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ID: 153856
Uid: 78581
Author: 39
Category: 0
Title: What Was 2016 About? Who We Are and What Values We Cherish.
Source:
Body: <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="/sites/default/files/153856-map.png"></p><p><i>Mark Byrnes is professor of history at Wofford College in Spartanburg, SC.</i></p><p>Not all presidential elections are created equal. Every election is a choice, of course, but the choices are not equally consequential. In some cases, the country seems largely set on what to do, and is debating little more than <i>how</i> to do it (Kennedy-Nixon in 1960). In others, there are more substantial questions of w<i>hat</i> we as a nation should do (Reagan-Carter in 1980). The most consequential ones, however, come down to the question of <i>who we are</i> as a people, how we <i>define</i> America as a state.</p> <p>I would argue that 2016 was the last of these.</p> <p>It was so because Donald Trump made it so.</p> <p>The 2008 campaign easily could have been one of those, with the Democrats choosing the first African-American major party nominee, with all that choice symbolized about what kind of country this is. While there were certainly moments in the campaign that threatened to veer in that direction, the Republican nominee, Sen. John McCain, stopped his campaign from exploiting that approach.&nbsp; When a woman at one of his town hall meetings said she thought Obama was “an Arab,” McCain stopped her: “No, ma'am. He's a decent family man [and] citizen that I just happen to have disagreements with on fundamental issues and that's what this campaign's all about. He's not [an Arab].” McCain was given the chance to make it a campaign that said I am one of “us” and he is one of “them,” and he insisted it should instead be a campaign about issues.</p> <p>Those two words—“No, ma’am”—made clear that McCain was determined not to take the low road. He would talk about what we should do, not who we are. He would say “no” to his supporters when they went down that other road. They are also the words Donald Trump never uttered in his campaign rallies, no matter what vile shouts his deliberate rabble-rousing provoked.</p> <p>Long before he became a candidate, Trump took the low road by becoming the most famous “birther” in America, again and again claiming that he was finding proof that Barack Obama was not born in the US, asserting that Obama was secretly some non-American “other.” What McCain disavowed, Trump took up—with glee.&nbsp; McCain thought there were things more important than winning, an attitude Trump clearly views with utter disdain. To Trump, decency is for losers.</p> <p>Trump’s birtherism was more than just a way to attract attention (though that may have been its chief attraction for him personally). It was in practice an attempt to repudiate the vision of America that Obama’s presidency represented, an America that defines itself by core beliefs that are available to <i>all</i> people, no matter their race, ethnicity, or religion—rather than by an immutable national type of person.</p> <p>It is no coincidence that Trump then literally began his campaign by demonizing Mexicans as criminals and rapists. His opening salvo against Mexicans set the tone that he never abandoned: these “other” people are different, they are not good, they do not belong here, they are not “us.” His attack on Judge Curiel demonstrated this perfectly. He said the judge could not be fair to him in the Trump University case because “he’s Mexican.” The fact that the judge was born and raised in the United States did not matter to Trump. “He’s Mexican. I’m building a wall.” For Trump, Curiel’s ethnic heritage was <i><b>who he was</b></i>. His birthplace, his profession, his devotion to the law and the Constitution were all irrelevant to Trump. The judge’s identity was his ethnicity, and it was Mexican, not American.</p> <p>He added to the ethnic dimension a religious one by calling for a ban on Muslims coming into the US. He did not call for a ban on extremists or terrorists. He called for a ban on everyone who adhered to a specific religion. He <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2016/03/09/politics/donald-trump-islam-hates-us/">told CNN</a>: “I think Islam hates us.” Not some Muslims, not even some people from some countries that are predominantly Muslim. “Islam hates us,” he said—ignoring the many American Muslims who <i><b>are</b></i> “us.” What that lays bare is that for Trump, Muslims are not “us.” For Trump, they may be <i>here,</i> but they don’t really <i>belong</i> here, because they are not really of “us.”</p> <p>His positions and policies (and the rhetoric he used to promote them) made it clear that his slogan—“Make America Great Again”—meant that the US should be defined in racial, ethnic, and religious terms: as a predominantly white, Christian country again. His unabashed bigotry throughout his campaign challenged every American to decide: is this who we are? Is America defined by racial, ethnic, and religious traits or is it not?</p> <p>As I see it, there have long been two competing visions of what the United States is: a country based on an idea or a nation like all the others. </p> <p>The first argues that the United States is not any particular ethnicity, language, culture, or religion—some of the traits that usually comprise a “nation.” Instead, the United States is fundamentally an idea, one whose basic tenets were argued in the Declaration of Independence and given practical application in the Constitution. At its core, America is the embodiment of the liberalism that emerged from the Enlightenment, which took as a self-evident truth that all people are equal, that all people are fundamentally the same, no matter where they live. They all have basic rights as humans, rights that no government can grant or deny, but only respect or violate. Because this fundamental liberal idea erased the traditional lines that divided people based on race, ethnicity, or religion, it was a “universalist” (or, to use a common term of derision among Trump supporters, “globalist”) concept. It was open to everyone, everywhere. By extension, the American idea (and America itself) was open to everyone, everywhere.</p> <p>Unlike the situation in other “nations,” since America was an idea, one could become an American by learning about and devoting oneself to that idea. This fact is embodied today in the citizenship test given to those wishing to become Americans: it is a civics test, with questions about American history and government. The final step is taking an oath of allegiance, in which one pledges to support and defend not the “homeland” but the Constitution. The oath is not to territory or blood, but to <i>what we believe and how we do things</i>: to become an American means to believe in certain ideas and commit to living by them.</p> <p>The other concept of the state is older and more traditional. The United States is a territory, a piece of land. It is also a particular group of people with unique, identifiable national traits that set them apart from others. Trump’s constant refrain about “the wall” perfectly captures this sense of territory in concrete terms. He says that the borders are absolutely essential to defining the nation: “A nation without borders is not a nation at all.” After the Orlando shooting, Trump tied the idea of the nation explicitly to immigration. Eliding the fact that the killer himself was born in the US, he noted that his parents were immigrants and said: “If we don't get tough and if we don't get smart, and fast, we're not going to have our country anymore. There will be nothing, absolutely nothing left.” Immigrants, he suggested, will destroy the country.</p> <p>This is why the border must be, in his words, “strong” or “secure.” Keeping “our” country means keeping the wrong people out. Otherwise there will be “people who don’t belong here.” While in theory this could be merely about a given immigrant’s legal status, Trump’s rhetoric and proposals give the lie to that—the Orlando killer’s parents were not “illegal” after all, but they were Afghans and Muslims. The wall won’t be on the border with Canada, either. He singles out Mexicans and Muslims, which has the effect of defining who exactly the people who do “belong here” are—those who are white and Christian. Trump’s nonsensical promise that “we are going to start saying ‘Merry Christmas’ again” signals that he will make America Christian again. He <a href="http://www.cnsnews.com/blog/michael-w-chapman/trump-we-are-going-start-saying-merry-christmas-again-thats-way-it-should-be">told Tony Perkins</a>: “I see more and more, especially, in particular, Christianity, Christians, their power is being taken away.” The passive voice masks who precisely is doing the taking away, but it is not hard to imagine who he means: it must be non-Christians, maybe secularists, maybe Muslims. Either way, “them,” and not “us.” (It is also noteworthy that he says Christians had “power”—which suggests a previous supremacy that’s been lost.)</p> <p>By striking these themes, Trump has appealed to this traditional, more tribal concept of what America is, or should be: not an idea based on universal principles, but a state rooted in a particular place and with a specific, dominant identity comprised of racial, ethnic, and religious traits that should never change.