Blogs

Displaying 25791-25800 of 25838 results.
ID: 153939
Uid: 78565
Author: 38
Category: 0
Title: When Will Trump Voters Realize They've Been Had?
Source:
Body: <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="/sites/default/files/153939-trump.png"></p><p><em><br></em></p><p><em>Rick Shenkman is the publisher of the History News Network and the author of <a href="http://stoneagebrain.com" target="_hplink">Political Animals:&nbsp; How Our Stone-Age Brain Gets in the Way of Smart Politics </a>(Basic Books, January 2016). You can <a href="https://twitter.com/rickshenkman" target="_hplink">follow</a> him on Twitter. He blogs at <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/blog/author/38" target="_hplink">stoneagebrain.</a></em> </p><p>When will the people of West Virginia and Pennsylvania, those stalwart Trump voters who believe he’ll be bringing back coal jobs, finally figure out they’ve been had? </p> <p> <a href="https://www.amazon.com/Political-Animals-Stone-Age-Brain-Politics/dp/0465033008/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8 "><img src="/sites/default/files/160130-PA-shenkman-sm.png" "="" style="float:left;margin:15px;"></a> By now the list of people who realize they’ve been played by Donald Trump is longer than a Chinese menu. It includes, of course, the&nbsp;thousands of people who took out loans to pay the tuition at Trump University only to discover their degrees were worthless; bankers who lost millions on over-extended projects&nbsp;through the course of <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2016/live-updates/general-election/real-time-fact-checking-and-analysis-of-the-first-presidential-debate/fact-check-has-trump-declared-bankruptcy-four-or-six-times/?utm_term=.8ca7f80f0899">six bankruptcies</a>; contractors who got <a href="http://thehill.com/homenews/news/312846-dc-area-contractors-claim-trump-owes-them-more-than-3-million">stiffed</a> on those projects; and many many others, and that's all before he became a politician. &nbsp;</p> <p>Since his announcement in 2015 that he was running for president he's humiliated both Mitt Romney, who actually <a href="http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/mitt-romney-race-trumps-secretary-state/story?id=44155437">thought</a> he might be named secretary of state (a fantasy, if ever there was one), and New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, who believed his groveling would at least secure him a spot as attorney general before the prize went to Jeff Sessions (Trump <a href="http://www.businessinsider.com/christie-trump-cabinet-ag-attorney-general-2016-12">reportedly</a> promised Christie the position and then withdrew it). Even Benjamin Netanyahu, who&nbsp;welcomed Trump's election after his bruising battles with Barack Obama, has learned that Trump's not to be trusted (Netanyahu was <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2017/03/25/politics/netanyahu-trump-settlements-aipac/">surprised</a> if not shocked when Trump chided Israel for expanding settlements).</p> <p>But what about Trump's voters? Nothing less than the fate of the planet rests possibly on their shoulders as well as vital decisions that will determine if millions lose their health insurance and whether refugees from Syria are resettled in the United States. And yet they've by and large stood by Trump. And that's critical. As long as they stick with the president the GOP isn't likely to impeach him or take him on. &nbsp;</p> <p>Their willingness to turn a blind eye to his many obvious deficiencies is infuriating to liberals, many of whom have already <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/165692">decided</a> that Trump should be impeached, a <a href="http://www.politico.com/story/2017/05/29/trump-impeachment-cities-238912">conclusion</a> multiple liberal city councils have reached. &nbsp;And if that proves impossible, many liberals have <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/164868">demanded</a> that he should be removed from office through the 25th Amendment on the grounds that he's cognitively impaired. The feeling that Trump poses a danger is worldwide. After his disastrous performance at the NATO summit German journalists began <a href="http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/donald-trump-is-a-menace-to-the-world-opinion-a-1148471.html">calling</a> for regime change in the United States.</p> <p>Liberals, hang in there! Not all is actually as grim as it seems. Nate Silver&nbsp;<a href="https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/donald-trumps-base-is-shrinking/">reports</a> that the number of Americans who strongly support Trump has fallen from 30 percent to around 22 percent since February. "Far from having unconditional love from his base," Silver observes, "Trump has already lost almost a third of his strong support.” Even better, "voters who strongly disapprove of Trump outnumber those who strongly approve of him by about a 2-to-1 ratio."</p> <p>History suggests it's unrealistic to expect people to change their minds quickly. This is a pattern that has held for centuries. In the 1600s the Salem witch trials dragged on for eight long months before townsfolk finally began to realize that they had been caught up in an irrational frenzy. More recently, Americans proved during Watergate that they are reluctant to turn on a president they have just elected despite mounds of evidence incriminating him in scandalous practices. The Watergate burglary took place on June 17, 1972. But it wasn't until April 30, 1973 – eleven months later – that his popularity finally fell below 50 percent. This was long after the Watergate burglars had been tried and convicted and the FBI had confirmed news reports that the Republicans had played dirty tricks on the Democrats during the campaign. Leaked testimony had even showed that former Attorney General John Mitchell knew about the break-in in advance. But not until Nixon fired White House Counsel John Dean and White House aides H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman resigned did a majority turn against the president. And even at that point Nixon's poll numbers stood higher than Trump's. Nixon:&nbsp; 48 percent; Trump: <a href="http://www.gallup.com/poll/201617/gallup-daily-trump-job-approval.aspx">42 percent</a>. </p> <p>It's not just conservative voters who are reluctant to change their minds. So are liberals. After news reports surfaced in the 1970s proving that John Kennedy was a serial philanderer millions of his supporters refused to acknowledge it. A <a href="http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Politics/Decoder/2013/1121/Why-is-John-F.