Against Occupation, citing a recent report by Iraq's Union of University Lecturers, says that about 250 professors--including historians--have been assassinated since the U.S.-led invasion of the country, in March 2003.

Iranian Historian Released from Prison: Iran's leading academic dissident Hashem Aghajari has been freed on bail after two years in jail facing the death penalty for telling Iranians not to follow their clerical leaders like"monkeys.""I hope there will come a day when no-one goes to prison in Iran for his opinions, let alone be sentenced to death," Aghajari, speaking through his tears, told reporters outside his apartment in north Tehran on Saturday. His joyous family handed out confectionery and orange juice to journalists. Long-haired Aghajari, 47, beaming with delight, embraced close friends gathered outside home.

Week of 7-26-04

Warsaw Uprising: Professor [Norman] Davies, who is 65 and retired from teaching at the University of London, was in Warsaw this week for the publication of the Polish translation of his latest book,"Rising '44: the Battle for Warsaw." The English version, published a few weeks ago in the United States and weighing in at 752 pages, has been described by the historian Simon Sebag Montefiore as"a magisterial work" on"one of the totemic events of the war."

North Dakota: A monument near this now-abandoned town [of Verendrye, North Dakota] commemorates a man historians believe to be one of the greatest explorers of North America. It goes unnoticed, except by bees that buzz the site from a nearby apiary. The name of David Thompson is inscribed on the pedestal of a 6-foot-high granite globe on the hilly banks of the Souris River. While the route of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark is full of visitors, the path leading to the Thompson memorial is nearly untrodden.

Hollywood and English History: English Heritage, the government body responsible for the historic environment, has accused Hollywood studios of destroying Britain's national identity with misleading and inaccurate portrayals of the country's past.

Historic Preservation: Using old records and more recent ones, too, careful underground sampling techniques and limited test excavations, UNC-Chapel Hill archaeologists believe they have discovered the site of the house of Revolutionary War hero, North Carolina delegate to the Constitutional Convention, N.C. governor, envoy to France and"father" of the University of North Carolina, Gen. William Richardson Davie.

Third Reich/Hitler: THE BERLIN stadium which hosted the 1936 Olympic Games, presided over by Adolf Hitler, is to reopen on Saturday after a multi-million euro facelift designed to dispel its Nazi image and prepare the site for the 2006 World Cup. The 74,000-seat marble and granite complex was where the Nazi leader famously snubbed the black American athlete Jesse Owens who had won four gold medals. The refurbishment will also include an attempt by German historians to thoroughly explain the arena's Nazi past. A new museum at the stadium's entrance and 35 information boards dotted about the complex will provide details of the building's history."These historical markers are long overdue," said Hans Joachim Teichler, a history professor at Potsdam University who supervised the renovation project.

Slavery: In a few weeks researchers will begin scouring the Florida seafloor for a 177-year-old shipwreck—and the resting place of dozens of slaves who drowned in chains. Despite its drama, the story of the Guerrero remains little-known.

WWII: When the United States, Britain, France, Germany and other European countries commemorated the 60th anniversary of heroic Operation Overlord, or whenever these countries hold solemn ceremonies to pay respect to their soldiers who fought in the Second World War, especially the Pacific War, many who went through the same ordeals, trials and tribulations in Malaysia, Singapore, China, Hong Kong, Macau and Thailand could only read or listen about this with a mixed feeling of admiration and possibly tacit anger and resentment.

Texas and the New Deal: Sixty-odd years ago, Texans in Hereford, El Campo, Wellington, Mart, Alvin – 69 towns in all – were chatting up artsy habitués of refined salons (not those raw saloons of yore). It could have been called"murals for rurals" except Dallas, Houston, San Antonio and other big cities were among the 69. As full of good intentions as a motel Bible, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Dealers inaugurated post office murals as a sort of artistic aspirin for sufferers of the Great Depression.

David Irving: The Immigration Service will bar controversial Holocaust revisionist historian David Irving from entering New Zealand following an outcry from Jewish groups. The Immigration Service decided yesterday to refuse Irving entry because of his deportation from Canada in 1992. The decision goes against the opinion of Foreign Minister Phil Goff, who said earlier he personally did not believe Irving should be denied entry unless he had serious criminal convictions.

History Budgets: Based on the funding levels passed by the House Committee on Appropriations for the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) on 22 July 2004, funding for the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) in FY 2005 will be dramatically cut unless history/archive supporters act. Earlier in the year, President Bush recommended only $3 million for the grant program and that number has now formally been endorsed by the House Appropriation Committee. If this figure is allowed to stand and is not raised by the Senate, the NHPRC will experience a 70% cut. History Coalition is asking members to take action.

Mormons: The rebuilding of a destroyed Mormon temple in Nauvoo, Illinois has led to resentment by some local residents. A temple like the one recently restored stood on the same bluff in the 1840's, when Nauvoo was the center of the Mormon world. It was destroyed during a bloody conflict between Mormons and their enemies in which the religion's founder, Joseph Smith, was killed. Soon afterward, the Mormons set out on their epic trek to Utah, where they prospered and built what has become one of the world's fastest-growing religions.

Roman Mosaic Found: Decorative Roman floors covered by Victorian workmen have been discovered at a Roman Villa on the Isle of Wight. The 4th century floors were found by archaeologists during final preparations to open a new section of Brading Roman Villa.

WWI: August 1 marks the 90th anniversary of Kaiser Wilhelm II's declaration of war against Russia. But the role of imperial Germany in unleashing the horrors of World War I continues to divide historians nearly a century later.

Poland: This weekend in the Polish capital, Warsaw, one of the greatest tragedies of the 20th century will be commemorated by its people.

Nelson and Napoleon: A new exhibition next year will bring together memorabilia from the lives of Nelson and Napoleon, for the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar. This week, the National Maritime Museum announced its 2005 historical exhibition at James Lock & Co., a London hatters established in 1676 whose clients included Horatio Nelson.

Israel: An opinion survey conducted recently in 15 European Union countries by the European Commission showed nearly 60 percent of the questioners believed that Israel represented the greatest threat to world peace.

King Arthur Mania: AS CINEMAS across the nation fill up for this summer's King Arthur blockbuster, a Welsh historian believes he has traced his family tree back to the man who inspired the legend.

The Arts and War: Bill Barrette, a New York artist, first heard about them at a family party five years ago. A relative, he learned, had guarded Japanese war criminals after World War II at the infamous Sugamo Prison in Tokyo. He had collected souvenirs and kept them for a half-century...."This is an example of how art and history might benefit from each other," Mr. Barrette said.

World War II: On August 1, 1944, thousands of Poles, among them girls as young as 13, joined the Warsaw Uprising – an attempt to expel the Nazis that led to terrible reprisals. Bernadeta Tendyra meets three survivors, now living in Britain, who recall the horror and the heroism of those days.

Pompeii: For Pompeii's 2 million yearly visitors, the overwhelming attraction is the captivating view of daily life in the Roman Empire evoked by the city's temples, taverns, houses and public baths, and by its ever-popular brothels with their erotic frescoes. This summer, visitors might be forgiven for failing to notice a series of newly dug trenches at the southwest exit to the city. The site looks like an example of below-street plumbing in mid-repair, yet it provides a tiny glimpse of a fact obscured by Pompeii's better-known association with the imperial era: A non-Roman civilization thrived here for three centuries.

Museums and Human Remains: The Arts Minister, Estelle Morris, has launched a consultation paper on the laws relating to human remains in British museums. The document, 'Care of Historic Human Remains', was published by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport and the Welsh Assembly. It was based on recommendations in a report last year by the Working Group on Human Remains.

Europe's Statues: Rome and Venice have recently been hit by a curious crime spree -- brutal beatings with cobblestones and hammers. Public sympathy for the victims runs especially high because they include Moses, the Virgin Mary, a variety of saints and a popular bee. It seems that Italy's outdoor statues and monuments are under attack.