</p> <p>The irony is that in doing so, Trump is effectively saying the United States is not really distinctive, at least not in the way it usually thinks of itself. It is a nation like all other nations. Trump has, in fact, explicitly <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2016/06/donald-trump-american-exceptionalism">rejected American exceptionalism</a>: “I don't think it's a very nice term. We're exceptional; you're not…. I don't want to say, ‘We're exceptional. We're more exceptional.’ Because essentially we're saying we're more outstanding than you.” While he couched this in business terms, claiming that since the US was being bested in trade it could not claim to be better, he was openly and consciously rejecting a basic tenet of Republican orthodoxy since at least Ronald Reagan. Coming from the standard bearer of the 2016 Republican Party, which has beat the “American exceptionalism” drum relentlessly (especially in the Obama years), that is rather stunning—but it also makes sense from another perspective. </p> <p><a href="http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/donald-trump-and-the-death-of-american-exceptionalism">Jelani Cobb wrote recently in the <i>New Yorker</i></a> that Trump’s political rise represents the “death of American exceptionalism.” He states: “The United States’ claim to moral primacy in the world, the idea of American exceptionalism, rests upon the argument that this is a nation set apart.” By emulating the “anti-immigrant, authoritarian, and nationalist movements we’ve witnessed in Germany, the U.K., Turkey, and France,” Cobb argues, Trump forfeits that American “claim to moral superiority.”</p> <p>I agree with Cobb, but I think it goes even deeper than he suggests: it is a rejection of the idea-based definition of what America is and a reversion to an older, European one. American exceptionalism not only encompassed a moral claim, not only set the United States apart from other nations. It even—or maybe especially—set the US apart from those places from which most of its founding generation fled: the states of Europe. Here in America, the thinking went, the people will create something new and different, based on first principles and following the dictates of reason, unrestrained by tradition, culture, religion—by anything but the best ideas. In Thomas Paine’s famous words, “we have it in our power to begin the world over again.” The United States would show the world what could be accomplished when free people creating a new state had the chance to write on John Locke’s <i>tabula rosa</i>. (It should go without saying that this was never literally true, but rather an ideal to which people aspired.)</p> <p>In doing so, Americans were effectively saying: “We are not our European ancestors. We are different. They are tribal, we are not.” For most of the 19th century and well into the 20th, American isolationism was based on the foundational idea that the US, despite its ancestry, was decidedly <i>not</i> European. It would not be ruled by Europe and it would not be drawn into Europe’s tribal squabbles. The US was different—and better. It may have been borne of Europe, but it would supersede it and show it a better way.</p> <p>More often than not in recent decades, it has been American conservatives who have shown disdain for Europe, sneering at the idea that the US should look to Europe for ideas or leadership of any kind: in law, in public policy, in diplomacy. But scratch the surface and what we see is not contempt for Europe per se but for liberalism as it has developed in Europe since the end of World War II. As right-wing, anti-liberal movements have grown in Europe, so has American conservatism’s appreciation for what Europe has to teach Americans.</p> <p>As Cobb points out, what is striking about Trump is how much his program resembles that of right-wing extremists in European states who reject that better way America sought to offer in favor of the old European way. Trump’s program is not uniquely American. Arguably, it is following an ancient pattern set in Europe that is rearing its ugly head again in the 21st century. (Trump himself said his election would be “Brexit times 10”—bigger, but not original.) Trump is following more than he is leading, copying a formula that has had some success elsewhere, one that is far from uniquely American. It is, if anything, uniquely European—in the worst sense.</p> <p>Recently the <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/03/world/americas/alt-right-vladimir-putin.html?_r=0"><i>New York Times </i>had an article on how the far-right European movements have adopted Vladimir Putin</a> as their hero, for his defense of “traditional values.” It quotes an American white Christian nationalist praising Putin: “I see President Putin as the leader of the free world.” (His definition of “free” must be markedly different from the one that has dominated in American political culture, but the framing is telling. Theirs is not the freedom of the Enlightenment, but rather freedom from the threat of the non-western or non-traditional “other.”)</p> <p>Most American pundits, still caught in a cold-war paradigm, marveled at Trump’s embrace of Putin, and could not understand how it failed to discredit him as it seemingly should have (even this past weekend’s stories on the CIA’s conclusion that Russia sought to help Trump in the election has yet to leave a mark on him). Those critics failed to see that a new paradigm has completely eclipsed that of the cold war. They missed the fact that, despite his KGB pedigree, Putin has transformed himself into “a symbol of strength, racial purity and traditional Christian values in a world under threat from Islam, immigrants and rootless cosmopolitan elites.” In the new paradigm, these are the new enemies, the <i>real</i> enemies of the 21st century. Communists have been vanquished. Islamists, immigrants, globalists, “others” of all kinds, have taken their place. The cold war was a battle of ideologies; this is a battle of identities.</p> <p>If this take is correct, the combination of Trump’s willingness to jettison American exceptionalism and his embrace of Putinism as “real” leadership portends a significant transformation of what it means to be an American. Rather than a country built on ideas and principles, which defines itself by its devotion to those principles, Trump’s America is simply one (albeit the most powerful) of the many western tribes beating back the “uncivilized” hordes that threaten to undermine the white, Christian traditional identity of the west. In such a world, embracing Putin as a partner makes sense—even if he does have journalists and other political enemies murdered or imprisoned. Embracing anti-liberal autocrats and dictators in order to destroy ISIS becomes not a necessary evil, but a positive good, a desirable state of affairs, a restoration of an ancient European unity against the infidel.</p> <p>Implicit in this view is a rejection of Enlightenment liberalism. Once you jettison the commitment to an idea and embrace a politics based on racial, ethnic, and religious identity, showing a reckless disregard for democratic norms and processes (as Trump reflexively does) is natural, since those things have no inherent value. <i>How we do things</i> does not matter—all that matters is <i>who</i> we are and what we must do to protect that essential identity. Since American identity is not defined by principles of any kind, it is not important to have principles of any kind. The only standard by which to judge right and wrong is success in defending the homeland from the “other.” So Trump can blithely pledge to restore “waterboarding and a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding” with no qualms whatsoever. After all, he asserts, “torture works.”</p> <p>Trump has made clear repeatedly that that is his only standard: what works. When <a href="http://www.wsj.com/articles/donald-trump-willing-to-keep-parts-of-health-law-1478895339">asked by the <i>Wall Street Journal</i></a> after the election whether he had gone too far with his rhetoric during the campaign, he said flatly: “No. I won.” His worldview is entirely instrumental: what works is right, what fails is wrong. Nothing could be more fundamentally opposed to a commitment to liberal process, which values process as a good in itself, as the glue that holds together people with different views and beliefs.</p> <p>When Marxists, following the logic of economic determinism, claimed that class created identity, fascists countered with racial determinism: the blood determined identity. What has always set liberalism apart from these extremist ideologies is the belief that people <i>create</i> their own identities. As rational beings, we can create who we are by deciding what we believe. We are not merely the products of race, or ethnicity, or class. We are who we <i>choose</i> to be.</p> <p>What made this election so consequential is that it posed the question of who Americans are as a people as clearly as it has been since 1860. Hillary Clinton’s campaign recognized this with its slogan: “Stronger Together.” Trump’s strategy was to encourage white Christian nationalism, and Clinton’s was to say we cannot go back to some tribal concept of American identity. What has disturbed so many of us about Trump’s elevation to the presidency is not simply that our candidate didn’t win. It is that the choice that 46.2% of the voters made is so antithetical to our vision of what America can and should be. It threatens a reversion to a more primitive tribalism that has proved so horrifically destructive in the past. We know the history. We know the danger. That is why this was no normal election and this will be no normal presidency. This country is about to be tested as it has not been since the 1860s, and the outcome is not at all clear.</p>
