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ID: 153919
Uid: 31615
Author: 19
Category: 0
Title: What’s Wrong With Iowa?
Source:
Body: <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">We often drive through eastern Iowa on our way from central Illinois to Minnesota. The landscape is peaceful and prosperous. The farmhouses are well kept, and the roads smooth and wide. When we stop, Iowans are friendly and helpful.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Iowa is doing very well. The Census Bureau ranks Iowa #4 in </span><a href="https://www.iowaeconomicdevelopment.com/housing"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt">lowest housing costs</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> relative to income, and that cheap housing is near to the workplace: average commuting time is 19 minutes. Iowa is one of the </span><a href="http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/national/2009/03/25/99012.htm?print=1"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">safest</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> states. The </span><a href="https://www.iowaeconomicdevelopment.com/arts-culture"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">cultural scene</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> is thriving: Forest City’s country music festival is ranked second in the country by Country Living magazine, and Broadway shows go straight to Des Moines. CNBC ranked Iowa 9<sup>th</sup> among the 50 states in its annual survey “</span><a href="http://www.cnbc.com/2016/07/12/americas-top-states-for-business-2016-the-list-and-ranking.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Best States for Business</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">”, with a similar ranking for quality of life.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">So why does Iowa send a racist to Congress? Even before he was first elected to Congress in 2002, Steve King was clear about his disdain for immigrants of all kinds. As a </span><a href="https://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/columnists/rekha-basu/2017/03/14/basu-steve-king-reappears-remind-us-hes-one-setting-iowa-back/99168566/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">state legislator</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt">, he proposed a law requiring Iowa students to be taught that the United States is the undisputed greatest nation on Earth. </span><span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;TimesNewRomanPSMT&quot;,serif;mso-bidi-font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT">He </span><a href="http://www.english.illinois.edu/-people-/faculty/debaron/403/403readings/policing%20english.pdf"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;TimesNewRomanPSMT&quot;,serif;mso-bidi-font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT">sued his own Governor</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt; font-family:&quot;TimesNewRomanPSMT&quot;,serif;mso-bidi-font-family:TimesNewRomanPSMT"> for providing ballots in languages other than English, despite the federal law that requires such ballots.</span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">After election, King became known for his </span><a href="http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/king-norquist-attacks-immigration/2013/07/18/id/515882/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">nasty characterizations of immigrants</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">. In 2013, he generalized about undocumented immigrants: “For everyone who's a valedictorian, there's another 100 out there who weigh 130 pounds, and they've got calves the size of cantaloupes because they're hauling 75 pounds of marijuana across the desert.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Do immigrants pose a particular problem in Iowa? Iowa has one of the lowest proportions of foreign-born residents, </span><a href="https://www.indexmundi.com/facts/united-states/quick-facts/all-states/foreign-born-population-percent#chart"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">less than 5%,</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> compared to 13% for the US, and only 7% speak a language other than English at home, compared to 21% in the whole country. Iowa is </span><a href="http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/distribution-by-raceethnicity/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">one of the whitest states</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">, with 85% non-Hispanic whites, more than all but 5 other states. King’s district is even whiter: </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iowa%27s_4th_congressional_district"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">96% white</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Here is what King has done in this current Congress since January. He proposed to </span><a href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-joint-resolution/94/text/ih?overview=closed&amp;format=txt"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">repeal the Sixteenth Amendment</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> to the Constitution, which created the federal income tax. He found one co-sponsor. He proposed a bill to </span><a href="https://www.uscis.gov/eb-5"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">terminate the EB-5 program</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">, part of the Immigration Act of 1990 signed by President George H.W. Bush. That program offers green cards for permanent residence to entrepreneurs and their families, if they invest in a commercial enterprise in the United States and plan to create or preserve 10 permanent full-time jobs for qualified American workers. He found one co-sponsor. He proposed a bill to use federal funds to support private schools, and to </span><a href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/610"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">repeal federal nutritional standards</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> for school lunch and breakfast programs that increase the availability of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat milk, and reduce sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat. He managed 3 co-sponsors for that. King proposed to end our national policy of giving </span><a href="https://www.numbersusa.com/news/rep-steve-king-reintroduces-bill-end-birthright-citizenship"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">citizenship to anyone born in the US</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">, even if their parents are not citizens, as he has done in previous years.