Citizenship Test:In an effort to improve the quality and fairness of the citizenship test taken every year by hundreds of thousands of immigrants, the government is overhauling the naturalization exam. Like the current exam, the replacement will test applicants in two areas: proficiency in English and knowledge of United States history and government.

UK Museum: The latest findings of an investigation into UK museum collections has been published to determine if any items were unlawfully taken during the Holocaust and Second World War period.

England: Thousands of precious Ministry of Defence documents, described as the" crown jewels" of contemporary history, have been placed in plastic sacks closed indefinitely to the outside world. To the alarm of historians and researchers, the ministry has discovered that the archives containing all of its most highly sensitive files are contaminated by asbestos.

Poland and WWII: Lucjan Wisniewski is an unsung hero of one of the last great World War Two battles lost by the Allies -- the Warsaw Uprising in 1944. He fought to liberate his country from Nazi rule, but unlike his Western peers, he was prosecuted for doing so afterwards. To this day he keeps one of his battalion's most treasured possessions -- its ragged, blood-stained banner -- rolled up at home. He will finally hand the banner to a museum on Sunday exactly 60 years after Poles took up arms in an attempt to drive the Nazis from Warsaw and save themselves from another totalitarian regime, Stalinist communism.

Slavery: Some 200,000 people yearly visit Senegal to see the infamous House of Slaves. Experts including a Senegalese on Goree Island dispute its story…."The whole story is phony," said Philip Curtin, a retired professor of history at Johns Hopkins University who has written more than two dozen books on the Atlantic slave trade and African history.

Kerry Campaign: Teresa Heinz Kerry, years before becoming a Democrat, railed against the party's"putrid" politics, said she didn't trust Sen. Edward M. Kennedy and angrily called the liberal lion a"perfect bastard."

Saving the Historical Record, Literally: Scientists in California are adapting a technology to preserve fragile 19th-century recordings with a special microscope and software. Scientists from the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Vitaliy Fadeyev and Carl Haber, are adapting their work on subatomic particles to help archivists save the country's precious audio heritage.

Jack Anderson: Renowned investigative reporter Jack Anderson, 81, is immediately ending his long-running column because he's seriously ill with Parkinson's disease. Anderson had worked on"Washington Merry-Go-Round" -- started in 1932 by Drew Pearson -- since 1947. At its peak, the column appeared in about 1,000 newspapers. It now has 150 or so clients.

Slavery: On a bluegrass-carpeted slope near the richly appointed racehorse farms of Kentucky, archaeologists led by Steve McBride are unearthing evidence of a terrible secret that has largely disappeared from memory and Civil War history books. The archaeologists think they may have located one of the last stops on the Underground Railroad, the fabled pathway to freedom for enslaved blacks.

The Arts: This month marks the 50th anniversary of Frida Kahlo's death at age 47 in Mexico, a milestone that has ratcheted the country's highly charged cult of Fridamania -- one of Mexico's best-known exports -- into overdrive. ''Frida is all over Mexico,'' says South Florida artist Carlos Betancourt, who in May made his fourth visit to Kahlo's home, the Blue House, in the Mexico City suburb of Coyoacán. ``Frida is Mexico.''

Week of 7-26-04

Dillinger: On a steamy night 70 years ago, the debonair bank robber John Dillinger, who had reached a level of fame equaled only by Charles Lindbergh and Franklin Roosevelt, stepped out of the Biograph Theater in Chicago and was shot to death by F.B.I. agents who were waiting in ambush. To observe the anniversary of his death, a band of historians, crime buffs and others met Thursday night at a tavern near the Biograph.

Architecture: In what could become America's highest-profile tear-down, [Steve] Jobs, the Apple and Pixar chief executive, is seeking permission from the city of Woodside to hit the delete button on the 1926 Daniel C. Jackling estate, a moldering manse designed by George Washington Smith, the architect who created the look of Montecito and Santa Barbara in the 1920s.

Germany: After decades of shame, fear and self-imposed silence, German soldiers and civilian victims are now venturing to describe their perspectives of the war. Beyond the traditional portrait of World War II as an epic battle of good vs. evil, the emerging view reveals a more complex narrative.

Media: Microsoft, which earlier this week announced a one-time cash dividend worth $32 billion to its shareholders, said today that it was exploring the sale of Slate, a pioneer in digital publishing.

World War I: PREVIOUSLY unpublished extracts from the diaries of King George V are to reveal a dramatic last-minute attempt by the present Queen’s grandfather to stave off the outbreak of the first world war. Four days before Britain declared war in 1914, the king pleaded with his cousin Tsar Nicholas II to demobilise the Russian army, which was moving into position to fight Germany and Austria.

New-York Historical Society: Shift at historical society raises questions. Two big donors -- Mr. Gilder and Mr. Lehrman -- both conservative Republicans, are leading the society's shift toward a broader view of its mandate, emphasizing American rather than local history. A coming exhibition about slavery has been recast to reflect Mr. Lehrman's viewpoint, as expressed in an interview in the society's journal."This was an institution supported throughout the world, but Americans took the initiative in destroying it," Mr. Lehrman said in that interview, adding that he deplored the view that"American history consists of one failure after another to deal with the issue of slavery."

California History: A new institute aimed at encouraging scholars and working professionals to study the history of and influences on California and the West has been launched by the Huntington Library and USC.

Mel Gibson's Passion of the Christ: Five months after its debut, the movie has earned $609 million. In the U.S., there have been"50 to 100" reports of Jewish youths being labeled Christ-killers by classmates since the movie debuted, says Abraham Foxman, director of the Anti-Defamation League and one of the leading critics of the film."Is it in scary proportions? No, but it's a lot more than before," he says, noting pre-movie levels stood at just"a couple" of reported incidents per year. Harvest Christian Fellowship, a nondenominational mega-church in Riverside, tallied 1,000 conversions to Christianity during a six-week sermon series on the movie. That's four times the normal rate. More God talk could be on the way. The Walt Disney Co. plans to release a movie of Christian writer C.S. Lewis'"The Chronicles of Narnia" on Christmas 2005. And Gibson's Icon Productions is moving forward with a biblical film based on the story of Maccabees."The Passion" might be reshaping Protestant attitudes toward Jesus and worship, historians say. The Mr. Rogers-type Jesus that has dominated popular thinking for several decades is being pushed aside by Gibson's"macho, suffering servant" image, says Boston University's Prothero."It's a more Catholic, medieval way of viewing Jesus." And it's the image many Christians will now picture when they close their eyes to pray, he says.

Textbooks: History teachers in north Cyprus are unlikely to get much of a holiday this summer. They have until August 15 to create an entirely new set of history text-books for use in secondary and high schools. Turkish Cypriot schools have always followed the mainland Turkish curriculum, teaching by rote with little questioning or analysis. Now, the education authorities are to produce their own materials for teaching the history of the divided island.

Robert Byrd Sen. Robert Byrd, unapologetic, confronts Bush in a new book lambasting President Bush for the war in Iraq. Byrd wants to be known as the Paul Revere of his time."Paul Revere woke up Concord," Byrd said in an interview last week in his high-ceilinged office on the first floor of the Capitol."I hope I can wake up some people in this country and that I would lend strength to those in the Congress today and in the future who may have to make a similar decision to go to war." Losing America: Confronting a Reckless and Arrogant Presidency is being published next Monday to coincide with the start of the Democratic National Convention. Norton Books has booked Byrd on NBC's"Meet the Press," NPR's"Fresh Air" and CNN's"Larry King Live."

David Irving: Historian David Irving is among a group of people now banned from entering New Zealand, but a final decision on his September visit has not been made.