ID: 153857
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: When John Glenn Saved Ted Williams’s Life
Source: The Daily Beast
Body: <div class="Text" style="margin-bottom: 18px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17px;">That&nbsp;<a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/content/dailybeast/articles/2016/12/08/john-glenn-last-of-america-s-first-astronauts-dead-at-95.html" style="transition: color 150ms ease; background-color: transparent;">great American hero, John Glenn</a>, died just days after the 75th anniversary of that&nbsp;<a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/content/dailybeast/articles/2016/12/07/the-man-who-tried-to-stop-pearl-harbor.html" style="transition: color 150ms ease; background-color: transparent;">great American disaster, Pearl Harbor</a>. The Japanese surprise attack shaped Glenn’s life. It helped make him a hero of what we now call the Greatest Generation and the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/content/dailybeast/articles/2015/03/26/john-slattery-on-saying-goodbye-to-mad-men-s-roger-sterling-and-turning-down-empire.html" style="transition: color 150ms ease; background-color: transparent;"><i>Mad Men</i>&nbsp;era</a>. Pearl Harbor mobilized a generation, resulting in the novelistic coincidence of Glenn flying during the Korean War with another&nbsp;<i>Mad Men</i>-era hero—and a truly Mad Man—the legendary but peppery baseball legend Ted Williams.</p></div><div class="Text" style="margin-bottom: 18px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17px;">It’s tempting to reduce the friendship to a wartime&nbsp;<em>Odd Couple</em>&nbsp;fling. Glenn was a contained Midwesterner who wore his heroism lightly. Williams was a temperamental kid from a more turbulent background in San Diego, who, early on, admitted he wanted to be considered the “greatest hitter who ever lived.” Glenn, the gentleman, was always courtly and courteous while courting the press—and the people. Williams couldn’t care less. In 1956, when he spit yet again at hometown Red Sox fans—twice—and was fined $5,000, Williams<a href="http://www.espn.com/classic/s/moment010807-williams-spit.html" target="_blank" style="transition: color 150ms ease; background-color: transparent;">said</a>: “I’m not a bit sorry for what I did. I was right and I’d spit again at the same fans who booed me today.”</p></div><div class="Text" style="margin-bottom: 18px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17px;">However, if we learn from the civil-rights activist Bryan Stevenson that “each of us is more than the worst thing we’ve ever done,” we will learn about Ted Williams as hitter, philanthropist, civil rights champion, and war hero. And what novelist would have dared imagine that this godlike baseball player who retired in 1960, would have flown half his combat missions in Korea with a young John Glenn, who became a modern deity in 1962 when he became the first American to reach the heavens, orbiting the earth three times in 4 hours and 56 minutes...</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17px;"><i>Read whole article on <a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/12/10/when-john-glenn-saved-ted-williams-s-life.html">The Daily Beast</a>.</i></p></div>
ID: 153858
Uid: 341
Author: 40
Category: 0
Title: An Election John Wayne Would Have Liked
Source:
Body: <p style="text-align: center;"><img src=" /sites/default/files/153858-wayne2.png "></p><p><i>This post is by Murray Polner, a blogger, writer, HNN's senior book Department editor and author of <a href="https://www.amazon.com/No-victory-parades-Vietnam-veteran/dp/0030860113/ref=la_B001HOTSQ0_1_4?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1481577185&amp;sr=1-4">No Victory Parades: The Return of the Vietnam Veteran</a>, and <a href="https://www.amazon.com/Debate-Amnesty-Antiwar-Prisoners-Others/dp/0385051190">When Can I Come Home</a>, about those who refused to go to war.</i></p> <p>"What kind of nation chooses as national leader a verbally abusive, politically inexperienced, temperamentally volatile, maddenly narcissistic, scapegoating demagogue?" asked &nbsp;Peter Steinfels, my onetime editor&nbsp; of <i>Commonweal</i>, in a recent issue of &nbsp;the liberal Catholic magazine.</p> <p>I may have found a partial answer years ago when I flew into Southern California's Orange County Airport after it had been renamed in honor of John Wayne, "a man of humility and a hero of the American West [who] was a symbol of the world of the traditional American values," or so the Airport's press release went. Looking up, there was The Duke on the Arrival level, 9 feet tall, and the hero of so many cinematic battles in so many wars.</p> <p>One Hollywood maverick was the blacklisted actor Lionel Stander, he of the raspy voice who had appeared in "Mr. Deeds Goes to Town," and "The Loved Ones" and once the blacklist vanished, as Max, the faithful servant-driver on TV's "Hart to Hart." Stander had been an uncooperative and combative HUAC witness who condemned celebrities who had begged their inquisitors for forgiveness for their ill-advised leftwing politics.</p> <p>Unlike The Duke, Stander had served three years in the Air Force. He was so bothered by the honor accorded Wayne that he told the <i>NY Times</i>, "I nominate John Wayne for a special Academy Award for the best non-supporting performance in WWII. He was just an unimportant cowboy actor at Monogram who happened to hit it big when the big stars, Robert Montgomery and Jimmy Stewart and Gable were away at war [while] Wayne never served a day."</p> <p>As a veteran it also bothered me that a pro-war actor who cheered on Vietnam and condemned its draft resisters could be honored by local patriots and not those who had actually served or refused to bear arms, like WWII's Lew Ayres, Hollywood's Dr. Kildaire. </p> <p>I wonder if the tribute to Wayne was a reflection of "American Exceptionalism," the indelible faith ingrained in us since elementary school whereby most of us believe that our way of life is eternally unique and merits worldwide admiration and respect even when we bomb the hell out of them. </p> <p>Why shouldn't foreigners want to be like us? Think of all those countries we attacked who failed to appreciate their American liberators: Cuba, the Philippines, Russia, Mexico, American Indians, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Yemen, Libya, Syria, and Somalia. Have I forgotten any? </p> <p>Still, Special Operations Iraq War vet Lt. Col. Bill Russell Edmonds wrote in "God is Not Here: A Soldier's Struggle with Torture, Trauma and the Moral Injuries of War" about his fellow Americans "who live with their heads down, blind and oblivious to others who do their bidding, who do their dying." </p> <p>For those, like The Duke, who support wars with someone else's family members doing the fighting and dying, it's what Hemingway called "that beautiful detachment and devotion to stern justice of men dealing in death without being in any danger of it."&nbsp; </p> <p>During Ronald Reagan's proxy war in Central America, I hung Irving Howe's <i>NY Times</i>&nbsp;op-ed on my office wall because he suggested that the editors of two hawkish pro-contra wWar magazines &nbsp;–&nbsp; none of whose sons would ever wear a military uniform --might help "some American hearts beat a little fast at the sight of " their right-wing editors "donning fatigues to become contra 'freedom fighters.' "&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> <p>&nbsp; "The truth is," wrote Walter Capps in <i>The Unfinished War: Vietnam and the American Conscience</i>, &nbsp;his rational 1990 book, "A great nation, even when it means well, can do more harm than good when it does not understand precisely what it is doing."</p> <p>Did putting up that statue reflect some psychological need made worse by a constant series of American military defeats since 1945, a war won with considerable, if not always acknowledged, help from the Russians? Our vaunted, ultra- expensive military has only been able to smash the Grenadian and Panamanian behemoths and since 2001 remains buried in the Greater Middle East. </p> <p>But back to Peter Steinfels's question. My guess is that many good people voted for Trump for the same reason the good citizens of Orange County decided to honor The Duke: The passion to bring back an imagined and idyllic past, when women and racial minorities knew their place, abortions and same-sex marriages were crimes, when intellectuals were "eggheads," when wars were won and when the Duke, Our Hero, Helped Make America Truly Great. </p>
ID: 153859
Uid: 78568
Author: 36
Category: 0
Title: The Eruption of Mount St. Helens: The Untold History of this Cataclysmic Event
Source:
Body: <p></p><p> Click <a href="http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/164079">here</a> to read this interview. </p><p> </p>
ID: 153860
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: A Historian Notes that Bernie Sanders Was ONE Factor in Hillary's Loss and He Gets Hammered?