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Is King perhaps just very conservative? No, some recent comments show that he is a </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/07/18/rep-steve-king-wonders-what-sub-groups-besides-whites-made-contributions-to-civilization/?utm_term=.34cf9a8a15bc"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">white</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> supremacist. In July, he said about non-whites on a cable news show, “I'd ask you to go back through history and figure out, where are these contributions that have been made by these other categories of people that you're talking about, where did any other subgroup of people contribute more to civilization?” Just before the Dutch election, he tweeted about the far-right candidate Geert Wilders, “Wilders understands that culture and demographics are our destiny. We can’t restore our civilization with </span><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/mar/12/steve-king-iowa-congressman-geert-wilders-immigration"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">somebody else’s babies</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">.” The </span><a href="http://www.npr.org/2017/03/13/519975423/rep-steve-king-stands-by-controversial-tweet-about-somebody-elses-babies"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">former KKK leader David Duke</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> understood what King meant, and responded “GOD BLESS STEVE KING!” On CNN, King reaffirmed his idea of a white America: “I meant exactly what I said. I’d like to see an America that's just so homogeneous that we look a lot the same, from that perspective.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Why do the people of northwestern Iowa keep electing King to Congress? It’s not because he does anything useful there. Since he was elected to Congress in 2003, he has sponsored over 100 bills and </span><a href="http://members-of-congress.insidegov.com/l/472/Steve-King"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">not one of them even got out of committee</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">, even though Republicans controlled the House for most of those years. He was named the </span><a href="http://members-of-congress.insidegov.com/stories/5278/least-effective-members-congress#36-Least-Effective-Members-of-Congress"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">least effective member</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> of Congress in 2015 by non-partisan InsideGov.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Are most people in Iowa’s 4<sup>th</sup> district racists? Not necessarily: in 2008, they voted for Obama over McCain for President.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Steve King, along with other politicians who have made openly racist statements, exemplifies an unhappy characteristic of many white American voters. Electing a conservative is more important than not electing a racist. As long as their choice is between a Democrat and Steve King, northwestern Iowans will keep voting for King, no matter how ineffective or prejudiced he is.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">That’s how we end up with racists in Congress.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Steve Hochstadt</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Berlin</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Published in the Jacksonville Journal-Courier, April 11, 2017</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> 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ID: 153920
Uid: 31615
Author: 19
Category: 0
Title: Celebrating Power, Celebrating Resistance
Source:
Body: <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The museums of Berlin are filled with amazing artifacts of past societies and civilizations, perhaps none more imposing than three exhibits in the <a href="http://www.smb.museum/en/museums-institutions/pergamonmuseum/home.html">Pergamon Museum</a>, each filling enormous rooms. The biggest and heaviest architectural reconstruction in any museum is the <a href="https://archaeology-travel.com/photo-album/market-gate-from-miletus-in-the-pergamon-museum/">Market Gate of Miletus</a>, built 2000 years ago by the Romans as the entrance to the market square of Miletus in present-day Turkey, destroyed in an earthquake 900 years later, then <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_Gate_of_Miletus">unearthed and reconstructed</a> by German archaeologist Theodor Wiegand. This gate, 100 feet wide and 50 feet tall, represents the power of the Roman emperors extending to the far eastern edge of the Mediterranean.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">In a nearby room, the reconstructed <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishtar_Gate">Ishtar Gate</a> displays the might of King Nebuchadnezzar II, who had it constructed about 575 BC in Babylon, the capital of his empire and perhaps the largest city in the world at that time. Thousands of brightly glazed bricks with reliefs of lions, dragons and bulls created an imposing sight, which was considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The most famous holding of the museum, the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pergamon_Altar">Pergamon Altar</a>, won’t be open for view until 2020, because the entire museum is gradually being renovated piece by piece. This monumental place of worship was built about 160 years before Christ’s birth to honor the political and military achievements of the Greek King Eumenes II. Visitors can ascend stone steps 60 feet wide to view a sculpted frieze depicting the battle between the Olympian gods and the giants.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">These ancient monuments are the most imposing celebrations of power among hundreds of such displays in Berlin. Similar displays can be found in all European cities, where museums preserve reminders of past dynasties, public statues glorify past rulers, and restored palaces attract millions of visitors.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">When we enter a museum, we have learned to expect representations of past authority, power and prestige, constructed of the finest materials by great artists, preserved for the wonder of succeeding generations. We see the most elaborate creations of the past.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">There are other artifacts and memorials in Berlin which represent resistance, the opposite of power. Because Berlin was the site of two terrible 20<sup>th</sup>-century dictatorships, the bravery and foolhardiness of those who resisted power are also celebrated here. The <a href="http://www.berlin.de/en/museums/3108687-3104050-haus-am-checkpoint-charlie-mauermuseum.en.html">Checkpoint Charlie Museum</a> was built right at the Berlin Wall to memorialize the East Germans who succeeded or failed to escape across the Wall. Instead of finely wrought art objects, the most interesting exhibits are cheap East German cars reconstructed to create tiny hiding places for escapees or rusty tools used to dig under the Wall. The names and faces of those who resisted the Communist government are noted here, but remain unknown elsewhere. Their achievements were not beautiful, but daring and inventive, and often ended in death or prison.