Teaching History: The National Governors Association has backed the teaching of history. In a strongly worded statement, they do not even mention social studies.

Allen Weinstein Hearing: At his Senate hearing to become archivist of the US, Allen Weinstein said he would vigorously defend President Bush's 2001 executive order restricting access to presidential records even though it conflicted with his own impulses.

Henry Kissinger: Documents released yesterday at the National Archives in London show the candid thoughts of Henry Kissinger about Richard Nixon’s Presidency.

Election 2004: The last time a Massachusetts Democrat won his party's presidential nomination, his opponent, a man named Bush, sought to make political hay out of the devastated condition of Boston Harbor. Cruising it in an excursion boat in 1988, Vice President George Bush called the sludge-slathered waters a"harbor of shame." But on Wednesday, five days before the Democratic National Convention begins here, Boston Harbor was held up as a distinctly different symbol: a spruced-up and shimmering sign of the city's progress over the last two decades.

African American History: [Pittsburgh] City officials are predicting the Harrison house on Third Street can become a museum honoring a locally famous African-American leader, after successful overtures have been made to place it on the National Register of Historic Places and transfer its ownership.

Mormon Settlers: To the Mormon settlers, the 40-foot cottonwood pole and its white flag were a sign of freedom. The early pioneers had left behind religious persecution in Nauvoo, Ill., and were headed west. The route they took would become known as the Mormon Trail, and they would call their marker the Liberty Pole. The pole, which marked a gathering spot for covered wagons, was placed southwest of Fremont. That first marker is long gone, but 130 years after Mormons traveled through this area, a new sign has been installed.

History on TV: In the past, film and television productions have traditionally relied on look-alike actors and talking heads to bring some of the world's most pivotal historical moments to life. In Discovery Channel's VIRTUAL HISTORY, the faces of historical figures are pulled from actual archival footage, and realistically placed on modern actors via a pioneering animation technique. This allows viewers to watch virtual"footage" of historical events where no actual film exists -- events that had been documented solely through verbal and written accounts, artifacts, and still photographs.

Richard Nixon: To mark the 30th anniversary of President Nixon’s resignation, the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace will host a landmark discussion on Richard Nixon, his epochal wartime Presidency, and his historical legacy. The program features keynoter Michael Barone, Herbert Parmet, Walter McDougall, Ray Price, and Len Colodny (author of Silent Coup).

Allen Weinstein Hearing: Having been denied by the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs an opportunity to testify during the confirmation hearing on the nomination of historian Allen Weinstein to become Archivist of the United States (scheduled for today -- Thursday -- at 3:30 pm), history and archives organizations spent much of this week preparing"letters for the record" on the nomination. Weinstein, who is considered a controversial nominee, is the Bush administration's choice to replace John Carlin as Archivist.

Napoleon: A team of forensic pathologists believe Napoleon Bonaparte may have been killed by his regular prescriptions from his doctors. An autopsy after his death in 1821 when he was in exile on the Atlantic island of St Helena revealed he died of stomach cancer, as did his father.

History of Science: Dr. Stephen W. Hawking threw in the towel yesterday, or at least an encyclopedia. Dr. Hawking, the celebrated Cambridge University cosmologist and best-selling author, declared at a scientific conference in Dublin that he had been wrong in a controversial assertion he made 30 years ago about black holes, the fearsome gravitational abysses that can swallow matter and energy, even light.

Richard Nixon: Demolition crews ripped into the former Florida home of the late U.S. President Richard Nixon on Wednesday, tearing down a key building in the Key Biscayne compound once known as the Winter White House.

CIA Errors: According to an op ed in the NYT by a Clinton-era state department official, in August of 1998 the CIA falsely reported to the White House that Boris Yeltsin had died. A CIA analyst later explained:"We missed the Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests last spring. We're under a lot of pressure not to miss anything else."

British Knighthoods: A body of legislators called the House of Commons Public Administration Committee recommended this month that the list of available aristocratic honors be trimmed drastically, from 16 to 4, and that the word"empire" be replaced with"excellence" in such medals as the Order of the British Empire. Most radical of all, it urged that knighthoods and their female equivalent, the title of dame, be abolished within five years.

Art Preservation: A Renaissance painting is creating unlikely collaborators on the Stanford campus. Experts at the Cantor Center for Visual Arts, the Department of Art and Art History, the Medical Center and even the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) are teaming up to use today's technology to understand and preserve yesterday's art treasures.

Journal Bias?: Librarians rely in part for title selections on the recommendations of such well-known book reviewers as Publishers Weekly, Kirkus Reviews and Library Journal, each of which generates thousands of reviews every year on myriad topics. A look at Middle East-related commentary produced by Library Journal, however, suggests a striking pattern of laudatory, uncritical endorsement of patently one-sided books written by extreme critics of Israel.

Boston: There's more to Boston politics than John Kerry and the Kennedys. Now, as the city becomes America's political center for a brief moment next week, historians and others are digging through the past to glean insights into a nation's birth. What they're finding is forcing a reassessment of how the city shaped US politics - and how the past may echo in pronouncements from the podium next week.

Australian History Wars: Over 18 months after Keith Windschuttle published his book The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, the academic world is still anguishing over its impact. It is terrified of what he will do next. Windschuttle struck at the heart of the accepted view of Australian colonial history in the past 30 years - that the settler society had engaged in a pattern of conquest, dispossession and killing of the indigenous inhabitants. The facts, he said, did not stack up.

Textbooks Cost too Much: Textbooks are expensive because publishers inflate prices by adding"bells and whistles" that professors don't want and students don't use, an official of a student-advocacy group told the U.S. House of Representatives' principal subcommittee on higher education on Tuesday."The high cost of textbooks has perplexed and frustrated students, parents, and faculty for many years," said Merriah Fairchild, higher-education director of the California Student Public Interest Research Group. She also argued that publishers too often needlessly issue new editions of textbooks to prevent students from buying cheaper, used copies. (Subscribers only)

Hitler: German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder paid tribute to Nazi officer Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg and his fellow conspirators who came closest to killing Hitler 60 years ago to the day. Schroeder was speaking at a ceremony of commemoration in the courtyard of the Bendlerblock, the former Nazi war ministry where the aristocratic Stauffenberg was executed hours after he planted a bomb on July 20, 1944, that was intended to kill Hitler.

Iranian Historian Sentenced: A prominent history professor twice condemned to death on blasphemy charges has been sentenced to three years in jail for insulting Islamic sacred beliefs, the judge in charge of the case said Tuesday. The defendant's lawyer said he would appeal. Hashem Aghajari, a professor at Tehran's Teachers Training University, had his death sentence overturned twice before the charges were reduced in a third trial earlier this month.

WWII: Warsaw Mayor Lech Kaczynski on Tuesday called on German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder to apologize to Poles for Germany's WWII aggression.

Military Tribunals: The history and operation of military tribunals in U.S. military law from the Revolutionary War to the present is elucidated in a major new report from the Congressional Research Service. See"Military Tribunals: Historical Patters and Lessons" by Louis Fisher, Congressional Research Service, July 9, 2004.

Roman Engineering: A Roman bridge once spanning the River Tyne has been discovered by archaeologists in Northumberland. The site of the ruins in Corbridge has been studied since the 1970s because of river erosion.

Woodstock: The New York Thruway was not backed up for miles Monday, but those who were here were full of hope that their development plans, now officially under way, would redefine Max Yasgur's old dairy farm and the surrounding acreage and give Sullivan County the means to compete with places like Saratoga Springs and Tanglewood for summer concert dollars.There will be an amphitheater and museum opening in two years, and it is possible that a hotel and conference center and a music school will start by 2012.