-Kennedy-still-so-popular-video">poll</a> in 2013 show a majority of Americans <i>still </i>think of him as a good family man.</p> <p>Thus far not even many leading Democrats have been willing to come out in favor of Trump's impeachment. Cory Booker, the liberal senator from New Jersey, <a href="http://www.politico.com/story/2017/05/28/booker-trump-impeachment-238898">said</a> this past week it's simply too soon. And if a guy like Booker is not yet prepared to come straight out for impeachment, why should we think Trump voters would be willing to? It is only just in the last few weeks that polls <a href="http://www.publicpolicypolling.com/pdf/2017/PPP_Release_National_51617.pdf">show</a> that a plurality of voters now favor Trump's impeachment. (Twelve percent of self-identified Trump voters share this view, which is remarkable.)</p> <p>It's no mystery why people are reluctant to change their minds. Social scientists have produced hundreds of studies that explain the phenomenon. Rank partisanship is only part of the answer. Mainly it’s that people don't like to admit they were wrong, which is what they would be doing if they concede that Trump is not up to the job. When Trump voters hear news that puts their leader in an unfavorable light they experience cognitive dissonance. The natural reaction to this is to deny the legitimacy of the source of the news that they find upsetting. This is what explains the harsh attacks on the liberal media. Those stories are literally making Trump voters feel bad. As the Emory University social scientist Drew Westen has <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=71NYEEaMb4oC&amp;printsec=frontcover&amp;dq=political+brain&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwjjq4DWgJbUAhWJg1QKHbWsB1EQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&amp;q=kerry&amp;f=false">demonstrated</a>, people hearing information contrary to their beliefs will cease giving it credence. This is not a decision we make at the conscious level. Our brain makes it for us automatically.</p> <p>So what leads people to finally change their minds? One of the most convincing explanations is provided by the Theory of Affective Intelligence. This mouthful of a name refers to the tendency of people experiencing cognitive dissonance to feel anxiety when they do so. As social scientist George Marcus has explained, when the burden of hanging onto an existing opinion becomes greater than the cost of changing it, we begin to reconsider our commitments. What's the trigger? Anxiety. When there's a mismatch between our views of the way the world works and reality we grow anxious. This provokes us to make a fresh evaluation.</p> <p>What this research suggests is that we probably have a ways to go before Trump voters are going to switch their opinions. While some are evidently feeling buyers' remorse, a majority aren't. They're just not anxious enough yet. Liberals need not worry. The very same headlines that are giving them an upset stomach are making it more and more likely Trump voters are also experiencing discomfort. What might push them over the edge?&nbsp; One possibility would be a decision to follow through on his threat to end subsidies to insurance companies under Obamacare, leading to the collapse of the system, and the loss of coverage for millions of Trump voters. That’s become more and more likely since the Senate is apparently <a href="http://p.feedblitz.com/t3.asp?/17571/26524217/5634053_/https://blogs.wsj.com/washwire/2017/06/02/republican-senator-says-deal-on-health-care-unlikely-this-year/">unable</a> to pass the repeal and replace measure Trump has been counting on.&nbsp; So liberals just have to wait and watch.&nbsp; Will the story unfold like Watergate?&nbsp; Every day the answer increasingly seems yes.</p> <p>An optimist would argue that social media will help&nbsp;push people to change their minds faster now than in the past. &nbsp;But social media could also have the opposite effect. &nbsp;People living in a bubble who get their media from biased sources online may be less likely to encounter the contrary views that stimulate reflection&nbsp;than was common, say, in the Nixon years when virtually all Americans watched the mainstream network news shows. &nbsp;Eventually, one supposes, people will catch on no matter how they consume news. &nbsp;Of late even Fox News viewers have heard enough disturbing stories about Trump to begin to reconsider their commitment to him. &nbsp;That is undoubtedly one reason why Nate Silver found that so many Trump&nbsp;voters are reluctant to count themselves among the strongest supporters. &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p>
ID: 153940
Uid: 292
Author: 11
Category: 0
Title: My Cheating Memoirs #1: Harvard, 1966
Source:
Body: <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="/sites/default/files/153940-1.png" alt="153940-1.png"></p><p style="text-align: center;">Harvard's Memorial Hall</p><p><i> Sociologist James W. Loewen is the author of <a href="http://www.amazon.com/Lies-My-Teacher-Told-Everything/dp/0743296281"> Lies My Teacher Told Me</a>.</i></p><p>In 1964, I entered grad school at Harvard. At the time, Harvard was just entering the '60s. (It was not on the cutting edge.) All undergraduates were required to wear coats and ties for the dinner meal, so most dressed that way all day. All Harvard undergraduates were male; females allegedly attended "Radcliffe," a college with almost no faculty except in P.E. </p><p>Another hoary tradition afflicting Harvard was the "Gentleman's C." Professors and administrators openly acknowledged the split between "the gentlemen and the scholars." People like FDR and George W. Bush (oh all right, he attended Yale, then Harvard Business School, but close enough) never studied very hard, but Harvard passed them through anyway, hoping to get endowments from their rich parents and also hoping to bask in the reflected glow when they assumed their rightful place in the national upper class. "Donations from the rich make possible scholarships for the worthy," was the explanation. </p><p>At Harvard, cheating was a tradition too. To combat it, administrators took extraordinary steps. Half a century later, I still recall my disgust at Harvard for the way they tested graduate students at the end of our first semester. Fifty-five of us were taking the year-long introductory graduate course in "Social Relations," required for all students in sociology, social and cultural anthropology, and social and clinical psychology. They placed us in Memorial Hall, a huge auditorium honoring Civil War casualties, rather than our regular classroom. Then they had us sit in every third seat in every third row. All this was to achieve economies of scale, so they mixed us in with students from several other courses in the rows between. I still remember that they placed <i>Sanskrit</i> students in the rows just ahead of us, so those of us who might have been so desperate as to copy students' answers in another discipline couldn't, since even the alphabet was different!