Source:
Body: <p><img src=" /sites/default/files/153860-berniesanders-lrg.png"></p><p><br></p><p>In the last three weeks, I have been viciously attacked by&nbsp;<i>some&nbsp;</i>Bernie Sanders supporters and&nbsp;<i>some&nbsp;</i>Progressive extremists who claim I blame Sanders for Hillary Clinton’s loss. The fury, obscenity, and distortions unleashed by two articles I wrote for Time.com reveal to me, sadly, that what Hillary Clinton called the “Trump Effect,” blaming Donald Trump for “bullying and harassment … on the rise,” reversed cause and effect. As reprehensible as his campaign rhetoric was, Donald Trump did not cause this problem. His campaign was an unfortunate symptom – and the kind of demagoguery he indulges is not limited to the right side of the political spectrum.&nbsp; Political discourse in America today – which as an historian I know has never been pretty – has turned particularly ugly at the extremes, left and right. They need not be the same to be equally bad – rotten goldfish and catfish both stink.</p><p>It all started with that mystery political junkies frequently ponder – what is the impact of a primary fight on the general election? Sometimes, it strengthens the eventual nominee. Most historians believe that in 1960, Hubert Humphrey’s fight against John Kennedy made JFK a better candidate, and a better human being. In West Virginia, Kennedy mastered the Catholic bigotry issue while his exposure to Appalachian poverty motivated him to try fighting poverty as president. At the same time, most historians believe that Ted Kennedy’s insurgency hurt Jimmy Carter in 1980 and Pat Buchanan’s rebellion hurt George H.W. Bush in 1992 – both challengers pulled the incumbent to the party’s extreme, making it difficult to find the center during the general election.</p><p>My&nbsp;<a href="http://time.com/4569766/bernie-sanders-ralph-nader-2016/">first article</a>&nbsp;mentioned various explanations for Hillary Clinton’s failure, calling her 2016 campaign “as rigid and empty as it was when she lost in 2008.” I labeled her “a doughnut candidate, sprinkling sweets to particular groups but lacking any core.” Still, I argued that Bernie Sanders’ surprise candidacy pulled Hillary Clinton so far to the left “to prevent an effective re-centering in the fall, while goading her into wooing different constituencies rather than uniting the nation.”</p><p>This is what historians do. We look for explanations. It’s not about “blaming,” but if we were playing a blame-game, the fault lies with Hillary Clinton for failing to cope, not Bernie Sanders for daring to challenge. I believed Sanders’ success psyched her out and was ONE reason why she alienated working class whites. That’s not Sanders’ fault, especially after she won the nomination. She, as the winner, need to move on and recalibrate.</p><p>Of course, all my nuances didn’t matter. Most of the angry responses that weren’t obscene and insulting treated me like an idiot and a shill, who overlooked Hillary Clinton’s weaknesses and put the entire onus on Bernie Sanders. Rather than considering how this one factor fit into the mix, these pro-Sanders extremists just vented, with me as their target.</p><p>Two weeks later, I wrote a<a href="http://time.com/4593753/bernie-sanders-alt-left/">&nbsp;response</a>, detailing the abuse, which included some gratuitous anti-Semitic attacks (yes, in defense of a Jewish candidate).&nbsp; Despite the self-righteous claim that all the vitriol in America is coming from Donald Trump and the supporters he inflamed, I was struck by how virulent these particular zealots on the left were. Applying Hillary Clinton’s definition of the alt-right as rejecting “mainstream” conservatism and trafficking in “prejudice and paranoia,” I suggested we were seeing an alt-left emerging in response to Trump’s election, rejecting “mainstream” liberalism and also descending into demagoguery. I carefully added that: “condemning them equally doesn’t mean they’re equally dangerous, with the alt-right’s Hitlerism and hooliganism spiking since Trump’s election.” &nbsp;Once again, the subtleties didn’t matter. The bile – and attacks -- have mounted.</p><p>I no longer call this “cyberbullying” – because to be bullied, I would have to succumb – and I’m more defiant than ever. My critics call me a “crybaby” for complaining – I’m trying to hold up a mirror to this gooniverse, and strip members of their self-righteousness. If I were a dirty Trump trickster, trying to undermine claims that Trump’s bullying is poisonous and contagious by proving that liberals can be abusive too, I couldn’t have done a better job of outing these laptop hooligans. (And please, if you quote this sentence, start with the “if” – it’s a speculation and a challenge, not a confession!)</p><p>One popularly re-tweeted response said “You need to log off twitter if name calling hurts you.” I’m not hurt – I’m disgusted. I love political give and take. I am appalled that these character assassins are so quick to mischaracterize, and libel. Beyond my concerns for the delicate tissue of civility which unites a democracy and keeps citizens talking to one another,&nbsp;I worry that other historians will hesitate to offer any unconventional explanations because they will fear being targeted. I am sure that untenured academics are learning to keep quiet and parrot the party line, lest they trigger some career-damaging social media storm. And I regret that the Internet’s anonymity has encouraged this kind of drive-by tweeting and messaging – rather than the substantive exchanges its founders envisioned.</p><p>Here’s what I have learned: You write something complex, it gets reduced to a soundbite:</p><p>I give various explanations for Hilary Clinton's loss, including the impact of the Bernie Sanders candidacy -- it's diminished to "this idiot blames Bernie for Hillary’s failure.”</p><p>You write with a scalpel, they summarize with a sledgehammer: I say the extremism of some on the left shows a parallel “prejudice and paranoia” Clinton condemned, suddenly, the twitterverse erupts saying&nbsp;this *^#$%^ is comparing us to the Hitlerian right.</p><p>You make an argument, they go personal: I offer an analysis of the 2016 campaign and its reaction, the thought police just sees a blame game and questions my motives, my integrity, my intelligence, my religion, my looks.&nbsp;</p><p>All this vitriol goes way beyond argument by soundbite and 140-characters; its argument by insult. It actually demonstrates --- I regret to conclude -- why Trump's method worked. He wasn’t creating the problem, he was exploiting it. Dinosaurs who live in the world of 700 word op-eds, 7000-word essays, 70,000-word books – and a rigorous commitment to truth-- had no idea where this guy came from. I say – look left and right. Donald Trump emerged from the fetid swamp that characterizes too much political rhetoric today, wherein your identity counts more than your integrity or the integrity of your argument. If you are “with us” anything goes, you can do no wrong; if we deem you “against us,” you can do no right.</p><p>More clinically, as a political historian, all the ping-ponging over the last few weeks has highlighted some fascinating phenomena that should be tracked:</p><p>--&nbsp; Clinton’s loss to Trump -- following her victory over Sanders in the primaries with the Democratic establishment’s support -- has triggered a fury against her on the Left, and an anger that has many using words like “centrist” and “neoliberal” as epithets.</p><p>-- This backlash demonstrates a deep division in the Democratic party, with Bill Clinton’s legacy taking a beating.</p><p>-- What I am calling the Anonymotry of the Internet -- the anonymous-fueled bigotry of the online culture -- has helped radicalize, polarize, and coarsen political culture.</p><p>-- Many progressives are focusing on the economic divide in the nation – and pillorying Hillary for not going left enough, without seeing all the ways she identified with the left through identity politics, helping to trigger the “white nationalist” reaction, and the white working class defection from the Democrats.</p><p>My second piece ended with a call for civility, and an attempt at modeling the kind of dialogue I believe we need. I described reaching out to one of my critics and showed that when we treated each other civilly, we found we agreed more than we disagreed. Of course, most of my critics ignored that ending – or mocked that as well.</p><p>Some of the most polite reactions to my essay also disturbed me. “We are just not about endangering &amp; disenfranchising people,” I was told. “We are for health care.” Those responses implied an ends-justify-the means rationalization of extreme tactics. Life is too messy and confusing for any one group of partisans to be too convinced of their virtues -- and their rivals’ sheer evil.</p><p>Nevertheless, if my critics think they are on the side of the angels I say… prove it. I would love to be proven wrong. I would love to see partisans on the left stop being nasty, personal, vicious. I would love to see substantive debate and respectful tactics that match everyone’s version of their best selves, rather than petty attacks that reflect the worst within us and bring out the worst in us. The Founders believed that virtuous people acted virtuously; I abhor this post-modern doctrine that implies I can act abominably because I am so convinced of my own virtue.</p><p>Similarly, I appeal to my fellow academics to stop being agents of unreason. It’s easy to join the pile-on, harder to stick to substance and to our method. Our collective reputations have suffered because too many of us use the mantle of legitimacy we earned with our Ph.D.s and professorships to lower the debate rather than raise the debate. Aren’t there enough rabble-rousers out there, shouldn’t we rededicate ourselves to our particular mission to speak through our analysis, through our research, through our reason?</p><p>Finally, while I stand by every word in both articles, one critic made an interesting suggestion that “Control-Left” might be a more accurate characterization of the extremists than “Alt-Left” and would help avoid the anger stirred by claims of false equivalence.&nbsp; I’ll accept that friendly amendment, and warn that the zealots of the Ctl-Left – meaning those who try bullying anyone who dares disagree with them – are also harming our country. It’s time for the Ctl-Left and the Alt-Right to calm down – and Shift-Center.</p>
