February 7, 1839: Henry Clay declares "I had rather be right than president."
On this day in history.... February 7, 1839 Henry Clay declares in the United States Senate"I had rather be right than president."
The venerable politician and statesman Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky believed his time to win the Presidency would finally be ripe in 1840. There were many obstacles to his winning the Whig Party's nomination. One of the most contentious issues in the country in the antebellum period was slavery. Clay tried to take a centrist position, but accusations flew in both the North and the South that he favored extremes. In the North he was accused of"being ultra" in favor of Southern slaveholders. In the South he was accused of being an abolitionist who plotted secretly to abolish slavery. (Remini, 525) As the historian Robert Remini explains,"It may have occurred to Clay that his apparent middle-of- the-road position invited attacks from both sides of the slavery question." (Remini, 525) Clay felt the charges that he was an abolitionist were detrimental to his chances for the presidency, and he needed to clarify his views on the slavery question. But he intended to stick to his views regardless of the political consequences. As he famously said,"I had rather be right than president."
In order eventually to capture the nomination he needed support from Southern Whigs, but at the same time, he needed support from the Northern Quakers who were passive abolitionists. The most important aspect was to distinguish himself from the most extreme abolitionists, the"ultras" which he did in a Senate speech on February 7, 1839. Clay's speech,"Petitions for the Abolition of Slavery," supposedly addressed a petition by Washington DC's residents to abolish slavery in the district. Clay actually wrote the petition himself.
The speech was Clay at his worse, which his supporters lamented. As Carl Schurz writes,"It was an apology for his better self. Formerly he had spoken as a born anti-slavery man, who to his profound regret found himself compelled to make concessions to slavery. Now he appeared as one inclined to deplore the attacks on slavery no less, if not more, than the existence of slavery itself." (Schurz, 164)
In the speech, Clay claimed the only thing he had in common with the abolitionists was"abhorrence of slavery," but their positions were entirely different, and in no way did he identify with them. Clay hoped this would put the speculation to rest that he harbored secret abolitionist desires. He laid out in the speech the history of the"peculiar institution," the constitutional and legal questions surrounding it, and the course of action that should be taken to resolve slavery. It was here that he distinguished himself most from the abolitionists while attacking their solution to the slavery problem.
As Remini writes, Clay charged that abolitionists were"setting back emancipation half a century" by their agitation. (Remini, 526) Still, he believed that emancipation was not the answer. Clay claimed he did not believe that blacks and whites could live in racial harmony, as abolitionists claimed. As Thomas Brown writes, Clay believed that the"Freed slaves would flood the North, compete with white laborers, and drive down their wages, or the country, would be convulsed by interracial warfare as blacks and whites sought to preserve the purity and separateness of the races." (Brown, 144) Clay was concerned that a power struggle would lead to a war between the races, especially since the slaves outnumbered whites in some Southern states. Clay believed that this power struggle would lead to Civil War, and suggested that the status quo was the best approach to take to the slavery question."It is not better for both parties that the existing state of things should be preserved, instead of exposing them to the horrible strifes and contests which would inevitably attend immediate abolition." (Remini, 526)
According to Clay"time" was the solution that would eventually end slavery, stating,"Providence will cure all-abolition nothing. It may ruin all; it can save none." (Remini, 526) He then proceeded to make a plea to the ultra-abolitionists to cease their crusade for the sake of the country."I beseech the abolitionists themselves, solemnly to pause in their mad and fatal course," he stated. Clay continued:"Amid the infinite variety objects of humanity and benevolence which invite the employment of their energies, let them select some one more harmless, that does not threaten to deluge our country in blood." (Remini, 526)
The reactions to Clay's speech were far ranging. For the most part the speech boosted Southerners' opinion of Clay. As Shurz writes,"Clay received his reward -- or punishment -- immediately." (Shurz, 166) After he finished speaking Senator John C. Calhoun, from South Carolina, lauded Clay, praising him for understanding the dangers of the abolitionist movement. Carl Schurz in his biography of Clay believed Calhoun stood up"as if to accept his surrender." However, Remini describes Cahoun's enthusiasm as"So spontaneous, so sincere, so fervent ... that some wondered if another political alliance between northern money and southern cotton had been struck." (Remini, 526) This alluded to the" corrupt bargain" of 1825, which handed John Quincy Adams the Presidency despite the fact that Andrew Jackson won the popular vote.