</p><p>Not one professor sat in the room. If students could not understand a question, even one with a misprint, they had no recourse. Only proctors were there, to make sure we did not cheat. The arrangements implied that the intellectual subculture was not anticipated to exist among graduate students at Harvard; only policing was in evidence. </p><p>Those of us from small liberal arts colleges where cheating was rare were also mystified by another Harvard final exam tradition. The "blue books" into which we were to write our essays all said, in large capital letters on their front covers:</p><p style="text-align: center;">DO NOT REMOVE PAGES FROM BOOKS.</p><p style="text-align: center;">DO NOT REMOVE BOOKS FROM ROOM.</p><p>&nbsp;We could not fathom this. Suppose I wrote two pages of an essay and then decided I was on the wrong track. Why <i>wouldn't</i> I tear the page out? We understood why the institution would not allow pages to be inserted <i>into</i> the blue books, but, taken out? It was also offputting to see those two sentences as final words of every course.<a href="#_ftn1">[1]</a> </p><p>As their absence from final exam rooms implied, many Harvard professors did not take undergraduate education seriously. Some actually called it "a distraction" from "my work," which was, of course, their (mostly) abstruse research. Most professors taught as few undergraduate courses as they could, and when they did, it was in huge lecture classes. I shouldn't really have conflated Harvard and Yale above, because Harvard was then distinctly worse than Yale: although it had only a few more undergraduates, Harvard had ten times as many TAs. They did most of the real teaching, to the extent that anyone did. </p><p>In 1965, we grad students were growing upset that so many college professors were such terrible teachers. We knew there had to be better ways to learn than just sitting through droning lectures. We cared about teaching, but the Department of Social Relations didn't. For our important jobs as TAs, it gave us no preparation, not even an orientation as to what resources were available to students, TAs, and faculty. </p><p><img src="http://historynewsnetwork.org/sites/default/files/153940-2.png" "="" style="float:left;margin:15px;"> The next year, we set up a "Graduate Student Organization." Someone had sent me a black panther poster from the Lowndes County Freedom Organization in Alabama. It featured a menacing black panther with the slogan "Move On Over, Or We'll Move On Over You," and had a white space at the bottom, where we wrote in "Graduate Student Organization." I put it on the door to our office. We thought it was hilarious. To our surprise, our organization had already scared faculty members into giving us an office with a window — assistant professors got no windows. The poster pushed a professor of anthropology and his wife over the edge. "Isn't that <i>disgusting</i>?!" she said to him, and he agreed. Later someone — we think he — ripped it off our door.</p> <p>Following the lead of the <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1983/01/13/podgorny-third-man-of-60s-troika-dies-in-moscow/0ca3a6ad-138a-4d7d-89de-61f3e9eb044b">Soviet Union at the time, we elected a troika</a>, three co-chairs, of which I was one. Among other things, we pushed for a course on how to teach. Eventually, too late for me to take it, they gave us one. Meanwhile, we tried some things ourselves. </p> <p>Michael Schwartz, now a distinguished sociologist at Stony Brook, and I graded the final exams of our own section and also the other's, so we could discuss grading. This proved a rewarding undertaking, leading to interesting discussions of those essays that we had marked differently. The next semester, while I was doing dissertation fieldwork in Mississippi, Schwartz and another TA repeated the exercise, only this time with each other's term papers. They discovered two identical papers!</p> <p>Not only were the papers the same, though typed differently, none of the references was dated after 1949, an eternity before 1966 in sociology and social psychology. It turned out that neither student had copied off the other, because neither had written a thing. Instead, both belonged to the same "final club" at Harvard. Final clubs, like fraternities and sororities elsewhere, including Yale's fabled secret societies, stored old term papers for members to submit. Unknown to each other, both students had chosen the same paper to hand in for the course. Also unknown to each other, their section leaders happened to be friends who wound up exchanging "their" papers. So they got caught. </p> <p>Despite the policing precautions that Harvard imposed on Memorial Hall, Harvard was not really very interested in stopping cheating. So far as I know, the tradition continues. A few years ago, an incident received brief national attention: an exam proctor spent some time watching an undergraduate, perhaps in Memorial Hall, copying from another student, aided as I recall by a baseball cap pulled down over his eyes. When the cheater came to the front to hand in his exam, the proctor intercepted him and asked his name. "You don't know who I am, do you?" the cheater replied. Instantly he grabbed the entire pile of handed-in exams and threw them all, his included, high in the air. Then he ran out of the hall. The proctor was helpless. </p> <p>As it did in some other areas, including social drinking, Harvard provided me with a good introduction to the folkways and mores of college cheating. For instance, I learned to do a seating chart at examinations, if the class is small enough. This information would prove useful later in my career, as the next two installments of this series will attest. Stay tuned. </p> <p>[1] I am happy to report that extensive Googling reveals no blue book image with these offending sentences. </p> <p>Copyright James W. Loewen</p>
ID: 153941
Uid: 341
Author: 40
Category: 0
Title: You Can Say Anything You Want, but ...