ID: 153861
Uid: 31615
Author: 19
Category: 0
Title: We Need Help Fighting the Banks
Source:
Body: <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The other day I got a letter from my credit card bank, Citibank. It began, “We’re replacing your existing Card Agreement with a new version, which is enclosed.” They claimed that “It’s designed with you in mind,” but I doubt that.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The new Agreement is described in detail, without any indication of what is new, so I don’t know what they have changed. What hasn’t changed is the tilt of the Agreement toward Citibank. Interest rates for loans are </span><a href="htp://www.bankrate.com/rates/interest-rates/prime-rate.aspx"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">very low</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> these days. Rates for mortgages range between 2.5% and 4%. Auto loans are </span><a href="http://www.bankrate.com/partners/sem/auto-results-v2.aspx?gclid=CL_uhqHd7NACFUUdaQod7rEHoA&amp;prods=73%2c278&amp;ec_id=m1061281&amp;s_kwcid=AL!1325!3!123112438688!e!!g!!auto+loan+rates&amp;ef_id=WBFefgAABUI2%40jwg%3a20161211180513%3as"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">even cheaper</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">, between 2% and 3%. My home equity loan from my local bank is 3.5%. When big banks borrow money, they pay </span><a href="http://www.pbs.org/newshour/making-sense/are-banks-borrowing-from-the-f/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">close to zero</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> interest.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">But don’t borrow money from your credit card bank. My new Agreement, like the old Agreement, lists huge rates for money I “borrow” from Citibank. If I owe money on my card, the rate is 14.24%. If I get a cash advance, the rate is 25.49%, </span><a href="https://www.nerdwallet.com/blog/credit-cards/what-is-a-cash-advance/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">beginning the moment</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt"> I get the money. There are also fees. A cash advance costs 5% of the amount, in addition to the interest.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">These are the costs of having a credit card. We might think they are unreasonable, but getting a card means agreeing to one-sided Agreements like this one. If I didn’t like any of the changes to my Agreement, whatever they were, I could close my account.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">But on one new provision in my new Agreement, I was given a choice. Citibank wants any disputes about my account to be subject to arbitration, meaning that the dispute is settled by an arbitrator, without recourse to the courts. Here’s why Citibank and other credit card companies like this idea.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">An arbitration is an individual case, so consumers can’t band together in a class action suit. The result is purely monetary, so if the dispute is caused by fraud or other illegal action by the bank, they are not subject to legal penalty. The cost of arbitration is picked up by the bank and they typically select the arbitrator (do you know one?), steering lots of business to arbitrators who deliver verdicts they like. One big arbitration service, the National Arbitration Forum, had to get out of the business of consumer arbitration because it was </span><a href="http://www.sfgate.com/business/article/Arbitration-firm-calling-it-quits-3291482.php"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">so cozy</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> with the banks that it was being sued by many city and state attorneys.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Wells Fargo, the current Dishonest Bank of the Year, defrauded countless customers by creating millions of fake accounts in their names. Now it is </span><a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/06/business/dealbook/wells-fargo-killing-sham-account-suits-by-using-arbitration.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">killing lawsuits</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt"> filed by its customers by moving the disputes to arbitration. If successful, the bank might have to repay fees they charged to the customers, but would not be liable for penalties due to fraud. Although some judges have ruled that Wells Fargo’s fraud should be adjudicated in court, other judges have forced customers to go to arbitration.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The dishonesty of Wells Fargo over many years, cheating millions of customers for many years, and thus far escaping with no jail time for any employee, shows how insignificant we consumers are when we come up against giant corporations. Even well known people, like the Los Angeles music star Ana Bárbara, get crushed by their power. A Wells Fargo employee created sham accounts and credit lines in her name, took out more than $400,000 of her money, then regularly went to her house to steal her Wells Fargo statements from her mailbox. She had to cancel appearances, </span><a href="http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-finance-column-20160721-snap-story.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">costing her hundreds of thousands</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> of dollars. Instead of her day in court, Bárbara will have to </span><a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/06/business/dealbook/wells-fargo-killing-sham-account-suits-by-using-arbitration.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">go to arbitration</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt">.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Protection for the consumer can only come from the government. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 takes its name seriously. </span><a href="http://www.americanbar.org/publications/dispute_resolution_magazine/2014/summer/what-s-a-regulator-to-do--mandatory-consumer-arbitration--dodd-f.html"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Dodd-Frank</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt"> does not let banks force consumers into arbitration for the biggest loans we take out, mortgage and home equity loans. It created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau to write regulations to implement that change. It also asked the CFPB to study credit card arbitration agreements and report to Congress.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">The government effort to examine credit card “agreements” about arbitration is why my bank offered me the chance to opt out of arbitration. All I had to do was write a letter to them saying I rejected the arbitration provision of my “updated Card Agreement”. I did that. Thank you, Dodd-Frank.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Republicans have fought against Dodd-Frank since it was first discussed in Congress. They tried to prevent the CFPB from ever being formed. Donald Trump has said he would </span><a href="http://fortune.com/2016/05/18/trump-dodd-frank-wall-street/"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">dismantle Dodd-Frank</span></a><span style="font-size: 12.0pt">, saying, ““Dodd-Frank has made it impossible for bankers to function.” Trump’s selection for Secretary of the Treasury, who will oversee banking regulations, is </span><a href="http://www.msnbc.com/rachel-maddow-show/trump-picks-treasury-secretary-whom-trump-voters-should-oppose"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Steven Mnuchin</span></a><span style="font-size:12.0pt">. Mnuchin worked for Goldman Sachs, a financial firm that got a $10 billion bailout from the federal government in 2008. He made billions by foreclosing on homeowners during that financial collapse. His main qualifications for running Treasury is that he was Trump’s campaign finance chairman.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Dodd-Frank makes it less possible for the big banks to push us into tilted arbitration when the banks act like Wells Fargo. It’s an equalizer for the little consumer dealing with the big banks. Without it, we’re at their mercy.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Steve Hochstadt</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Jacksonville IL</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:12.0pt">Published in the Jacksonville Journal-Courier, December 13, 2016</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> 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ID: 153862
Uid: 14552
Author: 13
Category: 0
Title: Meet Trump's Appointees #1
Source:
Body: <img src="http://www.joshbrownnyc.com/images/ldw464.jpg">
ID: 153863
Uid: 4699
Author: 4
Category: 0
Title: When The New York Times Defended Putting a Black Man in the Bronx Zoo
Source: The Daily Beast
