SOURCE: New York Historical Society
Institute for Constitutional History Fall Seminar: Bureaucracy and the Constitution
"Today, a deep and historically inflected debate is raging over the legitimacy of American bureaucracy. As context for that controversy, this seminar will trace the constitutional history of the U.S. administrative state."
SOURCE: Places Journal
The Filing Cabinet: A Material History
by Craig Robertson
The humble filing cabinet in fact tells the story of the rise of bureaucratic structures in capitalism and government, and the potential for information to be used efficiently – or weaponized.
Loyalty and Duty in the Federal Bureaucracy, From Nixon to Trump
by Michael Koncewicz
Independent civil servants checked Richard Nixon's worst impulses to use the executive branch to punish enemies. The independence of the bureaucracy has since eroded, to Donald Trump's advantage.
SOURCE: NY Times
The ‘Deep State’ Exists to Battle People Like Trump
by Margaret O’Mara
A merit-based system for hiring federal employees was created in reaction to the rampant corruption of the Gilded Age.
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