Source:
Body: <center> <iframe src="https://embed.theguardian.com/embed/video/sport/video/2016/sep/02/why-colin-kaepernick-not-standing-national-anthem-video" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen=""></iframe> </center> <p><i>Murray Polner is the author of <a href="https://www.amazon.com/No-victory-parades-Vietnam-veteran/dp/0030860113">No Victory Parades: The Return of the Vietnam Veteran</a>,<a href="https://www.amazon.com/Branch-Rickey-Biography-Murray-Polner/dp/0786426438/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8"> Branch Rickey: A Biography,</a>&nbsp;and co-editor of&nbsp;<a href="https://www.amazon.com/We-Who-Dared-Say-War/dp/1568583850">We Who Dared Say No To War</a>.</i></p> <p>Former second round draft choice and ex-San Francisco 49er QB Colin Kaepernick, who once led the team to a Super Bowl, can't find a job today because he protested racism in this country by refusing to stand for the playing of the National Anthem. No job even as a backup QB on one of the NFL's mediocre teams. His sin? Ostensibly, it was refusing to stand for the anthem and thereby confronting the all-powerful NFL's insistence that the USA, the NFL and its 1% owners are one and the same. Only the distant, under-reported Canadian Football League has shown any interest in him. Canadians also have a Bill of Rights but because I once taught in a Canadian university I can say that they rarely have to be reminded that an open mind is the best mind.</p> <p>Much the same is true with baseball, the other major sports behemoth. Curt Flood a St. Louis outfielder, an All -Star and Gold Glover, famously refused to bend and would not accept a trade to the Philadelphia Phillies in 1969. In a direct challenge to baseball's revered and set-in-stone reserve clause, which tied players to their clubs, granting then few career options, Flood sent a letter to Bowie Kuhn, the Baseball Commissioner, saying, "I do not regard myself as a piece of property to be bought or sold." Insofar as I know, just two former players, Jackie Robinson and Hank Greenberg, publicly defended him even as few players, black and white, during the Civil Rights Era, fearful of losing their jobs, dared not take sides against the owners. Flood received his share of death threats and denunciations for endangering America's Game and never found any job openings after that. Skipping 1970, he played in only 13 games for Washington in 1971.</p> <p>The celebrated rebel, Muhammad Ali, was revered only after he was unanimously absolved by the Supreme Court.&nbsp; Still, two fearless athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, who raised their clenched fists against racism at the Mexico City Olympics, were roundly condemned and were never accorded much respect or honor then or in their later years. On the right, Curt Schilling, an outspoken conservative and first-rate pitcher, received no support from outraged liberals when he backed George W. Bush for the presidency in 2004 or rejected evolution and promoted other right wing positions, so offending his TV employers that he was fired.</p> <p>I'm a veteran, certainly no hero, but I do like attending or watching Memorial Day celebrations. Last May was no different as I viewed a televised NY Mets-Milwaukee Brewer game. The stands were draped with flags, there were repeated camera shots of military men and women &nbsp;in uniform and one of them sang Irving Berlin's trite pop song, "God Bless America," which has somehow become a backup for our atonal anthem. A sharp camera operator caught an officer proudly saluting a tune which was ancient history until Kate Smith was hired to sing it at Philadelphia Flyer hockey games. Later, the authoritarian George Steinbrenner made it a mandatory feature of the seventh inning stretch at Yankee Stadium. If anyone wouldn't stand at its airing, or of course, for the National Anthem&nbsp;&nbsp;–&nbsp;&nbsp;such as the Met's first baseman Carlos Delgado &nbsp;– patriots from the safety of the stands reviled them as turncoats and worse.</p> <p>Still, I confess to naïveté because on this past Memorial Day I had hoped, as I always do, at least for a word or two, from someone on or off the playing field, with the backbone to say that this is a free country with real freedom of&nbsp; speech. That even people like Colin Kaepernick, Curt Schilling, Curt Flood, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, <i>et al.</i> should be free to say what they want and still be able to find work at their trade and mean it.</p> <p>I guess I'll have to wait until next year.<b></b></p><b></b>
ID: 153942
Uid: 14552
Author: 13
Category: 0
Title: Life during Wartime 473
Source:
Body: <img src="http://www.joshbrownnyc.com/images/ldw473.jpg">
ID: 153943
Uid: 31615
Author: 19
Category: 0
Title: The Amazing Mind of Donald Trump
Source:
Body: <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">An amazing mind says amazing things. Trump says many amazing things, but not because they’re brilliant or clever or funny or heart-stopping. His words are amazing for their ignorance, their cluelessness, and perhaps most of all because he thinks he is profound. His words reveal the real Trump and so they are worth listening to.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">“</span><a href="http://www.cnn.com/2017/02/27/politics/trump-health-care-complicated/index.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Nobody knew</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> health care could be so complicated.” At the bottom of that is “I didn’t know health care could be so complicated.” Political health care discussions have been going on all Trump’s life, from before the creation of Medicare in 1965. But because he didn’t know it, nobody knew it. His amazing ignorance is matched by an amazing assumption of superiority – nobody knows things that he doesn’t know.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">For Trump there are no experts whose knowledge would be useful to him. Scientists, historians, intelligence operative, generals, legal scholars, and other politicians have nothing to offer him that he doesn’t already know.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">He was widely quoted and widely ridiculed for this amazing statement on a June 2015 Fox News interview: “There’s </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/10/04/17-issues-that-donald-trump-knows-better-than-anyone-else-according-to-donald-trump/?utm_term=.1eab554151dc"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">nobody bigger or better</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> at the military than I am.” He’s better because he knows more, as he said in November 2015: “I know more about ISIS than the generals do. Believe me.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Trump knows more than scientists about most scientific subjects. He has claimed that </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2016/11/10/trump-and-pence-on-science-in-their-own-words/?utm_term=.2c31128d4176"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">scientists are wrong</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt"> about the dangers of fracking and the lack of danger of vaccines. He finds perils in light bulbs: “Remember, new ‘environment friendly’ lightbulbs can cause cancer. Be careful-- the idiots who came up with this stuff don’t care.” Wind farms are health hazards, too.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">How does Trump know what he claims to know? He has said at many times that he doesn’t read books because he is too busy. Tony Schwartz, ghostwriter of “The Art of the Deal”, said that he “</span><a href="http://ew.com/books/2017/01/25/trump-does-not-read-books-report/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">never saw a book</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt"> on Trump’s desk, or elsewhere in his office, or in his apartment” in the 18 months he spent with Trump.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">He </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/25/us/politics/president-trump-white-house.html?_r=0"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">reads newspapers</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt">, even those he constantly labels “fake news”, like the New York Times and the Washington Post. But when he makes speeches, he only cites them to say they are making things up.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">His comments about science often reveal how he knows so much: he finds internet articles by cranks and quacks, who advance outlandish ideas that he likes. He doesn’t care whether they are true or false, just that they appear to support ideas he is pushing.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Whom does Trump cite when he wants to back up what he claims? He said that the </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/07/22/donald-trump-wonders-why-the-national-enquirer-didnt-win-a-pulitzer-prize-heres-why/?tid=a_inl&amp;utm_term=.be6bdd66273d"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">National Enquirer</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt"> should win the Pulitzer Prize for reporting. The Enquirer endorsed Trump during the Republican primaries and ran stories which </span><a href="https://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2016/05/09/trumps_tabloid_130505.