Activist Hollywood: Just back with footage they shot in Iraq, Afghanistan and Washington, D.C., filmmakers Gerard Ungerman and Audrey Brohy are racing against time. They're editing 15 hours a day in their North Hollywood home to get their documentary"The Oil Factor Behind the War on Terror" finished and into theaters before the presidential election. Nearly a dozen other films are in that race too.

Lincoln: One of the world’s leading historians of phonography, Allen Koenigsberg, who is also a classics professor at Brooklyn College in New York, has investigated the rumor that President Lincoln made a sound recording.

Ireland: A planned motorway on an important ancient Irish heritage site has prompted a clash between preservationists and the need for modernisation. With the planning process underway, the road would run less than half a mile away from the historic Hill of Tara.

Zachary Taylor: For years, local historians puzzled over the few fragmented letters found etched on one of the tall stucco walls near the banks of the Rio Grande. A broken cement plaque declares the structure once served as the headquarters of Gen. Zachary Taylor, the Mexican War hero who would become president of the United States."It’s been coffee shop fodder for years," said Bill Young, a member of the Cameron County Historical Commission. After years of silence, state officials have pointed to research that dispels the legend once hyped in newspapers and even a 1960s telephone directory.

Civil War: When William Tecumseh Sherman marched into Columbia on Feb. 17, 1865, the storehouse of the South's treasury -- the Confederate Printing Plant, where money was being made -- lay at his feet. What happened to the city after the Union general got here is no mystery. But there is a mystery surrounding the fate of beautifully engraved metal plates that were used to make Confederate money during the Civil War.

Iraq: Now that the formal U.S. occupation of Iraq has passed into military history, some military historians are likening it to an obscure campaign that flared and then faded more than a century ago."Iraq has many more similarities with the Philippine Insurrection than with any other American experience," says Jerry Morelock, editor and senior historian of Armchair General magazine.

Olympics At the starting line of the Olympic men's marathon Aug. 29, runners will already be miles ahead of the past. With modern training and equipment, they aren't likely to drop dead at the finish, as the original Marathon runner did two and a half millennia ago. Now, a Texas astronomer says he may know why that messenger is said to have perished after running some 26 miles, from Marathon to Athens, to convey the news of Greek victory over the Persians in 490 B.C.

Black History: A friend recently alerted Chatterbox that Dairy Queen is marketing a new frozen drink called the MooLatte. Isn't that, he observed, er, kind of in poor taste? What he meant was that"MooLatte" sounds a lot like"mulatto," which is a word, not in much use nowadays, that describes a person whose father is white and mother is black or (less common in bygone days) the other way around.

Pinochet: In theory, the Augusto Pinochet era here ended long ago, and this is now a modern and prosperous country that has healed the scars inflicted by the dark years of his dictatorship.But On the eve of what was meant as a triumphal visit by Chile's president to the United States, General Pinochet's name has again surfaced, this time in a possible financial scandal. According to a United States Senate report made public on Wednesday, from 1994 to 2002 General Pinochet maintained at least six personal and corporate accounts at the Riggs Bank in Washington, with deposits of $4 million to $8 million.

Hitler: Germany's main Protestant bishop paid tribute Sunday to the dissident army officers who tried to blow up Adolf Hitler in a failed coup 60 years ago, calling them an example to the nation. The sermon was part of the buildup of anniversary events honoring Col. Claus Graf Schenk von Stauffenberg and other high-ranking soldiers from the German aristocracy, executed in Berlin after the Nazi dictator survived the July 20, 1944 briefcase bomb placed by Stauffenberg.

Week of 7-12-04

Copernicus: [W]hy would a serious author in the 20th century judge [Nicolaus Copernicus’s 'On the Revolutions'] ''the book that nobody read?''

Personal Histories: Companies use audio and video technology to preserve life stories as told by those who lived them … enhanced with music and family photographs and packaged into a video biography.

Revolutionary War: About 200 people, including re-enactors, gathered at the state historic site to witness the rededication of the [Stony Point] battlefield's renovated museum on the 225th anniversary of what historians called"the last Revolutionary battle in the Hudson Valley."

Donner Party: During the past two weeks an archaeological exploration of the Donner Camp site near Alder Creek has been taking place. Under the supervision of the United States Forest Service, a small team has been continuing excavations to find the exact location of the George and Jacob Donner campsites in the winter of 1846-47. This is an extension of last summer's field research.

Presidents' Stables: After nearly a half-century of housing the horses that carried presidents, the Executive Stable -- what was left of it -- spent 90 years as part of Washington's paved-over past, joining centuries of foundation stones, bone fragments and other artifacts of everyday life beneath the ground. Now they are being uncovered. Plans to improve security around the White House put the area in the hands of archaeologists.

Dallas and JFK: A new video brochure produced by Dallas for tourists omits any reference to John F. Kennedy even though the Sixth Floor Museum is the largest draw of visitors. Dawn Quiett, a spokesperson for the private, nonprofit museum, said she and other staffers were surprised to be left out of the new marketing tool.

Digitizing Voices from the Past: A new technology under development in Berkeley could help thousands of long-dead Americans to"speak" again. Using a tool normally used for particle physics research, two scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Carl Haber and Vitaliy Fadeyev, are investigating how to extract clear, audible voices from broken, mold-eaten and otherwise unplayable early recordings....One of the world's leading historians of phonography, Allen Koenigsberg, who is also a classics professor at Brooklyn College in New York, has investigated the rumor that President Abraham Lincoln made a sound recording. Koenigsberg, who isn't connected with the Berkeley research, said he has looked for the supposed Lincoln recording"in various archives all over the world," so far without luck.

King Arthur: Scots lay claim to the legend of the round table. On the eve of the release of a new block-buster movie that once again raises the profile of the ancient warrior to iconic status, a new battle is being waged - for the rights to Arthur himself. Hugh McArthur, 42, a historian from Glasgow, claims Arthur was Artur MacAeden, a Welsh-speaking prince of the Britons that ruled the region of Strathclyde between the 4th and 11th centuries and fought Saxon invaders in the 6th century.

Secrecy in Great Britain: The Government's passion for secrecy while it talks about openness is revealed today after a study by The Daily Telegraph that raises serious concerns about the new Freedom of Information Act. It shows that more than 76,000 files which have passed the normal 30-year closure period laid down by the Public Record Act remain hidden on the Lord Chancellor's instructions.

Bill Clinton: Clinton Library to Open Records Early ... On 18 November 2004, former President Bill Clinton plans to release thousands of records pertaining to domestic policy from his presidency. This release will be accomplished nearly a year sooner than the Presidential Records Act calls for and is designed to coincide with the opening of his presidential library.

Federal Funds for History: The Coalition for History reports:"With a recommended 70% cut to the NHPRC and zero funds for the 'Teaching American History' initiative, this year the House [of Representatives] appears little disposed to support programs that advance history and archives."

Frances Fukuyama: Though he was one of the original members of Project for the New American Century (along with Rumsfeld, Cheney, and Wolfowitz), Frances Fukyyama opposed the Iraq war and now says Rumsfeld should resign and Bush should be replaced in November.

Colin Powell: Secretary of State Colin L. Powell hates to fly -- and it shows. Powell is on track to become the least traveled secretary of state in more than three decades, since Henry A. Kissinger embodied the concept of the globe-trotting foreign policy guru, according to records maintained by the State Department's historian. Powell's three immediate predecessors, the records show, traveled an average of more than 45 percent more than he has.

Irish Land Records: Research into Irish social and political history is being seriously impeded by the State's refusal to make Land Commission records"freely accessible", a leading historian has claimed. Dr Terence Dooley, an author and lecturer in modern history at NUI Maynooth, said"researchers as a body are becoming increasingly frustrated" at their inability to access the estimated 11 million records relating to the commission, which was responsible for redistributing land in the State up to the 1980s.