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The theme at Checkpoint Charlie is escape. Getting past the Berlin Wall or across the border into West Germany meant freedom. Escaping from the vast territory of Nazi-controlled Europe was much more difficult. Resistance to the Nazis was more likely to be a lonely battle against a murderous regime in favor of human rights, that predictably ended in death. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernhard_Lichtenberg">Bernard Lichtenberg</a>, a Catholic priest at St. Hedwig’s Cathedral in the center of Berlin, began to protest the brutalities of concentration camps soon after the Nazis took power, going directly to high Nazi officials to complain of their policies. He protested against the mistreatment of Catholic priests, of Jews and of the handicapped. He prayed publicly every day for deported Jews. He was imprisoned and died as he was being deported to Dachau.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">In a small park on the quiet Rosenstrasse, a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosenstrasse_protest">group of sculptures</a> commemorates a remarkable act of group resistance. Hundreds of Christian wives of Jewish men who had been arrested in 1943 gathered before the building where they were being held to demand their release. They were threatened by SS trucks with machine guns, but did not move. After a week of constant protest, the men were released, the only instance of a successful German protest against the Holocaust. One of the women, Elsa Holzer, later said, “If you had to calculate whether you would do any good by protesting, you wouldn’t have gone.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Celebrations of power are all around us. We don’t often think about how that power was exercised, about who might have suffered to make that power possible. Those who resist power usually pass into the fog of history because they were not famous and they had little opportunity to create imposing objects to memorialize their actions. Stone palaces and golden objects attract more attention than lonely dissent.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The more we know about the great rulers of the past, the more we realize that the trappings and accomplishments of power rested on the conquest and exploitation of vast numbers of people, some of whom protested. Like the still anonymous Tank Man who <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tank_Man">stopped a line of tanks</a> at Tiananmen Square in 1989, they could calculate that their actions had little chance of success. They were not counting on their names being recorded in history books. They acted from conviction and desperation.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">They deserve statues and museums, too.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Steve Hochstadt</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Berlin</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Published in the Jacksonville Journal-Courier, April 18, 2017</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> 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ID: 153921
Uid: 78568
Author: 36
Category: 0
Title: The Art and Life of J.M.W. Turner: An Interview with Biographer Franny Moyle
Source:
Body: Click <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/165461">here</a> to read the interview.
ID: 153922
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: The Ivanka Trump of the 19th Century
Source: The Daily Beast
Body: <div class="Text" style="margin-bottom: 18px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17px;">The Ivanka Trump of pre-Civil War America, Harriet Lane dazzled Americans using the technology of her times: mastering the daguerreotype and the telegram rather than the Internet and Instagram. As the glittering, petticoated star of a beleaguered White House, she charmed princes and populists, the press and the public. Yet, ultimately, all her girl power couldn’t save her uncle James Buchanan’s pitiful presidency.</p></div><div class="Text" style="margin-bottom: 18px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17px;">Lane’s style was just risqué enough to enhance her legend without destroying her reputation. Beyond the glitz, this first woman to be called “first lady” in print contributed helpful politicking, wise advice, and a popularity boost to the Buchanan presidency. But, like Ms. Trump, Miss Lane was not married to the man she called “Nunc” and others called “Mr. President.”</p></div><div class="Text" style="margin-bottom: 18px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17px;">Fellow mourners’ anguished solitude reinforced the natural solicitude James Buchanan had for his niece Harriet, born on May 9, 1830. By the time she turned eleven she had lost both her parents. While mourning his sister, Buchanan remained haunted by the great loss of his life, when the great love of his life, Anne C. Coleman, died. This tragedy in 1819, shortly after Buchanan abruptly ended their engagement, triggered speculation that she killed herself. The pain he lived with constantly, occasionally burst through the portly Buchanan’s genial veneer. Although he loved his “adopted daughter,” he could be curt and controlling, monitoring her mail and shaming her for&nbsp;<a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/content/dailybeast/articles/2016/01/24/how-to-make-presidential-venison-tenderloin.html" style="transition: color 150ms ease; background-color: transparent;">serving a bad meal</a>. Insisting she follow his “advice” before getting engaged, and warning only to marry someone who can “afford you a decent and immediate support,” the brokenhearted&nbsp;<a href="http://www.firstladies.org/biographies/firstladies.aspx?biography=16" target="_blank" style="transition: color 150ms ease; background-color: transparent;">Buchanan explained</a>: “In my experience I have witnessed the long years of patient misery and dependence which fine women have endured from rushing precipitately into matrimonial connections without sufficient reflection"...</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17px;"><a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2017/04/22/the-ivanka-trump-of-pre-civil-war-america.html">Read whole article on The Daily Beast.</a></p></div>
ID: 153923
Uid: 341
Author: 40
Category: 0
Title: Nuclear War Anyone?