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">denigrated his opponents</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">. He said they “have a very good record of being right.” He was probably pleased about their stories that Ted Cruz and Mario Rubio were cheating on their wives, and that the Obamas were always about to get a divorce.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">He likes </span><a href="https://www.infowars.com/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Infowars</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> hosted by Alex Jones, one of America’s leading conspiracy theorists, who also supported Trump during the campaign. Jones promoted the “</span><a href="http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/a-visit-to-the-infowars-studios-of-alex-jones-a-1136654.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">theories</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">” that our government blew up the World Trade Center, that gun control advocates created the “hoax” that 20 children were killed at Sandy Hook Elementary School in 2012, and that the government is poisoning our water with fluoride. Jones strongly pushed the idea that Obama was born in Africa, which Trump used to vault himself to political prominence. He was an early proponent of the claim adopted by Trump that millions of illegal aliens voted for Hillary Clinton.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">He claimed that “</span><a href="https://www.mediamatters.org/research/2017/03/20/birthers-and-fringe-outlets-claim-nsa-documents-back-trump-s-wiretap-lie/215766"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Obama Surveilled Entire Trump Family For 8 Years</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">”, including Trump’s children, even before he ran for President.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Breitbart might be Trump’s </span><a href="http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-37109970"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt">favorite source</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> of “news”. Steve Bannon took over the site when Andrew Breitbart died suddenly in 2012. Bannon became Trump’s </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/18/us/politics/donald-trump-stephen-bannon-paul-manafort.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">chief strategist</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt"> three months before the 2016 election, encouraging him to see the entire mainstream media as purveyors of “fake news”.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Fact-checkers of Trump’s speeches and tweets constantly discover that he </span><a href="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/donald-trump-speech-fact-check-lies-claims-joint-address-congress-jobs-immigration-pipeline-a7604861.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">gets facts wrong and tells lies</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">. They don’t go further to figure out where he gets his information. Trump doesn’t mostly make up the untruths he tells the world. He takes them from these professional spreaders of political lies.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Our President spreads nonsense from nonsense sites. Alex Jones has that our government is supporting “homosexuality with chemicals so that people don't have children”. But in court trying to win a custody case against his former wife, Jones’ lawyer said, “He’s playing a character. He is a </span><a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/alex-jones-child-custody_us_58f52087e4b0da2ff862708a"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">performance artist</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt">.” His lawyer said Jones is as serious about his political claims as Jack Nicholson was when he played the Joker.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">But Trump takes his “news” from supermarket tabloids and their internet equivalents. He said, “You can’t knock the National Enquirer. It’s brought many things to light, not all of them pleasant.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Here’s what is unpleasant. Presidential policy is based on nonsense.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Steve Hochstadt</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Jacksonville IL</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Published in the Jacksonville Journal-Courier, June 13, 2017</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> <w:SplitPgBreakAndParaMark/> <w:EnableOpenTypeKerning/> <w:DontFlipMirrorIndents/> <w:OverrideTableStyleHps/> </w:Compatibility> <m:mathPr> <m:mathFont m:val="Cambria Math"/> <m:brkBin m:val="before"/> <m:brkBinSub m:val="&#45;-"/> <m:smallFrac m:val="off"/> <m:dispDef/> <m:lMargin m:val="0"/> <m:rMargin m:val="0"/> <m:defJc m:val="centerGroup"/> <m:wrapIndent m:val="1440"/> <m:intLim m:val="subSup"/> <m:naryLim m:val="undOvr"/> </m:mathPr></w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" DefUnhideWhenUsed="false" DefSemiHidden="false" DefQFormat="false" DefPriority="99" LatentStyleCount="371"> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="0" QFormat="true" Name="Normal"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 9"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index 9"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 9"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Normal Indent"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="footnote text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="annotation text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="header"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="footer"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="index heading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="35" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="caption"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="table of figures"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="envelope address"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="envelope return"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="footnote reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="annotation reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="line number"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="page number"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="endnote reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="endnote text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="table of authorities"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="macro"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toa heading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Bullet"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Number"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Bullet 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Bullet 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Bullet 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Bullet 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Number 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Number 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Number 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Number 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="10" QFormat="true" Name="Title"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Closing"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Signature"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Default Paragraph Font"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text Indent"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Continue"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Continue 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Continue 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Continue 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="List Continue 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Message Header"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="11" QFormat="true" Name="Subtitle"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Salutation"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Date"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text First Indent"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text First Indent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Note Heading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text Indent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Body Text Indent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Block Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Hyperlink"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="FollowedHyperlink"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="22" QFormat="true" Name="Strong"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="20" QFormat="true" Name="Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Document