The Latest NYT Mea Culpa: Over the last few months, this page has repeatedly demanded that President Bush acknowledge the mistakes his administration made when it came to the war in Iraq, particularly its role in misleading the American people about Saddam Hussein's weapons of mass destruction and links with Al Qaeda. If we want Mr. Bush to be candid about his mistakes, we should be equally open about our own.

Etruria: A carefully restored ancient Etruscan statue has gone on display in Rome, almost 90 years after it was discovered. The terracotta statue, the Apollo of Veio, was excavated north of Rome in 1916 on the site of a former Etruscan city.

Ponce de Leon: St. Augustine may become headquarters of a new 12-member federal commission tasked with organizing the 500th anniversary celebration of Ponce de Leon's landing in Florida.

India: Allies of the new Congress government call[ed] for revisions of school textbooks currently oriented toward Hindu values.

King George III: A professor has discovered that King George III's madness was triggered by toxic levels of arsenic poisoning.

England: The Museum of London is exhibiting Saxon grave objects belonging to the Prince of Prittlewell for this weekend’s National Archaeology Days.

Slavery: A pre-Civil War slave pen, made of roughhewn logs on a farm in Kentucky and reassembled here at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, was dedicated Tuesday night as the focal point of the $110 million museum. Executive director Spencer Crew called the pen the museum's most important object --"a central icon in telling the story of slavery."

Thailand: A large rally by Sukhothai residents is likely against two academics who suggested that the King Ramkhamhaeng Stone Inscription was in fact created more than five centuries after the reign of the ancient monarch, a leader of the protesters said yesterday.

King Arthur: Touchstone and producer Jerry Bruckheimer have embarked upon their own epic quest - for"the truth" - daring to suggest that there was no mystique, no shining armour and - whisper it - no Camelot. It’s sacrilege, almost blasphemy.

Captain Cook: A painting depicting the demise of Captain James Cook indicates he was fighting with Hawaiian islanders rather than appeasing them as the official version of his death describes. The 18th century English navigator was murdered by the natives on his third voyage, to uncover the north-west passage.

Nuclear Weapons: The U.S. included so many nuclear weapons in its first missile-age plan for nuclear war that top military commanders called it a"hazard to ourselves as well as our enemy," according to newly declassified documents posted today by the National Security Archive at George Washington University.

Ken Burns: Today, I am filing a petition with the Department of Justice ... which documents in detail that the [1912] decision to indict [former heavyweight champion Jack] Johnson — and, in the end, the conviction itself — was racially motivated. The Committee to Pardon Jack Johnson includes prominent Americans from politics, including Sens. John McCain and Edward Kennedy, as well as boxers Vernon Forrest, Sugar Ray Leonard and Bernard Hopkins.

Journalism and the Civil Rights Movement: Lexington, KY newspaper confesses it minimized coverage of local civil rights protests during the 1950s and 1960s, hoping they would wither from neglect."In reaching back four decades, The Herald-Leader went a step further than just about any other Southern paper in trying to set the record straight on its civil rights coverage, historians and journalism experts said."

Italy's Medieval Towns: Facing extinction because of migration, Italian villages seek salvation through preservation."We want to revive our village by renewing our history. Santo Stefano's wealth lies in its medieval history and we are going to preserve it."

Democracy: What if Americans spent the day talking about democracy? What if they had the conversation in their local libraries? What if it all happened on Sept. 11, a date that means so much in the national memory? These are the questions David Silver asked last winter at a meeting with librarians in Seattle. Since then, 110 librarians across the country have given him an answer: great idea.

The Romanovs: A group of American scientists have questioned this week the validity of a forensics investigation into the bodies of the Russian tsar and his family. The team from Stanford University, California, have debated the research by Home Office forensic scientists that asserted bones found in 1991 in a mass grave at Yekaterinburg were of Tsar Nicholas II and the Russian royal family – shot in 1918 by the Bolsheviks.

Nazis: A compensation scheme which has awarded £16m to the victims of the Nazis will finish by the end of next month. The Trade and Industry Secretary, Patricia Hewitt, has stated that any claims should be submitted by August 31st. It has been running since 1999.

Canada: West Pubnico, a bountiful fishing village looking out over the Gulf of Maine, stands as the oldest Acadian community in the country. It's a place that, as much as any, can lay claim to being the birthplace of Canada and is now at the centre of celebrations to mark the Acadian World Congress, beginning July 31 across the Maritimes.

British Colonialism Schoolchildren in the UK should be taught much more about the history of the British empire and that colonial rule over India was on the whole beneficial to those who were ruled, it was recommended today. The first recommendation comes from Ofsted, the watchdog organisation for schools, which expressed unhappiness that the time devoted to teaching children, aged between 11 and 16, about the empire often amounts to just a few lessons in five years.

Slavery: In an upcoming book, historian Jon Musgrave of downstate Marion will advance his theory that Uncle Bob was a"stud slave" who was forced by his masters to impregnate slaves at plantations in several states, including Illinois. It's a story out of sync with the Land of Lincoln, home of the Great Emancipator. Some historians are skeptical of Uncle Bob's story, calling it nothing more than legend….

Traditional History: Teaching American History Grants have been awarded. The Coalition for American History reports that it appears that the term"traditional" American history is generally being viewed within a broad context of American history and consequently is not being used to limit the scope of subject matter for professional development. For example, there are programs focusing on religious tensions in colonial times, African and Native peoples heritage, immigration and migration, internment of Japanese Americans, and the expansion of human and womens' rights.

Copyright Case: The National Coalition for History (NCH) has joined with over thirty other scholarly and non-profit organizations -- including JSTOR, the American Council of Learned Societies, the American Historical Association, the American Sociological Association, the Association of American University Presses, Duke University Press, the Organization of American Historians, and Oxford University Press -- in support of the National Geographic in its legal battle relating to digital preservation and access.

Middle East Studies: Despite several hearings and considerable interest by lawmakers on both sides of the aisle, it is nearly certain that the Higher Education Act will not be reauthorized this session of Congress. Representative Howard P."Buck" McKeon (R-CA) has decided the reauthorization has gotten"too partisan" and"too political." One of the main areas of contention was the proposal to create advisory boards to review Middle East Studies.

Nazis and IBM: On June 22 a Swiss appellate Court ruled that a compensation suit filed by the Gypsy International Recognition and Compensation Action could proceed against IBM, which according to the judge knowingly systemized Hitler's persecution and extermination of Europe's Jews, directly from New York and through its subsidiaries in Europe coordinated through the Swiss office.

Aaron Burr: The bitter grudge between their ancestors has long faded, but on Sunday descendants of Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr marked their paces with pistols in hand. Antonio Burr, a descendant of Burr's cousin, arrived by rowboat in period costume and fired a replica of the .54-caliber pistol that mortally wounded Hamilton 200 years ago in the July 11, 1804 duel. Douglas Hamilton, a fifth-great-grandson of Hamilton, feigned the historic hip wound, dropping to one knee and then falling to the ground in a sitting position.

Obituary: Laurance S. Rockefeller, the middle brother of the five prominent and philanthropic grandsons of John D. Rockefeller, who concentrated his own particular generosity on conservation, recreation, ecological concerns and medical research, particularly the treatment of cancer, died yesterday at his home in Manhattan. He was 94.

Week of 7-5-04

Japan: Japan's vast hoard of war booty known as Yamashita's Gold was long thought to be buried in caves in the Philippines. But in their book 'Gold Warriors,' Sterling and Peggy Seagrave sensationally claim that the treasure trove was secretly recovered -- and continues to oil the wheels of politics in Japan and beyond.

King Arthur: [W]hat would Arthur's court have looked like? Historians of early medieval times suggest it would be something quite different than Jerry Bruckheimer's extravagant King Arthur, which opened in theatres last week.