Source:
Body: <p style="text-align: center;"><img src=" /sites/default/files/153923-nuke-cloud-large.png"></p><p><i>Murray Polner is an HNN book reviewer and blogger.</i></p> <p>"You may not be interested in war, but war is interested in you."&nbsp;–&nbsp; Attributed to Leon Trotsky</p> <p><i>CQ Roll Call </i>recently reported that the Defense Science Board (DSB), a Pentagon panel, had advised our new president to prepare the military to use a "tailored nuclear option for limited use."</p> <p>Great News. </p> <p>Even though, as <i>CQ Roll Call </i>added (and the "realist" <i>National Interest </i>commented on extensively in "Could America Really Win a 'Limited' Nuclear War?"), this "recommendation is more evolutionary than revolutionary," it was Jim who once wisely explained to Huck Finn, that "time goes fast." Above all, the DSB's recommendation reminded me of the experts who once fantasized that limited or even top of the line nuke blasts would somehow allow post-attack millions to live on and thrive. T.K. Jones, a Pentagon official, famously <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/1982/11/28/books/unthinkable-chitchat.html">advised</a> his fellow Americans in 1982, "If there are enough shovels to go around everybody's going to make it." And so school kids were told to duck under their desks and apartment house owners set aside basements as shelters. </p> <p>All the same, ordinary Americans have not always been so trusting, especially since Vietnam. Millions protested the draft and a war based on lies, marched for a nuclear freeze and before 2003 against the invasion of Iraq. And while the mass protests after Trump's election avoided foreign policy it shouldn't take long to arouse Americans if we find ourselves buried in permanent and unwinnable wars against, say, &nbsp;North Korea and Iran and the despised draft reinstituted to provide cannon fodder.</p> <p>&nbsp;An anxious NY Times reader reflected that view when he wrote, "The times we live in are truly more dangerous than I thought." Another, a self-described 20 year Marine veteran, wrote "We are the provocateurs, not the North Koreans." He wondered why the constant threats to the cruel hermit nation, "an unstable regime with a delusional leader. Perhaps we are the crazy ones," adding that we should let countries solve their own problems. An anonymous reader, in the often insightful paleo-conservative <i>American Conservative </i>magazine, offered this gem: "The U.S. cannot defeat Iran or Russia [or for that matter, China, should it choose to intervene as it did in 1951 if it sees North Korea being destroyed] &nbsp;–&nbsp; or other targets &nbsp;– &nbsp;because to do so takes far more sacrifice than the American people are willing to make. Ordinary Americans are not convinced," he continued, that these wars pose enough of a threat to volunteer themselves, or send their own children, to be killed or maimed in a pointless exercise." And from England an interpretation rarely heard from our comfortable, far from the battlefield foreign policy elites: "The hubris of American officials is that somehow what they devise will alter the violent Middle East landscape."</p> <p>Today, as Trump's neophyte agents Michael Pence and Rex Tillerson saber-rattle, the U.S. Navy's 7th Fleet, armed with tactical nukes, patrols nearby waters while U.S. bombers can easily make the trip from North American bases to North Korea, which also has nukes but chemical and biological weapons too, the same sort of weapons used so extensively by the U.S. in Vietnam.</p> <p>Historian Bruce Cumings, who wrote <i>The Korean War</i>, is one of a relatively few scholars who questions the existing groupthink. "North Korea is the only country in the world to have been systematically blackmailed by U.S. nuclear weapons going back to the 1950s, when hundreds of nukes were installed in South Korea," he wrote. "Why on earth would Pyongyang not seek a nuclear deterrent? But this crucial background doesn't enter the mainstream American discourse. History doesn't matter, until it does &nbsp;–&nbsp; when it rears up and smacks you in the face."</p> <p>Critics who might agree with him have been silent. Fewer even have spoken and written that the certain outcome of any U.S. nuke attack on North Korea, deliberately or by miscalculation, could lead to a calamitous war, leaving Pyongyang and Seoul in ashes and its millions vaporized, including tens of thousands of U.S. troops stationed in South Korea and Japan. </p> <p>John Dower, MIT professor emeritus of history and author of <i>Embracing Defeat</i>, which received the Pulitzer Prize, has written a new and thoughtful if depressing book, <i>The Violent American Century: War and Terror Since World War Two</i>, in which he offers these words of warning about our addiction to war:&nbsp; "The mystique of exceptional [American] virtue does not accommodate serious consideration of irresponsibility, provocation, intoxication with brute force, paranoia, hubris, reckless and criminal actions, or even criminal negligence." </p> <p>Now it is President Donald Trump's turn to decide who, if anyone, gets nuked.</p>
ID: 153924
Uid: 78565
Author: 38
Category: 0
Title: No, Democrats Shouldn't Learn to Hate Like the Right
Source:
Body: <p></p><p style="text-align: center;"><img src="/sites/default/files/153924-dems.png"></p><p></p><p> <em>Rick Shenkman is the publisher of the History News Network and the author of <a href="http://stoneagebrain.com" target="_hplink">Political Animals:&nbsp; How Our Stone-Age Brain Gets in the Way of Smart Politics </a>, from which this article is adapted. You can <a href="https://twitter.com/rickshenkman" target="_hplink">follow</a> him on Twitter. He blogs at <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/blog/author/38" target="_hplink">stoneagebrain.</a></em></p><p> </p><p> Michelle Goldberg, a columnist for Slate, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/29/opinion/sunday/how-the-left-learned-to-hate-like-the-right.html?ref=opinion">writes</a> in the <i>New York Times</i> that Democrats are discovering what Republicans have long known: &nbsp;anger works in building a movement. &nbsp;As she rightly notes, the GOP has used anger for decades to energize conservative voters by the millions. &nbsp;The list of things that made these conservatives angry was long. &nbsp;In the 1950s it was commie spies infiltrating the government. &nbsp;In the 1960s it was pot smoking hippies, murderous (black) criminals, and socially disruptive (black) protesters. &nbsp;In the 1970s it was pro-choice "feminazis." &nbsp;In the 1990s it was the Clintons, especially the female member of the pair. &nbsp;It burned to hear her mock women like Tammy Wynette who stand by their man and bake cookies.