Map"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Plain Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="E-mail Signature"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Top of Form"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Bottom of Form"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Normal (Web)"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Acronym"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Address"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Cite"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Code"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Definition"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Keyboard"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Preformatted"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Sample"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Typewriter"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="HTML Variable"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Normal Table"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="annotation subject"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="No List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Outline List 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Outline List 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Outline List 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Simple 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Simple 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Simple 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Classic 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Classic 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Classic 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Classic 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Colorful 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Colorful 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Colorful 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Columns 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Columns 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Columns 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Columns 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Columns 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Grid 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table List 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table 3D effects 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table 3D effects 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table 3D effects 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Contemporary"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Elegant"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Professional"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Subtle 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Subtle 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Web 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Web 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Web 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Balloon Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="Table Grid"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Table Theme"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" Name="Placeholder Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" QFormat="true" Name="No Spacing"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" Name="Revision"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="34" QFormat="true" Name="List Paragraph"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="29" QFormat="true" Name="Quote"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="30" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Quote"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="19" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="21" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="31" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="32" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="33" QFormat="true" Name="Book Title"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="37" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Bibliography"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="TOC Heading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="41" Name="Plain Table 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="42" Name="Plain Table 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="43" Name="Plain Table 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="44" Name="Plain Table 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="45" Name="Plain Table 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="40" Name="Grid Table Light"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 6"/> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;} </style> <![endif]-->
ID: 153944
Uid: 292
Author: 11
Category: 0
Title: My Cheating Memoirs #2: Freud's Four Stages of Sexuality in Mississippi
Source:
Body: <p><i>Sociologist James W. Loewen is the author of <a href="http://www.amazon.com/Lies-My-Teacher-Told-Everything/dp/0743296281"> Lies My Teacher Told Me</a>.</i></p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;The first exam I ever gave as a full-time teacher was in Introductory Sociology at Tougaloo College, a small black college in Mississippi, in late September, 1968. I had taught quite a bit in my last two years of grad school at Harvard University, however, and Harvard is a <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/blog/153940">world leader in student fraud</a>, so I knew to take an elementary precaution. While my students took the hour exam, I drew a seating chart.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; My class met in the Social Science Lab, space that Dr. Ernst Borinski, professor of sociology at Tougaloo, had reclaimed from the basement of Beard Hall. The Lab was mainly a long narrow room, maybe 18' wide by 40' long, with two sets of long narrow tables running its length. Students sat elbow to elbow at the tables. </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="/sites/default/files/153944-1.png" alt="153944-1.png"></p><p style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size: smaller;">Ernst Borinski holds forth in the Social Science Lab at Tougaloo College in the early 1960s. Borinski, Jewish refugee from Hitler, is one of three subjects of a book, <a href="https://www.amazon.com/Swastika-Jim-Crow-Scholars-Colleges/dp/089464775X">From Swastika to Jim Crow</a>, <a href="http://www.psfp.com/fsjc.htm">film</a>, and <a href="http://www.miaminewtimes.com/arts/beyond-swastika-and-jim-crow-to-highlight-untold-civil-rights-history-6503621">museum exhibit</a> that is now circulating around the United States. As a result, this image is now widely known: I recall seeing it go past me on the street one Sunday morning in Philadelphia a couple of years ago. I was looking for a restaurant for brunch, and it was plastered on the side of a bus, part of an ad for the museum exhibit then showing at the new National Museum of American Jewish History. Photo courtesy Tougaloo College.</span></p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;One of the main subjects covered early in Introductory Sociology is socialization — the process by which unformed babies take in the folkways and mores of society and become, not merely humans, but Tahitians, Americans, whatever. This insight may seem obvious to you, reading this paragraph as an adult, but I still remember the impact it made on me as a first-year college student, way back in 1960. I had never given much thought to how we became human. It just seemed natural.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Calling it "socialization" problematizes the process, however, and it comes to seem worthy of study, not "natural." As well, understanding socialization helps one become less ethnocentric. Students realize that eating three meals a day, having sex two times a week (the American average, sadly), and believing in one god is not natural. It's all cultural, and American culture is not the only or even always the best way to do things. </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The power of socialization is considerable. Indeed, sociologists aver that socialization makes society possible. How do we come to internalize the folkways and mores? and with such force that we believe with all our being that our neighbor, who turns out to have two spouses, is not only wrong but even evil? </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; One way to understand the process is by teaching Freudian concepts: the id, ego, and most especially the developing superego. I had done so at some length that fall, even to the point of including Freud's famous four stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, Oedipal, and adult or genital. As a first year teacher, it seemed obvious to create a test item: </p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; List Freud's four stages of psychosexual development: </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1. __________________</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 2. __________________</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 3. __________________</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 4. __________________</p> <p>Hopefully the rest of my test was of a higher order of complexity. </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The four stages question was complex enough for at least three of my students, however, all female. They all answered "oil" for the first stage. Now, my pronunciation of "r" is imperfect, so this might have been a simple misunderstanding, although when I went on to describe how tiny infants experience much of the world by putting it in their mouths, the term "oil fixation" does not make a lot of sense. </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; For stage two, all three students replied "annual." I pronounce "anal" just fine, so there was no way that three students could all hear it as "annual." Nor did my description of the rigors of toilet training — according to Freud the first major behavioral demand that parents impose upon their children — imply anything yearly about the process. </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; For stage three, all three students filled in "psychosexual," a place-holder of sorts, I suppose.