Alexander Hamilton: To use a term that the most financially savvy of the Founding Fathers would have appreciated, the market is bullish these days for anything related to Alexander Hamilton.

Lewis and Clark: Historian Gary Moulton thinks the journals of Lewis and Clark are as alive today as they ever have been. He should know. As an American history professor at the University of Nebraska, Moulton has spent more than 20 years of his life with the journals, and completed a 13-volume definitive version of the journals in 1999.

New Zealand: Every week, 19 researchers and historians at the Waitangi Tribunal painstakingly unearth new information about New Zealand's disappearing past…. But questions are emerging about the academic validity of the history the tribunal is producing.

The Internet and History: With an increasing amount of personal information now stored on e-mails, mobile phones and websites, academics are concerned that a generation's archives could be lost or rendered unreadable by technological advances. To tackle the 'electronic-deficit', they have launched the first project of its kind to archive the internet.

1980 WWII Epic Re-released, Grittier Than Ever: When he was 30, Sam Fuller joined up with an infantry regiment during the second world war. He served in north Africa; took part in the invasion of Sicily; was there on Omaha beach on June 6 1944. In his epic 1980 film The Big Red One he tried to capture the squalor, absurdity and terror of what he had experienced."A war film's overall objective, no matter how personal or emotional, is to make a viewer feel war," he noted."To make a real war movie would be to occasionally fire at the audience from behind the screen during battle scenes."

WWII: The new book 'Shadow Divers' tells the true story of two dive enthusiasts who solved a mystery from World War Two off the coast of New Jersey. Ritchie Kohler and John Chatterton plunged to dangerous depths and found a Nazi U-boat on the ocean floor. NPR's Renee Montagne talks with author Robert Kurson about the discovery.

Australia: Easygoing Australians have never been known as slaves to etiquette. This year, Prime Minister John Howard is making an election issue out of civility.... Australian National University historian Jill Matthews said Howard's concern about declining manners ignores a 150-year tradition of Australians celebrating the independent ``larrikin,'' a person who bucks authority and breaks rules.

Atlanta: Underground Atlanta has started a walking tour to highlight its history. Forget bars, restaurants and souvenir shops, says Peter Bonner, a native Atlantan and a local historian who is leading the tour.... The tour makes 10 stops through freight depots, hotels and fountains."There's plenty of stories down there," said Bonner, who runs a"Gone With the Wind" tour in Jonesboro.

The Medicis: A long-rumoured secret crypt of Italy's mighty Medici family was discovered by scientists [Wednesday] after a hunt reminiscent of an Indiana Jones movie.

Religion: The religiously themed novel"The da Vinci Code" has reigned at or near first place on best-seller lists for more than a year, bringing joy to author Dan Brown and to publisher Doubleday -- but an unusual degree of scholarly dismay.... Early laments were issued by Catholic and Protestant conservatives, but now they're coming from decidedly liberal quarters.

Nazis: German art historians have traced dozens of Old Masters looted from private collections across Europe by Hermann Goering, the Nazi leader with a passion for art. They hope to see the works returned to their rightful owners after a show in Munich.

Civil War: Among the rare finds for newspaper collectors are papers printed in the Confederacy during the war. Some went out of business for lack of newsprint, and others were closed by Union forces or subjected to censorship.

Obituary: Charles E. Andrews, a writer at the dawn of television who helped create an informal, intimate approach to programming for Dave Garroway, Studs Terkel and other early stars, died on Friday at his home on the Upper East Side of Manhattan. He was 88.

The Arts: The first painting by the Dutch master Johannes Vermeer to come to auction in more than 80 years — and one that for decades has been suspected of being fake — sold for $30 million Wednesday night at Sotheby's here.

Obituary: Jasper Ridley, who has died aged 84, was the author of some 20 biographies and general historical works, ranging from Henry VIII and the Roundheads to Mussolini, Tito and Freemasons.

Museum Troubles: Still hurting financially from the 9/11 attack, the South Street Seaport Museum is eliminating several major staff positions to reduce its budget by $1 million, the museum's chairman said this week.

Rock 'n Roll: Some scholars trace rock music back many millennia. Historian Arnold Toynbee, in his classic work"Who Put the Bomp (In the Bomp, Bomp, Bomp)?," traced it to that fateful day when a caveman picked up a rock and smacked another cavemen in the head repeatedly, making a rhythmic"Bomp, bomp, bomp!" Eventually, the second cavemen rolled over unconscious. (Rock + roll = rock 'n' roll.)

American Culture: 100 years ago it teamed with vanilla ice cream at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair…. Before the cone became a sensation on the Pike (a.k.a. the Fair boardwalk), explained Suzanne Corbett, culinary historian with the National Park Service in St. Louis,"it was not considered polite to be walking around eating in public."

Taj Mahal: Names carved into a wall at the Taj Mahal are thought to be those of the 17th-century craftsmen of the famous Indian mausoleum.

New King Arthur Film:"King Arthur," which opens today nationwide, claims to be"the untold true story that inspired the legend." In the name of accuracy, apparently, some familiar legendary elements have been altered or dropped altogether.

Battle of Britain: Yesterday, ... a rare archive of private letters written by RAF veterans about the dogfights that spared Britain from Nazi invasion ... was turned into a public resource for historians and students after it was presented to the Imperial War Museum in London.

Pompeii: On August 24, AD79, the spectacular eruption of Mount Vesuvius destroyed the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The event, documented in Pompeii: The Last Day, a BBC special showing next week on Nine, was unprecedented in the ancient world, a haunting lesson in the mortality of the supposedly invincible Roman Empire.

Civil War: History buffs in Berkeley County [West Virginia] have banded together to protect a Civil War battlefield from development.

History Wars, Part III: One might have hoped that the academic response [to Keith Windschuttle's Fabrication of Aboriginal History] would be more measured. In fact, it was pathetic. For example, asked about her fanciful black death tolls in Tasmania, Lyndall Ryan said:"Yes, but historians are always making up figures."

Personal History Propels Edwards to Number Two Spot: John Edwards cashed in on a fresh face, Southern roots, a compelling personal history and a surprisingly strong showing in the 2004 Democratic primaries to be named John Kerry's vice presidential running mate on Tuesday.

Rock 'n Roll: Rock 'n' roll turned 50 Monday, at exactly 11:00 am (1600 GMT), when Elvis Presley's recording of"That's All Right Mama" wailed simultaneously over at least 1,200 radio stations worldwide, organizers said.

Texas: Don't mess with Texas. Seriously. Because if you do, a word of warning may arrive in the mail. The phrase"Don't Mess With Texas" is trademarked by the state Department of Transportation as part of its litter prevention campaign, you will be told.

Hitler: Two new German films productions are to feature Adolf Hitler as the main character, a radical departure from previous pictures about the Third Reich. The two films, Bernd Eichinger's The Downfall and The Devil's Architect by Heinrich Breloer, will appear on screen later this year and in 2005.

Chinese Treasures Recovered: Six thousand pieces of Ming porcelain have been salvaged from the wreckage of a Portuguese merchant ship that has been underwater for around four centuries. The shipwreck lies off the coast of Terengganu state in Malaysia and was found by fishermen last year.

Clinton's Book Shy on Important Details: Plodding through former President Bill Clinton's new 957-page opus is akin to being locked in a room with him while he tells you everywhere he went, everything and everybody he saw and what he said to them, from the day he was born in August 1946 until he left the presidency. But for political junkies, this enormous book tells you very little about one puzzling question: why he didn't campaign harder and more frequently for Vice President Al Gore in the 2000 election.

From the Civil War to Iraq: Think of it as a family reunion. When the 256th Infantry Brigade of the Louisiana National Guard came to Fort Hood in April for training before deployment to Iraq, it was joined by about 700 members of the 1st Battalion of the 69th Infantry from New York. The last time soldiers from Louisiana met the boys of The Fighting 69th, they were shooting at each on a hillside in Virginia in 1862 to disastrous results for both sides.