</p><p> &nbsp;<a href="http://stoneagebrain.com "><img src="/sites/default/files/160130-PA-shenkman-sm.png" "="" style="float:left;margin:15px;"></a> Now it's the Democrats who have gone angry. &nbsp;The cause, of course, is Donald Trump. &nbsp;Who can blame them? &nbsp;Every day Trump ridicules the principles Democrats hold dear. &nbsp; Goldberg doesn't say right out that she approves of the Democrats getting angry but she slyly notes how useful anger can be. &nbsp;Angry voters don't remain seated on the sidelines like most voters. &nbsp;They get out and organize and protest. &nbsp;Isn't that what Democrats need to do to take back their country?</p><p>But before Democrats rush headlong in an embrace of their inner Bruce Banner (The Hulk), they should consider the ramifications for democracy. &nbsp;Anger destroys what's most essential for democracy and that's the spirit of compromise.</p><p>In an experiment designed by social scientist George Marcus and colleagues to detect what happens when voters turn angry subjects were shown a news story about a &nbsp;fictitious college in Oregon that was using affirmative action to draw a more diverse student body. The story came in two versions. One put affirmative action in a positive light, the other in a negative light. What the study found was that people who were made anxious by the story they read &nbsp;finished reading it wanting to know more. They clicked on links to read more about affirmative action even if those articles contradicted their beliefs and made them feel even more anxious.</p><p>But people who were made angry by what they read displayed a contrary reaction. &nbsp;They did not want to find out more. Instead, they became more committed to their existing views. &nbsp;This was true of liberals who favored affirmative action and read a version of the story that put it in a bad light, and conservatives who opposed affirmative action and read the version that put it in a good light. These people, whichever camp they were in, liberal or conservative, did not want to read articles that conflicted with their own views. In short, they did not want to know more. Anxious voters had an open mind. &nbsp;Angry voters had a closed mind.</p><p>From an evolutionary perspective, anger was desirable when we were living as hunter-gatherers. In a crisis requiring quick action, anger gave us the focus we needed to succeed. Even in a fight with another human being it helped to be angry. An angry person is intimidating.</p><p>But in the modern world? In mainstream politics anger undermines democracy. People who are angry cannot see others’ points of view. Angry people don’t compromise. &nbsp;And what is true now of our democracy? Americans by the millions are angry. It’s no wonder politics in Washington, DC, suffers from gridlock. Anger is doing what it was designed to do: stiffen our will under grueling conditions.</p><p>But it wasn’t designed to help us survive in a multiparty cooperative system involving millions of citizens of the same country. Anger evolved to help us meet specific threats in settings where it was needed only for a short period. People in general did not remain in an angry state for months and years on end. But in our world they do stay angry in response to the taunts of grandstanding politicians and media demagogues. These days we don’t get a chance to take a break from anger. It’s all around us all the time. And we’re surprised that the feeling of compromise is rare?</p><p>Anger to be sure is the fuel that drives social movements. It was anger at apathy that drove gay activists to form Act Up in the 1980s, and anger that drove the Tea Party. Anger works. It draws people together and gives their efforts focus and purpose. To be human is to feel anger. It’s the emotion we use when we want to force someone else to change his or her behavior. But we’ve overlearned the lesson of the past. Anger only works in a democracy if a small minority uses it to advance an unpopular view. If the reaction to ordinary day-to-day politics by ordinary voters is anger by default, and if professional activists employ anger to recruit followers and draw donations, making anger routine, our democracy won’t work the way it should. Under those circumstances, no one will get what they want. And that’s the situation we’re in now. So many people are angry, there’s no room for compromise.</p><p>Democrats should keep this research in mind before deciding to give in to anger. &nbsp;The country is badly off enough as is without both parties exploiting anger for political advantage.&nbsp;</p>
ID: 153925
Uid: 31615
Author: 19
Category: 0
Title: Better Living Through Chemistry
Source:
Body: <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">On Earth Day, April 22, a hundred thousand people marched all across the world for science. Tens of thousands demonstrated in </span><a href="http://www.vox.com/2017/4/23/15395786/march-for-science-world"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Los Angeles</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> and </span><a href="https://www.ft.com/content/ac298dca-2780-11e7-8995-c35d0a61e61a"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">London</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">, while 200 people marched 200 miles north of the Arctic circle in </span><a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/04/march-science-live-coverage"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Norway</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">. In 600 cities on every continent, citizens and scientists carried signs like “Fund science, not walls” and “Science trumps alternative facts”.