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Then, for stage four, all three answered with a stage of psychosexual development so high that I, personally, have never reached it: "nonmanual!" </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="/sites/default/files/153944-2.png" alt="153944-2.png"></p><p style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size: smaller;">Sigmund Freud, inventor of the 4 stages of psychological&nbsp;development, including (in Mississippi)&nbsp;nonmanual. &nbsp;Photo 1921.</span></p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;Of course, the three students "happened" to sit next to each other. One student in 32 had answered with these four choices. The likelihood that a second student would do so would surely be less than 1 in 10,000, because they are pretty wondrous, but even if we simply assigned each student the same likelihood — about 1 in 30 — then the probability that three students would do so — and would sit next to each other by purest chance — would be less than 1/30 cubed or .00003 — a very small number!</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; I felt justified in giving each student a zero for the entire exam, with a written explanation. After photocopying the exams, I handed them back. As a new teacher, that's all I did. Now I know to meet with each student individually, discuss why they were taking sociology, and then engage in heavy counseling with them, either to persuade them to drop the course or to take it seriously. </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Next semester, one of the three came to my office. "Mr. Loewen," she said, "I just wanted you to know that sociology is going to be my major, and I would never cheat in my major." </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; I thought that showed some standard of decency. Moreover, I had every reason to believe her, not least because she sat in the middle of the three. She had to be the innocent cheatee, the others the cheaters. So I changed her exam grade to the score she would have earned, "D." It wasn't a good grade — unsurprising, I suppose, given her performance on the four stages. Nevertheless, 62 is so much better than 0 that it raised her overall course grade from a D+ to a C+. I made that change at the registrar's, and she received notice at the end of the semester. We never spoke about the incident again. </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Regrettably, I never asked her about the nonmanual stage. Now I'll never know what it is. </p> <p>&nbsp;Copyright James W. Loewen </p>
ID: 153945
Uid: 292
Author: 11
Category: 0
Title: My Cheating Memoirs #3: Ladysmith Black Mambazo Plays Vermont
Source:
Body: <p><i> Sociologist James W. Loewen is the author of <a href="http://www.amazon.com/Lies-My-Teacher-Told-Everything/dp/0743296281"> Lies My Teacher Told Me</a>.</i></p><p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; When I taught sociology at the University of Vermont (UVM), one course I offered repeatedly was "Race Relations." It had several requirements. One I called "Get Out of the White Cocoon." Students had to attend ten hours of events run by or featuring someone from a race different from their own. White students could go hear a jazz concert, a Native American speaker, even watch the new Spike Lee movie (back in his heyday).</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; After each event, they wrote in their journals. "Summarize the event, for those who did not attend," I suggested. "Tell some important 'take-away' you had from the event. Or, depending on your reaction, critique at least one idea presented at the event." </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; During the semester, my TAs and I suggested dozens of events from which students could choose. That might surprise you, since Vermont is not near a major black population center, but UVM drew a good share of important and diverse lecturers. As well, Burlington is often an early station on national tours for music groups, particularly those that had just played Boston or Montreal. </p><p style="text-align: center;"><img src=" /sites/default/files/153945-1.png"></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; One semester Ladysmith Black Mambazo came to the fine arts series. (If you don't know this fabulous a capella male singing group from Ladysmith Township in South Africa, go <a href="http://www.mambazo.com/listen_to_music/">here</a> right now. You can come back in a few minutes.) I said the event would count toward the "white cocoon" requirement. I mentioned that they had participated on Paul Simon's famous "Graceland" album and had also done a recent music commercial for LifeSavers candy.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Two girls (the term used at UVM for female students!) who were best friends each attended the Ladysmith Black Mambazo concert. Or so their journals told me when next I collected them. "Lizzie" wrote, "I went to hear Ladysmith Black Mambazo. I was excited, because I liked them on Paul Simon's "Graceland" album and also enjoyed their recent music commercial for LifeSavers. The concert was very good." In terms of its review of the event, this was the shortest journal entry I had ever received. "Betsy" wrote a little more: "I went to hear Ladysmith Black Mambazo. The ladies wore beautiful dresses, and they were excellent on their instruments." </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Neither had attended, of course, but I needed to prove that. So I asked both to come in and see me, Betsy at 3PM the next afternoon, Lizzie at 3:10PM. To misdirect them, I asked both to bring in their most recent hour-exam. </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Betsy walked into my office. I asked her what kind of instruments the ladies played. She looked like a deer in the headlights, but she wasn't stupid — she knew they were from Africa. So, "Drums," she replied. </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; I thought about asking about their dresses but decided she had twisted in the wind long enough. "Betsy," I said gently, "they don't have any instruments. They aren't ladies, either. Ladysmith Black Mambazo is all male, and they sing a capella. Do you know what that means?"</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; "Yes," she said. </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; "Ladysmith is a place," I went on. </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; "I didn't go," Betsy said, softly.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; "I know," I said. "I've never had anyone lie in their journals before. I'll have to think about what to do about it." </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; I escorted her out of my office and admitted Lizzie. She proved a tougher nut to crack. She had learned that Ladysmith Black Mambazo was all-male. So I read her terse "concert review" to her. "Lizzie," I said, "In ten years of teaching this course, always with the White Cocoon requirement, this is the shortest review of an event I've ever gotten. It's content free! Can you tell me more about the concert? What did they sing <i>about</i>? What difference did their songs make to you?"&nbsp; </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; "To tell the truth," she replied, four words that had nothing to do with what she next said, "I couldn't stay. I only heard about fifteen minutes."</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Aside from her claiming two hours of the requirement for a fifteen-minute stay, this statement was not credible. Tickets cost $24, and this back in 1994! Pretty soon Lizzie, too, agreed that she had never gone at all. </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; I was disgusted. These students had lied <i>in their journals</i>. Somehow that struck me as showing even less integrity than cheating on an exam. For one thing, I had never required them to attend Ladysmith Black Mambazo. There were many ways to fulfill the ten hour requirement. It was hardly onerous. On the contrary, years later, students would stop me on the street to thank me for the requirement, not just on account of race relations, but also because it got them into the habit of going to events on campus and in the community. </p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; So I turned both students in to UVM's Vice President in Charge of Cheating. I forget what he made them do. But I never forgot "The ladies wore beautiful dresses."</p> <p>&nbsp;Copyright James W. Loewen </p>