G. Washington's Visage: George Washington looks out on America from textbooks, dollar bills, gift shop kitsch and the side of Mount Rushmore. Yet historians at Washington's Mount Vernon home are convinced that no one knows what he really looked like ... [and believe] there's a way to remedy that.

Public History: Since opening in 2001, the [National Museum of Australia] has been a battleground in Australia's" culture wars". It is tackling charges of political bias by showcasing the arguments: next year the museum will hang panels explaining how curators and historians come up with one representation or another.

Civil War: A reunion remembers a mill village erased by Sherman's troops.

History of Science: Ernst Mayr, the last survivor of the intellectual giants who developed the modern version of the theory of evolution, turns 100 today.

WWI: The consensus of most historians is that a mine laid by a German submarine sent the USS San Diego to the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean off Long Island in 1918. But the folks who produce the History Channel series"Deep Sea Detectives" aren't so sure. So they came to Long Island for the first time last week to do some underwater sleuthing.

Obituary: [Herman Goldstine], co-inventor of the modern computer and historian of its development.

Hamilton-Burr Duel: It has been 200 years, minus a few days, since Vice President Aaron Burr fatally shot Alexander Hamilton in a duel here. Weehawken and the duel have been tied together in an often-uncomfortable knot ever since.... But that is changing. The township is sponsoring a series of events this week marking the duel's 200th anniversary. Tours are being offered Thursday through Saturday to historic sites in Weehawken and the New York area that are connected to Hamilton and Burr.

History Wars, Part II: The history wars that are conducted in the media debase public life, laments author.

Politically Correct: A proposal to honor as many as 34 Chinese gold miners murdered in Hells Canyon more than 100 years ago by designating a"Chinese Massacre Site" on official maps has been at least temporarily derailed by local politicians.

Remembering Douglass’s Fifth of July Speech: Frederick Douglass had been asked by the Rochester Ladies’ Anti-Slavery Society to deliver a Fourth of July speech. He declined, choosing instead to give the speech the next day. In front of more than 1,600 people, Douglass bashed the nurtured memories of the Revolution and the liberties so many white Americans were indulging in, manifesting in profound prose the contrast between freeman and slave.

North Carolina’s Forgotten Heroes?: He was full of diseases, both of the body (malaria, yellow fever) and of the spirits (he loved the rum). William Hooper was also an American patriot, one of the North Carolinians who signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. And you've never heard of him? Shame.

One Historian’s Take on Segregation: For all the wrongs of school segregation, there also was lasting pride and friendship for many of the black students who went through those times together…. Pride was the focus of a talk given … by historian Nyoni Collins.

History Wars: An Australian veteran of the history wars has called for a code of ethics that would gag historians from publicly questioning the professional integrity of their colleagues. University of Wollongong historian Greg Melleuish said parts of the proposed code were"to put it mildly, outrageous, because they seem to want to suppress open discussion."

Week of 6-28-04

Environmentalism: Under an outdoor tent on Montgomery College's Germantown campus, reformers who challenged America's environmental policies will be portrayed next week during the school's fifth annual chautauqua, a living history program. The event,"The American Environment: Voices and Choices," features four evening programs that … explore environmental issues that arose during the 19th and 20th centuries.

French and Indian War Anniversary: On a rainy July 3, 1754, French and American Indian forces defeated British troops, led by George Washington, at a 53-foot-wide circular fort named Fort Necessity.

Native American History: [Mona] Smith is part Dakota Indian and an award-winning Minneapolis video producer and director. She was approached by officials of the Minnesota Historical Society two years ago to develop an exhibit, in anticipation of this summer's celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Grand Excursion.

Civil Rights Movement: President Bush marked the 40th anniversary of the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on Thursday, telling an audience at a White House ceremony that the United States has been a better place since the law was passed but that the problem the legislation addressed has yet to be eradicated.

1893 World's Fair: With thousands converging on Grant Park for the Taste of Chicago, the time is right to recall the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, the predecessor to [the] logjam of city festivals.

Strom Thurmond: Essie Mae Washington-Williams, a biracial woman who stepped forward last year to acknowledge that she was the daughter of the late Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, now wants to join the United Daughters of the Confederacy, an organization of descendants of soldiers who fought for the South in the Civil War.

Alamo: Alamo artifacts have proven a big draw at auction. A rare letter signed by William Barret Travis on the first day of the Alamo's siege fetched $172,904.

India Textbooks: India's new government is poised to rewrite the history taught to the country's schoolchildren after a panel of eminent historians recommended scrapping textbooks written by scholars hand-picked by the previous, Hindu nationalist, administration.

Mummy: British Museum uses computer animation to probe 2,800-year-old body. Using scanning technology developed by neurological researchers in a London hospital, the British Museum has recreated the kind of public 'unrolling' of a mummy that used to draw crowds in the 19th century.

Civil War and African Americans: A trust fund managed by the City of Boston awarded a $15,000 grant to the Heritage Guild, organization of African-American women, to develop a monument to the black soldiers including the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Militia regiment, which made a desperate and heroic charge on Fort Wagner in South Carolina and was featured in the 1989 film"Glory."

World War I: July 1st marks the 88th anniversary of one of the blackest days in British military history. The Battle of the Somme began its internecine course on July 1, 1916, claiming the lives of countless soldiers, the bloodiest of the"big pushes" that Allied commanders believed would swing the war their way. And now a new monument is finally being built to honor the memory of the soldiers who died.

African-American Town: On Friday, an archaeological team of 15 people from around the country finished the first of a three-phase excavation of a rolling farm field about 35 miles southeast of Quincy, Ill. The team has spent the last five weeks digging thousands of artifacts from the 42-acre prairie grass pasture once known as New Philadelphia -- the first town in the United States incorporated by an African-American.

State Historian Retires: Christopher Collier retires after 19 years as the state historian of Connecticut. Mr. Collier, a retired University of Connecticut history professor, took the unpaid post as state historian.

Week of 6-7-04

History of Science: Theories combine history, folklore, science.

Texas History: A copy of the Texas Declaration of Independence and a promissory note that secured the nourishment of Alamo warriors are among several pieces of Texas history that will be on auction blocks next week.

Reagan Eulogies: The president, Margaret Thatcher and others paint 'first brushstrokes of history,' but the debate over Reagan's record will go on.

School Busing: One of New York's top political leaders, Herman D. Farrell Jr., has questioned having a party in South Boston during the Democratic National Convention this summer, saying that the neighborhood had a"history of racial turmoil and tension." A Boston official called him a"racial agitator" and insisted that the busing fight of the 1970's had little to do with racism.

Holocaust: Some object to the form a new Holocaust monument is taking at Belzec, a Nazi death camp in Poland. A trench, about 30 feet deep and open at both ends, has been dug into the ground between the mass graves of over 500,000 people. Stretching through the heart of the camp, it's the central element of a memorial that was unveiled last week.

Genocide: Nearly nine years after the event, Bosnia's Serbian leadership has admitted responsibility for the massacre of at least 7,000 Muslim men and boys in the town of Srebrenica. A 42-page report, commissioned by Bosnia's Serb Republic and made public Friday, admits for the first time that police and army units under the government's control"participated" in the massacre, which took place in July 1995.

Michael Moore: Moore has hired Chris Lehane and Mark Fabiani, former political advisors to Bill Clinton and Al Gore to defend his new movie, Fahrenheit 9/11."Employing the Clinton strategy of '92, we will allow no attack on this film to go without a response immediately," Moore said Thursday."And we will go after anyone who slanders me or my work, and we will do it without mercy. And when you think 'without mercy,' you think Chris Lehane."