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">In Washington, DC, the </span><a href="http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/22/health/global-march-for-science/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">biggest crowd</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> protested Donald Trump’s proposed budget cuts to scientific research in </span><a href="http://www.nature.com/news/us-science-agencies-face-deep-cuts-in-trump-budget-1.21652"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">public health and climate</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Trump is carrying out normal Republican politics. None of the many Republican candidates for President in 2016 thought </span><a href="http://www.salon.com/2015/02/11/evolution_and_the_gops_2016_candidates_a_complet_guide/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">evolution should be taught</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> in public schools. A </span><a href="http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/01/03/republican-views-on-evolution-tracking-how-its-changed/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">majority of Republican voters</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> believe in creationism.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The issue of climate change shows the influence of political ideology on attitudes toward science. A </span><a href="http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/10/04/the-politics-of-climate/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Pew poll</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> found that only 15% of conservative Republicans believe “the earth is warming mostly due to human activity”, 34% of moderate Republicans, 63% of moderate Democrats, and 79% of liberal Democrats. A majority of conservative Republicans believes that climate scientists are influenced by desire to advance their careers and political ideology, not by scientific evidence or public interest.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">To put it simply, conservatives don’t believe in science or scientists, if it’s inconvenient.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Here’s how science denial works in real life. Lots of private websites offer their version of science, paid for by private money which they don’t disclose, using clever tactics to pretend to search for truth. An example is the </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Heartland_Institute#February_2012_document_misappropriation"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Heartland Institute</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt">, which has been denying the existence of warming for decades.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">On the other side is “</span><a href="http://undsci.berkeley.edu/about.php"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Understanding Science</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">”, a public project of the University of California at Berkeley, funded by the federal National Science Foundation. This step-by-easy-step primer offers a balanced and authentic understanding of “how science REALLY works”. But those who automatically accuse both government and the nation’s best universities of politicized scientific fraud would dismiss this site as propaganda. So they won’t learn from it how our scientific community does a far better job of policing high standards for </span><a href="http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/0_0_0/%3C?%20echo%20$baseURL;%20?%3E/socialsideofscience_06"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">honesty and frankness</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> than either politicians or corporations.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">And they won’t think about who pays for science: “Most scientific research is funded by government grants (e.g., from the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, etc.), companies doing research and development, and non-profit foundations.” Public and private sources have different priorities for funding scientific research. My nephew works on the development of a drug to stop Alzheimer’s for a biotechnology company formed by scientists and venture capitalists. Their research is motivated both to find better medicines for our collective health and to make money. As I approach 70, the prospect of preventing brain degeneration before it hits me is exciting. Their profit might extend my useful life.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Some privately funded scientific research is not in the public interest at all, such as the tobacco companies’ effort to deny the link to cancer, funneled through sciency-sounding </span><a href="http://www.prwatch.org/news/2014/05/12464/heartland-institute-reluctantly-stands-denial-cigarette-smoking-risks"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">propaganda organizations</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> like the Heartland Institute.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The Republicans in Congress are not waging a war on all science; they quote from Heartland’s fake science. They attack government-supported science because it might lead to government spending. For example, the discovery of </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flint_water_crisis#2017"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">lead in Flint’s water</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> meant that old pipes must be replaced on </span><a href="http://www.mlive.com/politics/index.ssf/2016/10/why_flints_lead_pipe_replaceme.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">17,000 homes</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> at an estimated cost of </span><a href="docs.house.gov/meetings/IF/IF14/20160413/104765/HHRG-114-IF14-WState-Creaghk-20160413-SD006.pdf"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">$7500 each</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">, totaling $127,500,000. Government-paid scientific research documented how lead affects babies’ brains, supported the creation of regulations which forced industry to stop using lead, compared the levels of lead in Flint’s water to experimental evidence on poisoning, and thus demonstrated the need for federal intervention.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Republicans in the Senate voted overwhelmingly </span><a href="http://www.politicususa.com/2016/04/21/47-despicable-senate-republicans-vote-deny-aid-flints-lead-poisoned-children.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">to deny funding</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> to deal with Flint’s crisis, but that effort lost by one vote. Congress authorized $</span><a href="http://thehill.com/blogs/floor-action/308868-congress-strikes-deal-on-water-bill-with-flint-aid"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">170 million</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> for Flint.