Calhoun proclaimed,"I heard the Senator from Kentucky with pleasure. His speech will have a happy effect, and will do much to consummate what had already been so happily begun and successfully carried on to a completion." (Shurz, 167) Clay wanted the nomination so much that he had to take Calhoun's humiliating words without saying anything. As Schurz explains,"Calhoun assigned to him a place in his church on the bench of the penitents, and the candidate for the presidency took the insult without wincing." (Shurz, 168)
The speech offended the abolitionists, giving Clay the results he was looking for, distancing himself from them. Clay hoped his speech would increase his support among those he needed to help him garner the nomination. Still it was a turn off to many Northerners. Clay supporters like James G. Birney and John Greenleaf Whittier, who"once idolized Clay, now cast him off as something loathsomely hypocritical." (Remini, 526) Clay claimed he wasn't surprised by the response."My abolition Speech was made after full deliberation," he told a friend."I expected it would enrage the Ultra's more than ever against me, and I have not been disappointed." (Remini, 527)
Clay should not have been surprised by the negative reaction or the long-term consequences. Before he delivered it, he read it to Senator William C. Preston of South Carolina, and several of his friends and colleagues to get their opinion. They believed that"The speech bears all the marks of that careful weighing of words characteristic of a candidate 'defining his position' on a delicate subject." (Schurz, 164) One of the men believed it could have a negative impact on his presidential prospects, offending both the abolitionists and the pro-slavery factions. Upon hearing this Clay proclaimed the classic phrase he is most remembered for:"I trust the sentiments and opinions are correct, I HAD RATHER BE RIGHT THAN BE PRESIDENT." Remini describes it as"the immortal utterance, the classic rejoinder, one that quickly entered the lexicon of American politics and was always associated with Clay's name." (Remini, 527)
Senator Preston repeated these words in a speech to a Whig rally in Philadelphia the following month announcing the phrase to the public. Then almost immediately Clay's words were the talk of the nation, the newspapers reprinted his speech, and citizens found it to"noble and patriotic" and appropriate, while critics and"hard-nosed" politicians laughed upon hearing it. (Remini, 527) Clay may have wanted to be right, but he also wanted the Presidency, and his chances were slipping from him.
Soon after the speech, Clay felt the backlash. First Daniel Webster charged that Clay caused the Whigs to lose the 1838 election in Maine, and that the party should instead support a candidate who had more appeal, such as General William Henry Harrison. Webster was deliberately mounting a campaign against Clay, even going as far as to blame him for losing Harrison's state, Ohio, in the 1838 election. To cap off this crusade, at the Anti-Mason National Convention in November 1839, the group nominated Harrison for President and Webster for Vice-President.
Politicians in the North, Abolitionists, and anti-Masons preferred Harrison as a presidential candidate to Clay. Another candidate who drew support was General Winfield Scott, whose military record was akin to Andrew Jackson's. Fortunately for Clay, Webster took himself out of the running for the Whig nomination when he departed for England in 1839. Still Clay believed the nomination was his. As he wrote,"Moderation, conciliation, and decision, but above all firmness and decision should be our course. May it be guided by wisdom and lead to victory." (Remini, 531)
Even before the Whig Convention Clay lost New York. Thurlow Weed, as Brown explains, thought"Clay had gone too far in his attacks [on abolitionists]." (Brown, 145) Both Weed and Thaddeus Stevens were Anti-Mason leaders, and wanted anybody but Clay as the nominee; they devised a plan to strip Clay of his 254-delegate majority.
A friend of Webster's, Peleg Sprague, introduced a motion that changed the voting. Each state would choose three delegates to a committee, the committee in turn would ask their state which candidate they preferred. A vote would be held in private, and when there was a state consensus, the delegates would report it to the full convention. Clay's supporters could not stop the motion even through it was obviously designed to strip Clay of the nomination, and soon Clay's majority melted. Stevens and Weed preferred Harrison to Scott or Clay, but Scott's candidacy seemed to benefit from their maneuvering. To counter this, Stevens released to the delegates a letter Scott wrote to Francis Granger that appeared favorable to the abolitionists. This was enough to damage Scott's propsects and give Harrison--the least controversial choice--the nomination. Clay's chance to capture the Presidency had ended.
Anti-Masons and abolitionists, the two groups Clay alienated with his February 7, 1839 speech, controlled the Whig Party. But Clay, says Remini,"also had a hand in engineering his [own] defeat. His Senate speech on February 7, 1839, against the abolitionists, more than any other single factor, undoubtedly prevented him from gaining a single northern state at the convention 'except glorious Rhode Island.' 'I had rather be right than President,' Clay had announced. So be it, responded the delegates." (Remini, 554) Henry Clay would live to regret his words on the Senate floor, because ultimately they caused him to lose the nomination he wanted more than anything.
As we are now reaching a defining moment in the 2008 campaign with Super Tuesday around the corner, another candidate has been compared to Clay. Hillary Clinton has been haunted by her Senate vote for the Iraq war, but has refused to apologize for it, though her position on the war has evolved. In a February 2007 Christian Science Monitor article Daniel Schorr wrote,"Whether that will appease her supporters remains to be seen. What they apparently will not get from her are those three little words. 'I am sorry.' What her lack of contrition will cost her, that also remains to be seen.... She may take comfort from the 'great compromiser,' Sen. Henry Clay of Kentucky, who on the Senate floor in 1839 declared, 'I had rather be right than president.'"
Sources and further reading:
Thomas Brown, Politics and Statesmanship: Essays on the American Whig Party, Columbia University Press, 1985.
Henry Clay, The Works of Henry Clay, Barnes & Burr, 1863.
Robert Vincent Remini, Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union, W. W. Norton & Company, 1991.
Daniel Schorr,"Will voters accept Hillary Clinton's nonapology? Her vote to authorize the use of force in Iraq might cost her the presidency," Christian Science Monitor, February 23, 2007.
Carl Schurz, Life of Henry Clay: American Statesmen, Volume: 2, Houghton Mifflin, 1899.
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