Reagan: Conservatives used to be sceptics. There are no grand laws governing history, they once believed. Every attempt to imagine an ideal society leads inevitably to tyranny. The idea that politics consists of the pursuit of rational goals abrogates to an elite the right to define those goals and impose them on others.

Reagan: He slashed taxes. He championed the end of big government. He stared down the air controllers and deregulated American industry. He launched a conservative revolution and revitalized the Republican Party.

Iraq: Ninety years after World War I started, the world is still fighting its aftereffects. U.S. and British troops are in Iraq, which Britain created out of the wreckage of the Ottoman Empire. The Balkans, where the war started, remain in turmoil. Turkey, the Ottoman core, continues to straddle East and West and to have designs on at least part of what is now Iraq.

Iraq: The 60th anniversary of the invasion of Normandy gave President Bush an opportunity to draw parallels between World War II, on the one hand, and the war in Iraq and the broader global conflict, on the other. This proved controversial.

Bohemians, All: Whoever wins the race to the White House this year, the president of the United States is sure to be a direct descendant of the ancient rulers of Bohemia, according to one researcher.

Obituary: Marilyn Warenski, a pioneer in women's studies whose book Patriarch and Politics forced historians to re-examine the previously accepted role of women during the early years of Utah, died Tuesday of pancreatic cancer. She was 73.

Reagan: His policies were controversial and polarizing, but Ronald Reagan will be remembered as a president whose confidence, conviction and good cheer transformed the office, realigned American politics, and left the nation feeling more optimistic and secure than had any president since Franklin Delano Roosevelt, historians say.

Refugees: A sense of history would enable a more informed debate on the treatment of asylum seekers, writes Klaus Neumann.

Civil War: The last known widow of a veteran from the American Civil War has died in Alabama at the age of 97.

Reagan: If Republican lawmakers succeed in their efforts, former President Ronald Reagan will soon be honored by having his likeness appear on the $10 bill, the $20 bill, the dime or the 50-cent piece.

McCarthyism: Fifty years ago this week, TV transmitted a sound bite heard down through the ages:"Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last? Have you left no sense of decency?"

Rating Presidents: A new survey of presidents by the Federalist Society has Ronald Reagan as a near-great. Liberal presidents like Woodrow Wilson rank far lower than on Schlesinger's old lists.

Washington’s Headquarters Museum: The two trustees of the 12-member board of the Washington Association of New Jersey, Julia Somers and Leslie Bensley, said on Friday that they were quitting because disagreements by the leadership of the association may have led to the expected transfer of Michael Henderson, superintendent of Morristown National Historical Park, to another park.

Reagan’s Tenure: As the nation mourns its 40th president, much is being made of Ronald Reagan's role in reordering U.S.-Soviet relations and dramatically redefining the terms of the political debate over tax policy, defense, domestic priorities and social justice. The outpouring of flattering eulogies and tributes since the conservative icon died Saturday is what presidential historian Robert Dallek described yesterday as"hagiography" of a highly popular political leader.

Historical Honeymoon: There was nothing astonishing about the procession of lawmakers who came to the Senate floor Tuesday to speak in warm terms about the late President Ronald Reagan's conviction, grace, good nature, optimism, wit, leadership, patriotism and political mastery.

Presidential Marriages: Nancy Reagan has emerged as a widow in mourning, and she does so with the nation's empathy -- the kind of public embrace that at times eluded her during her years in the White House.

Chess: Chessplayers love to argue. Who was the greatest World Champion? The greatest tactical player? What's the best way to face the King's Indian Defense? And, of course, there's the question"What were the greatest chess tournaments of all time?"

Baseball: Two documents came to light this spring that should have a profound effect on the popular history of the national pastime of baseball. One was a lot in the April 17-May 1 Internet and phone sale by Robert Edward Auctions, Watchung, New Jersey. The lot consisted of a handwritten letter, scrapbook pages, and a photo postcard of Abner Doubleday.

Lincoln: A newly discovered 1838 poem of 36 lines,"The Suicide's Soliloquy", may have been written by Abraham Lincoln. It was published without attribution in the Sangamo Journal, but many scholars believe that its references, syntax, and tone are compatible with Lincoln's own.

Louis XVII: The heart of Louis XVII, the boy-king and son of Marie-Antoinette and Louis XVI who died in prison in 1795, has been laid to rest alongside his parents’ remains in the crypt of Saint-Denis Basilica.

Spanish Armada: A letter from Elizabeth I’s trusted adviser indicates the Turkish fleet may have played an important role in the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588. A previously unstudied letter from Sir Francis Walsingham, the queen’s secretary, to the English ambassador in Istanbul requested the Turkish navy to disrupt the Spanish forces.

Vichy France: A new book claims to have discovered formerly unpublished links between the Vichy regime and luxury fashion company Louis Vuitton. Author Stephanie Bonvicini made the discoveries while researching the book Louis Vuitton, A French Saga, to mark 150 years since the foundation of the company.

England: The English language was invented in a tiny West Wales village, claims an amateur American historian. How Wales Created England and The English Language by Thomas D Brown suggests a theory that Pembrokeshire's mantle as Little England beyond Wales is far older than historians think.

D-Day: In one of several new studies, Samuel Newland, an American historian, concludes that, of all the defining moments of World War II - from Pearl Harbor to the fall of Paris - none provided the same sense of common purpose among the allies as the Normandy landings 60 years ago.

Korean History: Historical distortion remains a gruesome legacy of Japanese colonialism. Nearly six decades after liberation, imperial Japan's record of negatively representing Korean history and racial characteristics, not to speak of whitewashing its brutal oppression and exploitation, keeps annoying Koreans.

Nazis: A California woman can sue to retrieve $150 million worth of family paintings stolen by the Nazis, the Supreme Court ruled Monday in opening American courts to World War II-era disputes the Bush administration had wanted settled diplomatically.

Reagan: Same picture of Reagan shows up on covers of both Time and Newsweek.

Kissinger: The chief Latin American expert at the Council on Foreign Relations, the nation's pre-eminent foreign policy club, has quit as a protest, accusing the council of stifling debate on American intervention in Chile during the 1970's as a result of pressure from former Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger.

Re-enactors: People who dress up and play soldier in re-enactments of past battles, particularly battles from World War II and Vietnam, are drawing fire from historians and others.

Atlantis: A scientist says he may have found remains of the lost city of Atlantis. Satellite photos of southern Spain reveal features on the ground appearing to match descriptions made by Greek scholar Plato of the fabled utopia.

CIA Budget: The Central Intelligence Agency budget for fiscal year 1955 was $335 million, according to newly disclosed classified budget documents from half a century ago.

Colonial History: ST. CROIX ISLAND — Long a footnote to history, this uninhabited island in the St. Croix River that marks the U.S.-Canadian border is poised to become the focal point for a 10-day international celebration. On June 26, when dignitaries from France, Canada and the United States set foot on the 6 1/2-acre grassy outcropping, it will look much as it did when Pierre Dugua, Samuel de Champlain and 77 other men arrived 400 years ago to carve out the first French settlement in the New World.

Lewis and Clark: One of the highlights of the Lewis and Clark bicentennial commemoration in late June at Kaw Point in Kansas City, Kan., will be the"Tent of Many Voices."

Ranking Reagan: When Ronald Reagan entered the White House in 1981, the United States faced two major foreign-policy challenges: the generation-long Cold War with the Soviet Union, and an unfamiliar new threat from militant Islamic movements, which had seized power in Iran and sought to end American influence in the Middle East.

Reagan: The nation's capital is preparing to honor the 40th U.S. president with a state funeral, an intricately choreographed 45 hours and 45 minutes filled with tradition — including a horse-drawn caisson in a procession from the Ellipse to the Capitol, where the body of Ronald Wilson Reagan will lie in state in the Rotunda.

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