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">In the words of “Understanding Science”, “Science affects your life </span><a href="http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/intro_01"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">everyday</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> in all sorts of different ways.” Good public science saves lives and serves the public interest through government spending and government regulation. But those are Republican curse words. That is the deep secret behind the anti-science policies of Republicans in Congress and the White House. If they want to shrink government, they have to slow down or even stop science. They use tactics of obfuscation and delay. House Science Committee chair Lamar Smith </span><a href="https://www.wired.com/2015/11/congress-chief-climate-denier-and-noaa-are-at-war/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">attacked</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> a 2015 NOAA study showing rising global temperatures. He used his old tactics, honed over decades in Congress: he demanded thousands of e-mails and other documents in search of malfeasance, misspent funds, or corruption. He has never found any of those things. But he slowed down science he doesn’t like.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">This is not in our national interest. If we don’t prepare for the world’s new climate, if we don’t prevent health crises through regulation of pollutants, if we don’t spend now on inconvenient science, we will have to spend much more later in economic and social costs. Peter Muennig, professor of public health at Columbia University, estimates that the two fewer healthy years of the 8000 Flint children exposed to lead might cost American society </span><a href="http://time.com/4441471/flint-water-lead-poisoning-costs/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">$400 million</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The astrophysicist and TV explainer of science </span><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRxx8pen6JY"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Neil deGrasse Tyson</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> said, “The good thing about science is that it’s true, whether or not you believe it.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The bad thing about Republican science politics is that our children and grandchildren will pay the price. Without science, it’s just fiction.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Steve Hochstadt</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Jacksonville IL</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Published in the Jacksonville Journal-Courier, Wednesday, May 3, 2017</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> 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ID: 153926
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: Ed Murrow and Marlene Dietrich's Secret Affair
Source: The Daily Beast
Body: <p style="margin: 0px 0px 15px; line-height: 29.5px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">The story of the voluptuous movie star Marlene Dietrich committing adultery with the conscience of America, the CBS Newsman Edward R. Murrow, should feed our obsessions with sex, celebrity and cynicism -- but it won’t.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 15px; line-height: 29.5px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">This was no mere fling between Airhead Beauty and Brainiac Beast. Both were principled superheroes who helped make America great in the 1940s and 1950s.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 15px; line-height: 29.5px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Seemingly, two opposites attracted. She was famous for her looks; he was famous for his voice. She crossbred Weimar Berlin decadence with Hollywood glamour; he crossbred log cabin values with snappy New York media sensibilities. She set tongues wagging, as a breathy, exotic, high-cheek-boned movie star, with a flair for men’s tuxedoes, married men, and unmarried women; he sent radio listeners, then television viewers, soaring, as a courageous, silver-tongued reporter, with a flair for vivid phrases, dramatic moments, and moral crusades...</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 15px; line-height: 29.5px; font-size: 17px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2017/04/30/ed-murrow-and-marlene-dietrich-s-secret-affair">Read the whole article on The Daily Beast.</a></p><div><br></div>
ID: 153927
Uid: 292
Author: 11
Category: 0
Title: "Why Was There the Civil War?" Here’s Your Answer.
Source:
Body: <p style="text-align: center;"><img src=" /sites/default/files/153927-soldiers.png"></p><p style="text-align: center;"><span style="color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 20px; text-align: start; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Union soldiers before Marye's Heights,&nbsp;</span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Fredericksburg" title="Second Battle of Fredericksburg" style="text-decoration: none; color: rgb(11, 0, 128); background-image: none; font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 20px; text-align: start;">Second Fredericksburg</a></p><p><i>Sociologist James W. Loewen is the author of </i><a href="http://www.amazon.com/Lies-My-Teacher-Told-Everything/dp/0743296281" style="font-style: italic;"> Lies My Teacher Told Me</a><i>.&nbsp;This article was first published in the </i><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/why-was-there-the-civil-war-heres-your-answer/2017/05/02/1445c796-2f76-11e7-8674-437ddb6e813e_story.html?utm_term=.16819c85caa7">Washington Post</a><i> and is reprinted with permission.&nbsp;</i></p><p>President Trump yet again finds himself in possible Pinocchio land, this time for&nbsp;<a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2017/05/01/trumps-totally-bizarre-claim-about-avoiding-the-civil-war/?utm_term=.cf6fe162036c">suggesting</a>&nbsp;that Andrew Jackson could have — or&nbsp;<i>would</i>&nbsp;have — averted the Civil War. This claim is more complicated than the size of the crowd at Trump’s inauguration, however. Trump has touched a controversy that has engaged historians and the public for more than a century.