Body: <div class="Text" style="margin-bottom: 18px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17px;">Just as the late Stephen Jay Gould updated Charles Darwin by arguing that humans evolved through fits and starts—“punctuated equilibrium”—social progress also is less steady than we would like. Even amid a positive trajectory, there are breakthroughs, plateaus, and setbacks. Sometimes, what seems like a step back actually helps propel society forward. The short unhappy life of&nbsp;<a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/content/dailybeast/articles/2015/09/11/the-designer-challenging-police-racism-at-new-york-fashion-week.html" style="transition: color 150ms ease; background-color: transparent;">Ota Benga—the human being exhibited in the Bronx Zoo</a>—demonstrates how one big example of&nbsp;<a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/content/dailybeast/topics/trump-transition-team.html" style="transition: color 150ms ease; background-color: transparent;">racist ugliness</a>&nbsp;may have resulted in at least one small step toward racial progress.</p></div><div class="Text" style="margin-bottom: 18px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17px;">Although the true origins of this sad story begins with the specious theories of superiority whites developed centuries ago, Benga’s tale begins in the early 1900s, in the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/content/dailybeast/articles/2012/06/14/the-seven-craziest-royal-families-from-king-s-speech-writer-s-new-book-how-monarchy-made-it-into-the-21st-century.html" style="transition: color 150ms ease; background-color: transparent;">Belgian-controlled Congo Free State</a>. His life in his community ended when&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/06/nyregion/thecity/06zoo.html" target="_blank" style="transition: color 150ms ease; background-color: transparent;">King Leopold’s Force Publique</a>&nbsp;invaded his world, murdering his wife and two children, then selling him as a slave to the Baschilele tribe. This all too familiar outrage took a bizarre turn when an American anthropologist, Samuel Philips Verner, purchased him for five dollars’ worth of cloth and salt. This woefully misguided missionary then brought Benga along with eight other young Africans to star in the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/content/dailybeast/articles/2016/08/05/how-hitler-invented-the-olympic-torch.html" style="transition: color 150ms ease; background-color: transparent;">1904 St. Louis World’s Fair</a>.</p></div><div class="Text" style="margin-bottom: 18px; color: rgb(2, 20, 31); font-family: Georgia, Cambria, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17px;">Benga’s slight build, dark skin, and artificially sharpened teeth—from a ritual called chipping—fit many Americans’ racist stereotype of the African savage. The&nbsp;<i>St. Louis Post-Dispatch&nbsp;</i>greeted the “<a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/03/the-man-who-was-caged-in-a-zoo" target="_blank" style="transition: color 150ms ease; background-color: transparent;">African Pygmies for the World’s Fair</a>” on June 26, 1904. Benga and his troupe won the gold medal for entertaining the crowds with their dances and other tribal rituals...</p><p style="line-height: 29.5px; margin: 0px; font-size: 17px;"><i>Read whole article on <a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/12/17/when-the-times-defended-putting-a-black-man-in-the-bronx-zoo.html">The Daily Beast</a>.&nbsp;</i></p></div>
ID: 153864
Uid: 78605
Author: 42
Category: 0
Title: "It Can't Happen Here, Can It?" Will Trump and Climate Deniers Purge American Science and Technology?
Source: https://theconversation.com/trump-questionnaire-recalls-dark-history-of-ideology-driven-science-70379
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mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} @page WordSection1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} --> </style> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style> <![endif]--> <!--StartFragment--> <p class="MsoNormal">Paul Edwards is a professor in the School of Information and the Department of History at the University of Michigan (and the author of the excellent <i>A Vast Machine:&nbsp; Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming</i>).&nbsp; He wrote this disturbing column for Theconversation.com.&nbsp; The Trump transition team’s very specific and comprehensive questionnaire to the Department of Energy about its climate change researchers justifiably raised fears of a purge of climate scientist and scientists.&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p class="MsoNormal">Edwards’ accurate but awkward phrase, “ideology-driven science,” denotes not a state promoting one field of research over another (e.g., solid-fuel over liquid-fuel rockets) but the active suppression of research and researchers for political reasons.&nbsp; Sadly, the examples include totalitarian and democratic governments with engineers and scientists far more likely to only lose their livelihoods and not their lives in the latter.&nbsp; Beyond the personal costs of careers destroyed or damaged looms the larger, more intangible consequences to that country of a research area stunted, driven underground, or halted.&nbsp; &nbsp;It can be the national equivalent of shooting yourself in the foot or worse.&nbsp;&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></p> <!--EndFragment--></div><div><br></div><div><br></div><div><br></div><div><h1 class="entry-title instapaper_title" itemprop="name" style="margin: 0px 0px 12px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 36px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; text-rendering: optimizeLegibility; line-height: normal; font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, sans-serif;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; background: transparent;">Trump questionnaire recalls dark history of&nbsp;<span class="nobr" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; background: transparent; white-space: nowrap;">ideology-driven</span>&nbsp;science</strong></h1></div><div><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; background: transparent;">Paul N. Edwards</strong></div><div><br></div><div><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">President-elect Trump has called global warming “<a href="https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/418542137899491328?lang=en" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">bullshit</a>” and a “<a href="https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/265895292191248385?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">Chinese hoax</a>.” He has promised to withdraw from the 2015 Paris climate treaty and to “bring back coal,” the world’s dirtiest, most carbon-intensive fuel. The incoming administration has paraded a roster of climate change deniers for top jobs. On Dec. 13, Trump named former Texas Governor Rick Perry, another&nbsp;<a href="http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2011/09/rick-perry-galileo-and-global-warming/" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">climate change denier</a>, to lead the Department of Energy (DoE), an agency Perry said he would eliminate altogether during his 2011 presidential campaign.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Just days earlier, the Trump transition team presented the DoE with a 74-point questionnaire that has&nbsp;<a href="http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/12/10/505105258/trump-questionnaire-raises-concerns-about-retaliation-against-energy-department" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">raised alarm</a>&nbsp;among employees because the questions appear to target people whose work is related to climate change.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">For me, as a historian of science and technology, the questionnaire – bluntly&nbsp;<a href="http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/U/US_TRUMP_ENERGY?SITE=AP&amp;SECTION=HOME&amp;TEMPLATE=DEFAULT" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">characterized by one DoE official as a “hit list” </a>&nbsp;– is starkly reminiscent of the worst excesses of ideology-driven science, seen everywhere from the U.S. Red Scare of the 1950s to the Soviet and Nazi regimes of the 1930s.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">The&nbsp;<a href="http://www.eenews.net/assets/2016/12/09/document_gw_06.pdf" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">questionnaire</a>&nbsp;asks for a list of “all DoE employees or contractors” who attended the annual Conferences of Parties to the&nbsp;<a href="http://unfccc.int/2860.php" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change</a>&nbsp;– a binding treaty commitment of the U.S., signed by George H. W. Bush in 1992. Another question seeks the names of all employees involved in meetings of the Interagency Working Group on the&nbsp;<a href="https://www.epa.gov/climatechange/social-cost-carbon" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">Social Cost of Carbon</a>, responsible for technical guidance quantifying the economic benefits of avoided climate change.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">It also targets the scientific staff of DoE’s national laboratories. It requests lists of all professional societies scientists belong to, all their publications, all websites they maintain or contribute to, and “all other positions… paid and unpaid,” which they may hold. These requests, too, are likely aimed at climate scientists, since most of the national labs conduct research related to climate change, including climate modeling, data analysis and data storage.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">On Dec. 13, a DoE spokesperson told the Washington Post the agency&nbsp;<a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/powerpost/wp/2016/12/13/energy-dept-rejects-trumps-request-to-name-climate-change-workers-who-remain-worried/?hpid=hp_hp-top-table-main_davidson-955a%3Ahomepage%2Fstory&amp;utm_term=.d16b71eef081" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">will not provide individual names</a>&nbsp;to the transition team, saying “We are going to respect the professional and scientific integrity and independence of our employees at our labs and across our department.”</p><h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 12px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 23px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-rendering: optimizeLegibility; color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Energy’s interest in climate</h2><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Why does the Department of Energy conduct research on climate change? A better question might be: How could any Department of Energy fail to address climate change?</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Established in the 1940s under the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the US national labs’ original assignment was simple: Design, build and test nuclear weapons and atomic energy. Since nuclear bombs create deadly fallout and reactor accidents can release radiation into the air, weather forecasting and climate knowledge were integral to that mission. Therefore, some labs immediately began building internal expertise in “nuclear meteorology.”</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">When high-flying supersonic transport aircraft were proposed in the late 1960s, the labs used climate models to analyze how their exhaust gases might affect the stratosphere. In the 1970s, the labs applied weather and climate simulations developed for nuclear weapons work to analyze urban smog and the global effects of volcanic eruptions. Later, the labs investigated whether nuclear war might cause dangerous climatic effects, such as catastrophic ozone depletion or “nuclear winter.”