ID: 153946
Uid: 78784
Author: 47
Category: 0
Title: The Debate over the Lack of Debate on the GOP Healthcare Plan
Source:
Body: <p><img src=" /sites/default/files/153946-1.png "></p><p><i>This blog is by Allen Mikaelian. Allen is an editor and writer who specializes in creating meaningful projects for amazing people. He holds a history PhD from American University, is a former editor of the American Historical Association's "Perspectives on History," and lives in Washington, DC.</i></p><p><b>Related Links</b></p><p>● <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/166251">Congress Has a History of Legislating in Secrecy: &nbsp;Interview with Julian Zelizer&nbsp;</a></p><p>●&nbsp;<a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/166215">Republican secrecy faces mounting criticism as GOP senators work behind closed doors to replace Obamacare</a></p><p>"I love history." —Sen. Cory Booker <i>Senate Floor</i><i>, June 19, 2017</i></p><p>On Monday, Democrats organized a <a href="http://www.npr.org/2017/06/19/533580464/democrats-tie-up-the-senate-to-protest-gop-health-care-push">Senate floor protest</a>, delivering lengthy speeches against what they saw as “shameful” maneuvers by the Republicans to craft the Obamacare replacement bill behind “closed doors.”</p> <p>The <a href="http://historychecked.com">Political Uses of the Past</a> Project discovered in these speeches an unusual number of references and appeals to history. The story of how Obamacare came to be was certainly front and center, but senators reached back further, searching for context and comparisons. </p> <p>Senators referenced the <a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-thomas-carper-obamacare-looked-a-lot-like-what-republicans-offered-in-1993/">1993 HillaryCare effort</a>, Strom Thurmond’s <a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-cory-booker-tradition-of-the-senate-is-to-slow-things-down/">1957 filibuster</a> of civil rights legislation, <a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-dianne-feinstein-not-since-before-wwi-has-there-been-such-a-secret-partisan-process-for-passing-a-major-bill/">the debate</a> over whether to arm merchant ships prior to the US entry into World War I, the <a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-cory-booker-unlike-ahca-deliberations-constitutional-convention-was-public-open-transparent/">Constitutional Convention</a>, and the <a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-christopher-murphy-senate-not-fulfilling-role-envisioned-by-connecticut-compromise/">Connecticut Compromise</a>. They gave shout-outs to John F. Kennedy, Thomas Jefferson, <a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-jeff-merkley-affordable-healthcare-within-scope-of-fdrs-and-founders-vision/">FDR</a>, and former Senate Historian <a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-dianne-feinstein-not-since-before-wwi-has-there-been-such-a-secret-partisan-process-for-passing-a-major-bill/">Don Ritchie</a>. </p> <p>The comparisons between what the GOP is doing now and what the Democrats did in 2009 was unavoidable. But the floor speeches went further and evoked the entire history of the Senate. Speeches claimed that the time spent on deliberations back in 2009 broke or challenged all previous records. The Affordable Care Act spent near-record time in markup. Two committees spent more time on the ACA than they ever had spent on any other issue before. And so on. </p> <p>There’s a palpable anxiety in these statements, and in other statements which try to remind Americans why, historically speaking, we have a Senate. The past is bubbling up in these speeches because there’s a sense that the Senate is at yet another turning point, one potentially larger than the nuclear option dropped on judicial nominations by both sides. </p> <p>If the Republican senators succeed in passing their American Health Care Act, their secrecy and speed could quickly become the norm. And not just for the Republican majority, but for the next Democratic majority as well. The advantages of holding hearings, listening to experts, and fashioning compromises are harder to see in this hyperpartisan fog. The emphasis for this majority, and possibly for the next, seems to be simply forcing legislation through (and then claiming yet <a href="http://historychecked.com/tw061217/">another</a> historical <a href="http://historychecked.com/pr20170613/">laurel</a>--productivity!). </p> <p>So a big part of these uses of the past that we saw on Monday, collected below (most of them, anyway), is pure nostalgia. It’s a yearning for a Senate that is either already gone or soon will be. </p><p><i>The Political Uses of the Past Project provides daily updates of historical references by elected and appointed officials. Subscribe to the email&nbsp;<a href="http://historychecked.com/subscribe/">newsletter</a>, follow on&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/CheckrdHistory">Twitter</a>, or visit the&nbsp;<a href="https://www.facebook.com/checkrdhistory/">Facebook page</a>&nbsp;to keep up.</i></p> <p><a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-bernie-sanders-length-of-obamacare-deliberations-were-record-setting/">Sen. Bernie Sanders: Length of Obamacare deliberations were record-setting</a></p> <p><a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-dianne-feinstein-not-since-before-wwi-has-there-been-such-a-secret-partisan-process-for-passing-a-major-bill/">Sen. Dianne Feinstein: Not since before WWI has there been “such a secret, partisan process for passing a major bill”</a></p> <p><a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-jeff-merkley-markup-of-obamacare-in-help-committee-was-its-longest-ever/">Sen. Jeff Merkley: Markup of Obamacare in HELP committee was its longest ever</a></p> <p><a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-kamala-harris-gop-health-care-bill-is-the-least-popular-piece-of-legislation-in-modern-history/">Sen. Kamala Harris: GOP health care bill “is the least popular piece of legislation in modern history”</a></p> <p><a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-thomas-carper-obamacare-looked-a-lot-like-what-republicans-offered-in-1993/">Sen. Thomas Carper: Obamacare “looked a lot like” what Republicans offered in 1993</a></p> <p><a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-ron-wyden-obamacare-senate-session-the-second-longest-in-us-history/">Sen. Ron Wyden: Obamacare Senate session the second-longest in US history</a></p> <p><a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-charles-schumer-markup-for-obamacare-one-of-the-longest-in-history/">Sen. Charles Schumer: Markup for Obamacare “one of the longest in history”</a></p> <p><a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-christopher-murphy-senate-not-fulfilling-role-envisioned-by-connecticut-compromise/">Sen. Christopher Murphy: Senate not fulfilling role envisioned by Connecticut Compromise</a></p> <p><a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-cory-booker-tradition-of-the-senate-is-to-slow-things-down/">Sen. Cory Booker: Tradition of the Senate is to “slow things down”</a></p> <p><a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-jeff-merkley-affordable-healthcare-within-scope-of-fdrs-and-founders-vision/">Sen. Jeff Merkley: Affordable healthcare within scope of FDR’s and founders’ vision</a></p> <p><a href="http://historychecked.com/sen-cory-booker-unlike-ahca-deliberations-constitutional-convention-was-public-open-transparent/">Sen. Cory Booker: Unlike AHCA deliberations, Constitutional Convention was “public, open, transparent”</a></p>
ID: 153947
Uid: 14552
Author: 13
Category: 0
Title: Life during Wartime 474
Source:
Body: <img src="http://www.joshbrownnyc.com/images/ldw474.jpg">
ID: 153950
Uid: 16
Author: 32
Category: 0
Title: Does Nancy MacLean Owe Tyler Cowen An Apology? (and MacLean's Response)
Source: Russ Roberts
Body: <p></p><p> Russ Roberts<a href="https://medium.com/@russroberts/nancy-maclean-owes-tyler-cowen-an-apology-e6277ee75eb3"> takes on</a> my former classmate at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, Nancy MacLean author of <a href="https://www.amazon.com/Democracy-Chains-History-Radical-Stealth/dp/1101980966">Democracy in Chains: The Deep History of the Radical Right's Stealth Plan for America</a>.&nbsp;</p><p>Truth in advertising.&nbsp; I had only casual contact with MacLean at UW but came to know Cowen fairly well.&nbsp; I also had some dealings with James Buchanan (including one group dinner with him in the 1980s!) but did not know him well.</p><p>I have ordered the book and will be giving my thoughts soon. <br></p>