</p><p>Trump’s view on Jackson is unlikely but not absurd. Jackson famously faced down his vice president, John C. Calhoun, on the possibility of states rebelling against the federal government after Congress passed a tariff that hurt the Southern plantation economy. Jackson got Congress to authorize him to use military force following South Carolina’s attempt to “nullify” the tariff, but the crisis was averted when Congress passed a compromise tariff in 1833.</p><p>Still, Trump’s comment about Jackson was in the service of his wider discussion of the Civil War. “People don’t ask that question,”&nbsp;<a href="http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/trump-you-make-a-mistake-here-there-is-nothing-to-work-out/article/2621572">he said in an interview with the Washington Examiner</a>, “but why was there the Civil War?”</p><p>This is truly an important question, and we can only wonder what the president would have said had his interviewer asked, “What do&nbsp;<i>you</i>&nbsp;think?” All too many Americans reply vaguely, “states’ rights,” even though Southern leaders, as they left the Union, made it clear that they opposed states’ rights and even named the states and rights that offended them. Americans are vague because their textbooks are vague; publishers don’t want to offend white school boards in Dixie.</p><p>Trump’s conclusion about Jackson places him in a camp of 1930s historians who called it a “needless war,” in the words of&nbsp;<a href="http://www.academia.edu/5212734/The_Blundering_Generation_Revisited_James_G._Randall_Methodism_and_the_Necessity_of_the_Civil_War">James G. Randall</a>, brought about by a “blundering generation.” That view is a product of its time, and that time is now known as the Nadir of Race Relations. The Nadir began at the end of 1890 and began to ease around 1940. It was marked by lynchings, the eugenics movement and the spread of&nbsp;<a href="http://sundown.tougaloo.edu/sundowntowns.php">sundown towns</a>&nbsp;across the North. Neo-Confederates put up triumphant Confederate monuments from Helena, Mont., to Key West, Fla., obfuscating why the Southern states seceded. They claimed it was about tariffs or states’ rights — anything but slavery.</p><p>Earlier, everyone knew better. In 1858, William Seward, a Republican senator from New York, gave a famous speech titled “<a href="http://www.bartleby.com/268/9/16.html">The Irrepressible Conflict</a>,” referring to the struggle between “slave labor” and “voluntary labor.” When Mississippi seceded,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.civil-war.net/pages/mississippi_declaration.asp">it emphasized the same point</a>: “Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery — the greatest material interest of the world.”</p><p>Simply to recognize this material interest renders improbable the “needless war” notion. Mississippi was right: Slavery&nbsp;<i>was</i>&nbsp;the greatest material interest in the United States, if not the world. Slaves made up an investment greater than all manufacturing companies and railroads in the nation. Never has an elite given up such a stake voluntarily. The North went to war to hold the nation together, not to emancipate anyone. But the Civil War did end slavery. When might that have happened otherwise?</p><p>Today, when slavery has no state sanction anywhere, it seems obvious that the institution could not have survived to the 21st century. But if the South had prevailed, cotton would have resumed its role as “the largest and most important portions of the commerce of the earth,” to quote Mississippi’s secession document. The Confederacy might have replaced France as the colonial ruler in Mexico and Spain in Cuba. Eyeing such a strong economic and military model, Brazil might never have abandoned slavery.</p><p>There is one more layer on this onion: The South did not quite secede for slavery, but for slavery as the mechanism to ensure white supremacy. On many occasions, its leaders made this clear. Trying to persuade fellow Texans to secede, John Marshall&nbsp;<a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=pPs57jnId1YC&amp;pg=PT31&amp;lpg=PT31&amp;dq=%E2%80%9CIt+is+essential+to+the+honor+and+safety+of+every+poor+white+man+to+keep+the+negro+in+his+present+state+of+subordination+and+discipline.%E2%80%9D&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=i5KypX8Ou5&amp;sig=WB8Tr6q7NUJWbxQ6ORvNVkX-Cf8&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwilmNLTltLTAhVL7CYKHT44CpUQ6AEIJzAA#v=onepage&amp;q=%E2%80%9CIt%20is%20essential%20to%20the%20honor%20and%20safety%20of%20every%20poor%20white%20man%20to%20keep%20the%20negro%20in%20his%20present%20state%20of%20subordination%20and%20discipline.%E2%80%9D&amp;f=false">wrote</a>&nbsp;in his Austin State Gazette in 1861: “It is essential to the honor and safety of every poor white man to keep the negro in his present state of subordination and discipline.” In 1863, William Thompson, founder of the Savannah Morning News,&nbsp;<a href="http://civilwardocs.weebly.com/the-battle-flag.html">proposed</a>&nbsp;a new, mostly white national flag for the Confederacy: “As a people, we are fighting to maintain the Heaven-ordained supremacy of the white man over the inferior or colored race; a white flag would thus be emblematical of our cause.” The government agreed and adopted his flag. Late in the war, trying to persuade Confederates to persevere, the Richmond Daily Enquirer&nbsp;<a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=2LyJTaEKzCUC&amp;pg=PA374&amp;lpg=PA374&amp;dq=Richmond+Daily+Enquirer+asked,+%E2%80%9CWhat+are+we+fighting+for?+We+are+fighting+for+the+idea+of+race.%E2%80%9D&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=thDDlguVsn&amp;sig=Gsk5vN1m_7DzC7YMQGu-NlmF2gE&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwiSmOakl9LTAhUEKCYKHTOXCe4Q6AEIJzAA#v=onepage&amp;q=Richmond%20Daily%20Enquirer%20asked%2C%20%E2%80%9CWhat%20are%20we%20fighting%20for%3F%20We%20are%20fighting%20for%20the%20idea%20of%20race.%E2%80%9D&amp;f=false">asked</a>, “What are we fighting for? We are fighting for the idea of race.”</p><p>Some Trump partisans are clearly still fighting for that idea. Unfortunately, the Civil War settled only the issue of slavery — not white supremacy. Getting the Civil War wrong was part of the program of white supremacy during the Nadir. Today, getting it right is not just Trump’s responsibility — it’s all of ours.</p>
ID: 153928
Uid: 10
Author: 36
Category: 0
Title: Bellevue: “America’s Most Storied Hospital” – An Interview with David Oshinsky
Source:
Body: <p> Click <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/165670">here</a> to read this interview. </p>