</p><figure class="align-center zoomable" style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); position: relative; color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;"><a href="https://62e528761d0685343e1c-f3d1b99a743ffa4142d9d7f1978d9686.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/files/149989/area14mp/image-20161213-1596-1vjzh5g.jpg" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); text-decoration: none; outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word; display: block; max-width: 100%;"><img alt="" src="https://62e528761d0685343e1c-f3d1b99a743ffa4142d9d7f1978d9686.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/files/149989/width754/image-20161213-1596-1vjzh5g.jpg" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: none; outline: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; background: transparent; display: block; max-width: 100%; width: 754px;"></a><figcaption style="margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 11px; vertical-align: baseline; background: transparent; color: rgb(114, 114, 114); line-height: 18px; font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, sans-serif;"><span class="caption" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; background: transparent;">The incoming Trump administration asked for names of researchers at the Department of Energy’s national labs as well as employees who attended international climate change conferences, raising concern that personnel will be targeted for work on climate change.</span>&nbsp;<span class="attribution" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; background: transparent; color: rgb(204, 204, 204);"><a class="source" href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/sandialabs/9367090314/in/faves-37916456@N02/" style="color: rgb(204, 204, 204); text-decoration: none; outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word; display: inline; max-width: 100%;">Sandia National Laboratories</a>,&nbsp;<a class="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" style="color: rgb(204, 204, 204); text-decoration: none; outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word; display: inline; max-width: 100%;">CC BY-NC-ND</a></span></figcaption><div class="enlarge_hint" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; background: url(&quot;/assets/icons/16x16search-white-aefaa3f932ea4defc107dbef075eb26f6dcdca390c4b29927fcb0b7f2e117919.png&quot;) center center no-repeat rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.6); transition: opacity 0.1s ease-in; position: absolute; top: 0px; right: 0px; opacity: 0; border-bottom-left-radius: 2px; border-top-right-radius: 2px; width: 26px; height: 26px; text-indent: -999em; overflow: hidden;"></div></figure><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;"></p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">The newly formed Department of Energy took over the labs in 1977. Its broadened mission included research on all forms of energy production, efficiency, pollution and waste. In the late 1970s, for example, Pacific Northwest Lab&nbsp;<a href="http://www.pnnl.gov/about/history.asp" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">sampled aerosol pollution with research aircraft, using instruments of its own design</a>.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">By the 1980s, when man-made climate change became a major scientific concern, the labs were ready for the challenge. For example, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has run the&nbsp;<a href="http://cdiac.ornl.gov/" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center</a>&nbsp;since 1982, one of many DoE efforts that&nbsp;<a href="http://pne.people.si.umich.edu/PDF/Edwards2012EntangledHistoriesBAS.pdf" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">contribute crucially to human knowledge about global climate change</a>.</p><h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 12px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 23px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-rendering: optimizeLegibility; color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">An ideologically driven purge?</h2><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">The Trump questionnaire harks back to the McCarthyist “red scare” of the early 1950s, when congressional committees and the FBI hounded eminent scientists accused of communist leanings.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">A principal target of suspicion then was J. Robert Oppenheimer, the theoretical physicist who led the Los Alamos atomic bomb project, but later opposed nuclear proliferation. Oppenheimer chaired the General Advisory Committee to the AEC, direct ancestor to the DoE – and saw his&nbsp;<a href="http://www.atomicheritage.org/history/oppenheimer-security-hearing" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">security clearance unjustly revoked</a>&nbsp;following humiliating hearings by that same AEC in 1954.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Many other physicists were also “repeatedly subjected to illegal surveillance by the FBI, paraded in front of the House Un-American Activities Committee, charged time and again… with being the ‘weakest links’ in national security, and widely considered to be more inherently susceptible to communist propaganda than any other group of scientists or academics,” according to a&nbsp;<a href="http://web.mit.edu/dikaiser/www/Kaiser.RedTheorists.pdf" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">history</a>&nbsp;by author David Kaiser, on suspicions of atomic scientists in the early days of the Cold War.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Another Red Scare target was John Mauchly, a chief designer of the first American electronic digital computers and a founder of the computer company UNIVAC. Mauchly was&nbsp;<a href="http://ds-wordpress.haverford.edu/bitbybit/bit-by-bit-contents/end-matter/appendix-the-fbi-dossier-of-john-william-mauchly/" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">investigated by the FBI</a>&nbsp;and denied a security clearance for several years.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">A much broader ideology-based attack on learning occurred in 1930s Germany, when the Nazis purged universities of Jewish and left-leaning scholars. Many German Jewish scientists emigrated to the United States. Ironically, the work of those immigrants in this country led to a&nbsp;<a href="https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1910247" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">massive increase in patent filings in their primary fields of science</a>.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">The Soviet Union had one of the worst histories of purging scientists whose work was considered ideologically impure. In the 1930s, the agrobiologist Trofim Lysenko rejected Mendelian genetics, including the very existence of genes and DNA. He propounded, instead, the&nbsp;<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamarckism" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">erroneous theory</a>&nbsp;that an organism could pass on to its descendants characteristics acquired during its lifetime. Under this theory, Stalin and other Communist Party leaders believed, people who studiously practiced communist ideology could pass on their “improved” traits to their sons and daughters. They condemned mainstream genetics as&nbsp;<a href="http://web.mit.edu/slava/homepage/articles/Gerovitch-Russian-Scandals.pdf" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">metaphysical, reactionary and idealist</a>.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Soviet ideologues also distorted quantum mechanics, cybernetics, sociology, statistics, psychology and physiology, often by violent means. From the 1930s well into the 1980s, tens of thousands of Soviet scientists and engineers were&nbsp;<a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=m_wPpj64GqMC&amp;printsec=frontcover&amp;dq=graham+science+in+russia&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwiI0POprO_QAhVmiVQKHSDVCkgQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepage&amp;q=graham%20science%20in%20russia&amp;f=false" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">harassed, arrested, sent to the gulags, executed or assassinated</a>&nbsp;when their conclusions did not align with official communist beliefs.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Climate science in the U.S. has already been targeted by government administrators. The George W. Bush administration of the 2000s literally&nbsp;<a href="http://www.cfr.org/climate-change/political-interference-climate-change-science-under-bush-administration-december-2007/p15079" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">rewrote scientific reports</a>&nbsp;to weaken their findings on global warming.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">In 2007 testimony, former officials of the White House Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) admitted to extensive editing of documents from the EPA and many other agencies “to exaggerate or emphasize scientific uncertainties or to deemphasize or diminish the importance of the human role in global warming.” And when scientists’ views conflicted with the administration’s official line that global warming science remained uncertain, the CEQ often&nbsp;<a href="http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/1212/p03s03-uspo.html" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">denied them permission to speak with reporters</a>.</p><h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 12px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 23px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-rendering: optimizeLegibility; color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Worries over dismissal or intimidation</h2><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">The highly targeted nature of the Trump questionnaire – especially the requested lists of individual scientists and leaders – suggests preparations for another ideologically driven purge.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">On the day it was&nbsp;<a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-12-09/trump-team-s-memo-hints-at-broad-shake-up-of-u-s-energy-policy" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">revealed by Bloomberg</a>, Sen. Edward Markey (D-Mass.)&nbsp;<a href="http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4018614/Trump-transition-team-seeks-details-Energy-Dept-workers.html#ixzz4SeFTUuAE" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">sent Trump a letter</a>&nbsp;warning him that “an illegal modern-day political witch hunt” would create “a profoundly chilling impact on our dedicated federal workforce.” Thus far, it appears the Trump administration&nbsp;<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/09/us/politics/climate-change-energy-department-donald-trump-transition.html?_r=0" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">has not responded</a>&nbsp;to media queries on the questionnaire.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Soviet-style government-sponsored violence seems highly improbable (though for years, some high-profile climate scientists have suffered&nbsp;<a href="https://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/mar/03/michael-mann-climate-change-deniers" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">death threats</a>). Instead, the incoming administration might indulge in large-scale summary dismissals, program cancellations and moving entire portfolios, not only at the DoE but also at NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Meanwhile, private and corporate-sponsored&nbsp;<a href="http://climatesciencedefensefund.org/about/attacks-on-scientists/" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">intimidation campaigns against individual climate scientists</a>&nbsp;– underway&nbsp;<a href="http://www.merchantsofdoubt.org/" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">since the 1990s</a>, and often backed by the fossil fuel industry – will surely gain momentum and scope. An administration that directly attacks science and scientists will amplify them enormously.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">It’s worth noting that despite considerable differences on regulatory policy, every president from Nixon and Carter in the 1970s to Bush and Obama in the 2000s supported the scientific work needed to discover, understand and mitigate climate change.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Basic research on energy, pollution and climate change – much of it carried out at DoE laboratories – is essential to clear-eyed policy, which must be based on solid knowledge of the true costs and benefits of all forms of energy.</p><h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 12px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 23px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-rendering: optimizeLegibility; color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">The Department of Energy’s response</h2><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">The Trump questionnaire violates American political norms by targeting individual civil service employees, many of whom have worked for the agency for decades through multiple changes of administration.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">It strongly suggests that even if incoming administrators do not target individuals for retribution, these appointees will attempt to&nbsp;<a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/12/13/scientists-are-frantically-copying-u-s-climate-data-fearing-it-might-vanish-under-trump/?utm_term=.640b541cf719" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">delete climate change</a>&nbsp;from the roster of energy-related scientific issues.</p><figure class="align-center zoomable" style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); position: relative; color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;"><a href="https://62e528761d0685343e1c-f3d1b99a743ffa4142d9d7f1978d9686.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/files/149993/area14mp/image-20161213-1600-1tgh5wj.jpg" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); text-decoration: none; outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word; display: block; max-width: 100%;"><img alt="" src="https://62e528761d0685343e1c-f3d1b99a743ffa4142d9d7f1978d9686.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/files/149993/width754/image-20161213-1600-1tgh5wj.jpg" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: none; outline: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; background: transparent; display: block; max-width: 100%; width: 754px;"></a><figcaption style="margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 11px; vertical-align: baseline; background: transparent; color: rgb(114, 114, 114); line-height: 18px; font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, sans-serif;"><span class="caption" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; background: transparent;">A representative from the Department of Energy said it will not provide individual names to the Trump transition team ‘to respect the professional and scientific integrity and independence of our employees at our labs and across our department.’</span>&nbsp;<span class="attribution" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; background: transparent; color: rgb(204, 204, 204);"><a class="source" href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/nostri-imago/3363884240/" style="color: rgb(204, 204, 204); text-decoration: none; outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word; display: inline; max-width: 100%;">nostri-imago/flickr</a>,&nbsp;<a class="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" style="color: rgb(204, 204, 204); text-decoration: none; outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word; display: inline; max-width: 100%;">CC BY-NC</a></span></figcaption><div class="enlarge_hint" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; background: url(&quot;/assets/icons/16x16search-white-aefaa3f932ea4defc107dbef075eb26f6dcdca390c4b29927fcb0b7f2e117919.png&quot;) center center no-repeat rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.6); transition: opacity 0.1s ease-in; position: absolute; top: 0px; right: 0px; opacity: 0; border-bottom-left-radius: 2px; border-top-right-radius: 2px; width: 26px; height: 26px; text-indent: -999em; overflow: hidden;"></div></figure><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">The best way to resist this will be to contest the basic premise. Since virtually every energy-related issue has implications for climate change, and vice versa, attempting to separate climate change from energy policy would be completely illogical and counterproductive. To oppose that separation, all DoE researchers – not just climate scientists, but all scientists, lab technicians, staff, everyone involved in any way with research – should insist that their work requires them to consider the causes and consequences of climate change.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">An all-hang-together strategy such as this would be brave and risky. Not everyone would join in. Many would fear for their livelihoods and hope to hang on by keeping their heads down. A handful might even sympathize with the incoming administration’s position. In the end, such a strategy might cost even more employees their jobs.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">But it would send the vital message that it isn’t just a few scientists, not some tiny cabal, but a vast majority of all scientists who understand that&nbsp;<a href="http://pne.people.si.umich.edu/vastmachine/index.html" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">man-made climate change is real, well-understood and exceedingly consequential for human societies</a>. It is among the most urgent political issues facing our nation and the world.</p><h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 12px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 23px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-rendering: optimizeLegibility; color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">Nightfall for climate science?</h2><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">In Isaac Asimov’s 1941 short story “<a href="https://www.uni.edu/morgans/astro/course/nightfall.pdf" style="color: rgb(85, 117, 133); outline: none; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap: break-word;">Nightfall</a>,” scientists huddle in an astronomical observatory on Lagash, a planet with six suns. For many centuries, one or more of those suns has always been up. The current inhabitants of Lagash, bathed in perpetual daylight, have never seen stars or experienced darkness. As the story opens, the university director addresses a hostile reporter: “You have led a vast newspaper campaign against the efforts of myself and my colleagues to organize the world against the menace which it is now too late to avert.”</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">The “menace” in question is nightfall, which comes to Lagash just once every 2,049 years. That moment is now upon them. Only one sun remains above the horizon, its last light rapidly fading due to a total eclipse – predicted by the scientists, but ridiculed as unfounded in the press.</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">In the gathering darkness, a mob bent on ruin marches on the observatory. The scientists do not expect to survive. They hope only to preserve enough knowledge and data that “the next cycle will start off with the truth, and when the next eclipse comes, mankind will at last be ready for it.”</p><p style="margin: 0px 0px 18px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; outline: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; background: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(56, 56, 56); font-family: &quot;Libre Baskerville&quot;, Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif;">A dark time is coming to American climate science. Trump’s mob of climate change deniers has begun its march on our present-day observatories. Like the scientists in “Nightfall,” we must do our utmost to ensure that after the coming eclipse, “the next cycle will start off with the truth.”</p></div>
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Author: 13
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Title: Life During Wartime – Resolution for the New Year
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